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Submitted By:- RajwinderKaur MBA 1st

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Index:Meaning Of Air pollution Types Of Air Pollution Major Pollutants of Air Pollution Impact Of Air Pollution Causes of Air Pollution How to prevent Air pollution How to control Air pollution Case Study Act of Air Pollution Croll Reynolds Systems Conclusion

What is Air Pollution?

Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. The present-day atmosphere is quite different from the natural atmosphere that existed before the Industrial Revolution (circa 1760 1 ), in terms of chemical composition. If the natural atmosphere is considered to be clean, then this means that clean air cannot be found anywhere in todays atmosphere. The chemical composition of the pre-industrial (i.e., before the 18th century), natural global atmosphere is compared to current compositions in Table 1: There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment.

Natural Air Pollutants: Wildfires are a natural cause of air pollution. Everyday, human sources contribute to air pollution. These sources are cars, trucks, industrial factories and littering, to name a few. However, there are natural causes of air pollution that humans cannot control, such as wildfires and volcanoes. Both of these sources contribute to air pollution.

Volcanoes and wildfires are both common natural causes of air pollution. The smoke from wildfires enters the atmosphere, contributing to the air pollution problem. When volcanoes erupt, sulfur and ash are introduced into the air, increasing the pollution in the air. Another common cause of air pollution that occurs in nature is the methane gas that is released when animals digest food.

Unnatural Air Pollutants:Mining, deforestation and oil refineries all play a part in increasing air pollution. Despite regulations placed on industrial operations, toxins continue to be released into the environment daily. These chemicals enter the atmosphere and react with existing chemicals, which does serious damage to the ozone layer. man-made; coal, wood and other fuels used in cars, homes, and factories for energy Items we use everyday can contribute to air pollution. Varnish, hairspray, tobacco smoke and automobiles are just a few examples of products with fumes that are harmful to us. When we use furnaces or fireplaces, we are adding dangerous chemicals into the air. We cannot completely remove these activities and products from our daily lives. However, reducing the use of aerosol spray, for example, can help decrease the damage to the environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain. Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution.

Indoor & Outdoor Air Pollution

When people think about air pollution, they usually think about smog, acid rain, CFC's, and other forms of outdoor air pollution. But did you know that air pollution also can exist inside homes and other buildings? It can, and every year, the health of many people is affected by chemical substances present in the air within buildings. A great deal of research on pollution is being conducted at laboratories and universities. The goals of the research are to find solutions and to educate the public about the problem. Two places where this type of work is being done are LBNL and the University of California, Berkeley. Let's take a closer look at the various types of air pollution, the effects that they have on people, and what is being (or not being) done to correct the problem. Introduction to Indoor Air Pollution Most people think of pollution as being an outdoor phenomenon. However, many things can cause indoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution can contribute to allergies and other chronic health problems. The best way to deal with indoor air pollution is to remove the sources of the pollutants. Def. of indoor air pollution Indoor air pollution refers to gas or air particles released into a home, business or school by indoor sources. It can be affected by ventilation, heat and humidity.

Sources Indoor air pollution comes from many diverse sources such as burning kerosene, coal, wood, oil or tobacco. It is also caused by deteriorating asbestos, damp carpeting, personal care products, cleaning products and pesticides. Types Indoor air pollutants can include tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos and lead. Biological contaminants can include mold, mildew, pollen, cat dander and viruses. Dust Dust is likely the most common indoor air pollutant. Dust builds up naturally over time and comes from a variety of sources. The best way to remove dust is thorough cleaning. Over time, dust can build up in heat or air conditioning ducts. Cleaning those can help reduce indoor dust levels. For people with extreme dust sensitivity, indoor air filters can help. Mold Contamination Mold comes in many forms. Molds reproduce using spores, and many people have an allergic reaction or sensitivity to those spores. Mold forms in wet areas, such as under leaky sinks and drains or after flooding has added moisture to carpets and walls. The best way to avoid mold contamination is to fix leaks. Once an area has become wet, it is important to thoroughly dry that area within one or two days. If mold is already present, the building materials in the moldy areas might need to be replaced. Once mold is present, it is best to consult a professional mold remediation expert.

