A NonCalculus Based Introduction to Probability & Statistical Methods
Section A FW 201213 Instructor: Jaclyn Semple
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Introduction to Statistics
11 
Overview 
12 
The Nature of Data 
13 
Uses and Abuses of Statistics 
14 
Design of Experiments 
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Overview
Polls, studies, surveys and other data collecting tools collect data from a small part of a larger group so that we can learn something about the larger group.
A goal of statistics is to learn about a large group by examining data from some of its members.
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Statistics
Statistics is a collection of methods for:

planning experiments & obtaining data 

organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data 
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Population and Sample
A population is the complete collection of all individuals (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied.
A sample is a subcollection of elements drawn from a population.
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Parameter and Statistic
Closely related to the concepts of population and sample are the concepts of parameter and statistic.
A parameter is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population.
A statistic is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample.
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Parameter
A parameter is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population.
Example: The 1881 Canada Census reported that 12.4% of the population of Yale District, British Columbia, belonged to the Buddhist religion. Assuming that the list of 8951 residents for the region did not overlook anyone, then the 12.4% is a parameter.
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Statistic
A statistic is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample.
Example: In a survey of 1031 tournament level golfers, 44% had the career threatening condition known as the “yips”. The figure 44% is a statistic because it is based on a sample, not the entire population of all professional golfers.
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Introduction to Statistics
11 
Overview 
12 
The Nature of Data 
13 
Uses and Abuses of Statistics 
14 
Design of Experiments 
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Data
Data are observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected.
There are two types of data; quantitative data and qualitative data.
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Quantitative Data
Quantitative data consist of numbers representing counts or measurements.
Examples:
The amount of weight that people lose on a diet program. The ages of respondents in a survey.
The marks that students get on a midterm exam.
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Qualitative Data
Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic.
Examples:

The genders of your classmates. 

The colours of cars in a parking lot. 
The names of cities in Ontario.
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Types of Quantitative Data
Quantitative data can be further divided into two types; discrete data and continuous data.
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Discrete Quantitative Data
Discrete data result from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values.
By ‘countable’ we mean that the possible
values are 0, 1, 2, and so on.
Examples:
The number of eggs laid by chickens.
The number dots that appear when you roll a single die.
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Continuous Quantitative Data
Continuous data result from infinitely many possible values that can be associated with points on a continuous scale in such a way that there are no gaps or interruptions.
Examples:
The heights of your classmates. The amount of milk produced by cows.
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Nominal Level of Measurement
The nominal level of measurement is characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only.
The data cannot be arranged in ordering scheme.
Examples of nominal level data:

Survey responses of yes, no, and undecided. 

The colour of people’s eyes. 
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Ordinal Level of Measurement
The ordinal level of measurement involves data that may be arrange in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
Examples or ordinal level data:

Letter grades of students in a course. 

A food critic rates a restaurant as “excellent”, “good”, “average”, or “bad”. 
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Interval Level of Measurement
The interval level of measurement is like the ordinal level, with the additional property that we can determine meaningful amounts of differences between data. However, there is no inherent zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present).
Examples of interval level data:

Outdoor temperatures in °C. 

Years in the Gregorian calendar. 
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Ratio Level of Measurement
The ratio level of measurement is the interval level modified to include the inherent zero starting point. For values at this level, differences and ratios are both meaningful.
Examples of ratio level data:
The heights of trees in Prince Albert National Park.
The prices of university textbooks.
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Levels of Measurement

In summary, we have the following four possible levels of measurement for data. 

Nominal – categories with no natural ordering. 

Ordinal – categories with natural ordering. 

Interval – differences have meaning but there is no natural zero. 
Ratio – differences and ratios have meaning, and there is a natural zero.
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Pause & Practice…
Determine whether the following examples give qualitative or quantitative data? (If quantitative, state whether it is discrete or continuous).
AND
Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate. (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio)
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Pause & Practice…
A. Qualitative, ordinal
B. Quantitative, discrete, ratio
C. Quantitative, discrete, interval
D. Quantitative, continuous, ratio
E. Quantitative, continuous, interval
4. Temperatures of Haliburton lake at various locations on its surface.
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Coming up…
Our main aim for the next few weeks will be to summarize and describe quantitative data
Assignment #1 will be posted on Monday Due Sept. 18 ^{t}^{h} in seminar
For next class: Read section 13 & 14
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