Household Cleaners and Pesticides Many household cleaners and pesticides can leave indoor airborne residues. The best way to avoid indoor pollution from these sources is to use natural cleaners. If you have a pest infestation and must use pesticides, make sure that the room where the pesticide was used is thoroughly aired out. Thoroughly clean surfaces where the pesticide could have settled. Gasses A common indoor pollutant is radon gas, which is a radioactive gas that can cause cancer. It requires professional intervention and the addition of ventilation in basements or low-lying areas. Another less common indoor pollutant is carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is deadly. Carbon monoxide is often caused by a clogged chimney on a gas furnace or a hot water heater. In some cases, carbon monoxide from an idling vehicle can seep in to indoor areas. Once the source of carbon monoxide contamination has been identified, removing the source is the only way to get rid of the pollution. Building Materials Some building materials can emit indoor pollution. Some modern materials use formaldehyde to preserve items such as plywood and fiberboard. Generally, these materials will emit formaldehyde for a period of time and then be safe. The only way to mitigate formaldehyde is to reduce indoor temperatures and humidity. The best way to avoid formaldehyde contamination is to use materials containing lower quantities of the substance when building. Formaldehyde Formaldehyde is an indoor air pollutant and colorless gas found in different products. Types of products can include writing paper, wallpaper and furniture. Some people experience health problems when exposed to formaldehyde. Forsyth County Environmental Affairs states mild heath problems range from itching skin to eye irritation. You can reduce your formaldehyde exposure. One reduction method involves buying household items and furniture without formaldehyde. Cleaning Products Cleaning products can interfere with indoor air quality. Some cleaning products can cause skin rashes, headaches or breathing problems. The California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board shows lung or heart disease patients can experience more medical symptoms. Wear gloves and face masks when you clean. Open your windows as you clean. Fresh air can circulate through your home. Residential Wood Burning Another indoor air pollution cause involves residential wood burning. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states improper wood burning can cause hazardous air pollutants. Residential wood burning can trigger respiratory problems, such as asthma. You can reduce hazardous residential wood burning. One way to reduce problems involves using dry, clean wood for your fireplace. Another way includes removing wood ashes from your fireplace. Carpets Individuals use carpets for decorating and keeping the home or office insulated. Some carpet manufacturer's use dyes or formaldehyde when producing carpets, according to The Canadian Lung Association. These pollutants can produce health symptoms of itching, burning skin or breathing problems. Reduce your indoor pollution exposure. Before purchasing carpet cleaners, read your carpet's manufacturer's cleaning instructions. This can help reduce carpet cleaning damage.

Lead Lead is found in different home or office environments, ranging from kitchen plumbing to wall paint. Paint manufacturer's stopped using lead in 1978. Some older homes and offices still have lead and can cause medical problems, such as kidney damage or memory problems. You can have lead paint removed from your home and reduce your family's lead exposure.

Outdoor Air Pollution

Smog is a type of large-scale outdoor pollution. It is caused by chemical reactions between pollutants derived from different sources, primarily automobile exhaust and industrial emissions. Cities are often centers of these types of activities, and many suffer from the effects of smog, especially during the warm months of the year. Additional information about smog and its effects are available from Environment Canada and the Air Quality Management District (AQMD) in southern California. For each city, the exact causes of pollution may be different. Depending on the geographical location, temperature, wind and weather factors, pollution is dispersed differently. However, sometimes this does not happen and the pollution can build up to dangerous levels. A temperature inversion occurs when air close to the earth is cooler than the air above it. Under these conditions the pollution cannot rise and be dispersed. Cities surrounded by mountains also experience trapping of pollution. Inversion can happen in any season. Winter inversions are likely to cause particulate and cabon monoxide pollution. Summer inversions are more likely to create smog. Another consequence of outdoor air pollution is acid rain. When a pollutant, such as sulfuric acid combines with droplets of water in the air, the water (or snow) can become acidified . The effects of acid rain on the environment can be very serious. It damages plants by destroying their leaves, it poisons the soil, and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams. Damage due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals, fish, and other wildlife. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Environment Canada are among the organizations that are actively studying the acid rain problem. The Greenhouse Effect, also referred to as global warming, is generally believed to come from the build up of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced when fuels are burned. Plants convert carbon dioxide back to oxygen, but the release of carbon dioxide from human activities is higher than the world's plants can process. The situation is made worse since many of the earth's forests are being removed, and plant life is being damaged by acid rain. Thus, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. This buildup acts like a blanket and traps heat close to the surface of our earth. Changes of even a few degrees will affect us all through changes in the climate and even the possibility that the polar ice caps may melt. (One of the consequences of polar ice cap melting would be a rise in global sea level, resulting in widespread coastal flooding.) Additional resources and information about the Greenhouse Effect and global warming are available from the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the Science Education Academy of the Bay Area (SEABA) and the Society of Environmental Journalists (SEJ). Ozone depletion is another result of pollution. Chemicals released by our activities affect the stratosphere , one of the atmospheric layers surrounding earth. The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Release of chlorofluorocarbons

(CFC's) from aerosol cans, cooling systems and refrigerator equipment removes some of the ozone, causing "holes"; to open up in this layer and allowing the radiation to reach the earth. Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has damaging effects on plants and wildlife. Additional resources and information about the ozone depletion problem are available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Ozone ACTION. Many people spend large portion of time indoors - as much as 80-90% of their lives. We work, study, eat, drink and sleep in enclosed environments where air circulation may be restricted. For these reasons, some experts feel that more people suffer from the effects of indoor air pollution than outdoor pollution. There are many sources of indoor air pollution. Tobacco smoke, cooking and heating appliances, and vapors from building materials, paints, furniture, etc. cause pollution inside buildings. Radon is a natural radioactive gas released from the earth, and it can be found concentrated in basements in some parts of the United States. Additional information about the radon problem is available from the USGS and the Minnesota Radon Project. Pollution exposure at home and work is often greater than outdoors. The California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels and can pose serious health problems. Both indoor and outdoor pollution need to be controlled and/or prevented. Common outdoor air pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ground level ozone and particulate matter. How can air pollution hurt my health?

Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. The extent to which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals, i.e., the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. Examples of short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. In the great "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. It is estimated that half a million people die prematurely every year in the United States as a result of smoking cigarettes. Research into the health effects of air pollution is ongoing. Medical conditions arising from air pollution can be very expensive. Healthcare costs, lost productivity in the workplace, and human welfare impacts cost billions of dollars each year. Additional information on the health effects of air pollution is available from the Natural Resources Defense Council. A short article on the health effects of ozone (a major component of smog) is available from the B.A.A.Q.M.D.

The Effects of Air Pollution on Animals

Chris Dinesen Rogers Chris Dinesen Rogers has been online marketing for more than eight years. She has grown her own art business through SEO and social media and is a consultant specializing in SEO and website development. Her past work experience includes teaching pre-nursing students beginning biology, human anatomy and physiology. Rogers's more than 10 years in conservation makes her equally at home in the outdoors. The Effects of Air Pollution on Animals Air pollution is primarily caused by human activity. Fossil fuel emissions and industry are the main culprits. A Worldwatch State of the World Report states that air pollution costs the U.S. up to $40 billion annually. In addition to the economic losses, air pollution causes irreparable harm to the environment and its plants and wildlife. The statistics are sobering as are the effects both short term and long term. Global Warming Global warming is one of the most controversial aspects in environmental science. Nevertheless, global warming is considered by most experts in the field of air pollution as the most serious hazard caused by industries. Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases. These are combined gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, CH4 and CO2. Greenhouse gases cause a rise in the atmosphere's temperature-causing global warming. Global warming can cause an increase in water levels of seas, lakes and rivers when high temperatures melt glaciers and snow caps from mountains. In addition, global warming causes serious health conditions due to diseases such as the plague, cholera, malaria, Lyme disease and dengue fever. Ozone Layer

The ozone layer helps protect life from dangerous exposure to radiation from UV rays. Industries release compounds containing carbon, fluorine and chlorinepollutants (CFC) in everyday items such as aerosol cans, refrigerator coolants and packing foam which harm the sustainability of the ozone layer. Hence, air pollution can cause several health problems in humans such as skin cancer.

Acid Rain Acid rain is caused when nitrogen and sulphuric gases are released into the atmosphere. These gases react with water vapors to create aggressive gases like nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Acid rain has various environmental and health dangers. It can cause the erosion of buildings, create acidic soil in agriculture and decrease the growth of plants and animals. Acid rain can also cause skin disorders, cancer and death. Respiratory Disorders Air pollution from industries can even enter your home and work place. Carbon monoxide gases released from industrial air pollution often causes respiratory disorders and death in humans. For example, people may be diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and bronchitis. Additionally, air pollution from industrial emissions can lead to occupational diseases such as asbestosis and pneumoconiosis.

1.Significance
The effects of air pollution on humans is well documented. A report by Cornell University estimates that 40 percent of human deaths worldwide are due to pollution. Specifically, air pollution is primary caused by automobiles and industry. Automobile emissions are estimated to be responsible for 60 percent of air pollution in most American cities. The effects of air pollution, however, reach well beyond the cities where the sources of pollution are concentrated.

Effects
When contaminants combine with moisture in the air, the result is acidic precipitation, also called acid rain. Acid rain can contaminate or kill plants, which in turn may be ingested by wildlife. It can also have more dangerous and long term effects. Acid rain leaching into soils can alter the pH levels, making life unsustainable. Likewise, changes in acidity in water resources can cause fish kill. In the U.S, over 46 percent of lakes are unable to support life.

Expert Insight
Direct evidence of animal deaths was documented following an air pollution event in Donora, Pennsylvania in 1948, when severe smog was caused by a mixture of industrial pollutants and weather conditions. Dogs were found to be most susceptible to the effects of air pollution, with over 15 percent of local pets dying after the incident. Pet deaths have also been documented in Japan, where the average lifespan of dogs is reported as seven to eight years versus the average lifespan of U.S. pets at over 10 years or more.

Considerations

Air pollution affects wildlife in other ways. Tropospheric ozone near the Earth's surface can damage to lung tissue in wildlife, making them more susceptible to disease. Tropospheric ozone is a secondary ozone layer produced from chemical emissions and pollutants, combined with sunlight. As the protective stratospheric ozone layer degrades due to pollution, an increase in ultraviolet radiation can increase wildlife deaths due to cancer.

Warning
Air pollution causes imbalance in the cycle of life. It affects plant life by weakening or killing plant species. In turn, the wildlife that depends upon these species is impacted by dwindling food resources. According to ScienceDaily.com, bird species are becoming extinct at a rate 100 times faster than normal. Dramatic declines in amphibian species since the 1980s have also been reported. Global warming due to pollution was cited as one of the primary causes. Through each link of an ecosystem's food chain, the effects become more dire. Unless air pollution can be controlled, life on the planet is threatened.

Air Pollution Causes & Remedies


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Danielle Hill

Danielle Hill has been writing, editing and translating since 2005. She has contributed to "Globe Pequot" Barcelona travel guide, "Gulfshore Business Magazine," "Connecting Lines: New Poetry from Mexico" and "The Barcelona Review." She has trained in neuro-linguistic programming and holds a Bachelor of Arts in comparative literature and literary translation from Brown University. Air pollution derives from a range of industrial sources. Air pollution permeates the modern world; whether indoors or outdoors, the quality of the air you breathe is heavily compromised by the deleterious effects of various man-made products and industries. Despite the massive scale of the issue, you can adopt specific remedies while withdrawing your reliance on air pollution's major causes. Collective efforts may forestall the worsening trend.

1.Cause: Radon
While it may not be the most famous source of air pollution, radon is a major cause of indoor air pollution, only second to smoking as a cause of lung cancer. It infiltrates buildings where the interior air pressure is less than that of the gases in the soil. Radon is colorless, odorless and tasteless. It naturally forms through uranium-238's radioactive decay.

Cause: Emissions from Building Materials


A secondary source of indoor air pollution derives from the very building materials and modern appliances we keep indoors. Cleaning fluids, carpeting, latex-based paints and caulking treatments and sealants, vinyl and linoleum materials and even some types of furniture all can emit low levels of air pollutants. One of the most common pollutants is formaldehyde.

Cause: Burning Fossil Fuels


The combustion of fossil fuels releases high levels of carbon dioxide into the air. Since 1860, before the rise of industrialization, the levels of carbon dioxide in the air have increased by about 10 percent. Sixty-five percent of all carbon dioxide emissions come from industrialized countries. Carbon dioxide is damaging because it restricts heat radiation from exiting Earth's atmosphere, producing the warming greenhouse effect.

Remedy: Indoor Plants


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's research into plants' effects on air quality found that several plant species were highly effective in removing common indoor air pollutants, such as formaldehyde and benzene. Effective species include the bamboo palm, English ivy, the spider plant, the peace lily, the Chinese evergreen and several philodendron varieties.

Remedy: Sealing Air Leaks


An effective means of eliminating radon exposure is to seal the gaps where air may leak indoors. In addition to shutting off the access for radon to leach, a well-sealed building is more energy efficient, thereby reducing its dependence on energy and lowering heating and cooling bills. Indirectly, the decreased need for energy requires less burning of fossil fuels, a secondary help to outdoor air quality.

Remedy: Alternative Energies


Adopting alternative energy sources can drastically improve outdoor air quality. Replacing fossil fuel combustion with cleaner technologies would decrease the production of carbon dioxide. If people reduce the burning of sulphur-rich coal and gas, they can lower the levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, two major air pollutants.