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Engineering Calculus Peer Led Session Related Rates Reference: Section 2.

7 Pre-Assignment: Read the "Why" section and do question 1 through 5 of the activity. Why? Engineers and scientists often deal with two different quantities that are changing with respect to a third quantity, say time, and want to find the rate of change of one of the quantities in terms of the rate of change of the other. For example, if you pump water into a swimming pool at a certain rate (this represents a rate of change of volume with respect to time), how fast is the height of the water changing with respect to time? In order to answer this question, we need to understand how the rate of change of the volume is related to the rate of change of the height of the water. This activity will introduce this method of "related rates". Activity Model 1:

Axle 1 Gear 1 Axle 2

Gear 3 Gear 2

Gear 4 Axle 3

Axle 1: y revolutions per minute Axle 2: x revolutions per minute Axle 3: t revolutions per minute The picture above models four gears that revolve on three axles. As the first axle revolves, it drives the second axle, which in turn drives the third axle. The measurements given in the model are in centimeters. 1) What do the variables y, x, and t represent in the model? 2) As the first axle revolves which gear turns gear 2? 3) As the second axle revolves which gear turns gear 4? 4) Find the circumference of each of the gears. Leave the measurements in terms of .

5) How many times must the first axle turn to turn the second axle once? Justify your answer. 6) How many times must the second axle turn to turn the third axle once? Justify your answer.

7) How many times must the first axle turn to turn the third axle once? Justify your answer.

dy represents the rate of change of the first axle with respect to the second axle and dx dy represents the rate of change of the second axle with respect to the third axle what does dt represent? 8) If dy , dx dx , and dt dy . dt

dx dt

9) Find numerical values for

10) Based on the numerical values in question 9 write a mathematical equation that relates dx , and dt dy . dt

dy , dx

11) Consider the function y = 2 x 34 x . dy a) Find . dx dx = 5 when dt dy . dt

b) Suppose

x = 1 . Find the value for

12) A spherical balloon is being filled with air at a rate of 100 cm3/s. How fast is the radius of the balloon changing with respect to time when the radius is 25 cm? Use the fact that the volume of a 4 3 sphere is V = r . 3

Model 2:

Time The picture above shows a conical water tank that is being drained. 1) What does the variable r represent in the model? What does the variable h represent? 2) As time increases, what measurements of the water in the tank are changing?

3) An engineer needs to know the rate of change of the volume of the water in the tank with respect to time when the radius of the tank is 1 foot and the height of the tank is 2 feet. She knows that the radius of the water is changing at a rate of -0.2 ft/s and the height of the water is changing at a rate of -0.4 ft/s. Below is her worked out solution. V = r2 h 3 dV d 2 = r h dt dt 3 dV 2 dh 2 dr = r rh dt 3 dt 3 dt dV 2 2 = 1 0.4 120.2 dt 3 3 dV 2 4 6 = = dt 15 15 15

a) What does the equation in the first line of the solution represent?

b) Why is the derivative with respect to time being taken in the second line of the solution?

c) What two differentiation rules were used in the third line of the solution? Why were they used?

d) What would happen if the values that were substituted in the fourth step of the solution were substituted into the solution after the first step instead?

e) What is the physical meaning of the value found in the last step of the solution?

Problem On March 4th, 1989, the Exxon Valdez spilled 10.8 million gallons, the equivalent of 60,637,500 ft3 of oil into the ocean before the leak was stopped. Twelve hours after the incident was initially reported, it was estimated that the size of the oil slick was 3 miles wide by five miles long.

3 mi

5 mi a) Suppose that the shape of the oil spill was that of an ellipse. If the thickness of the spill at the 12th hour was 0.184626 feet and decreasing at a rate of 0.037266 ft/hr, how quickly was the area of the spill increasing in square feet per hour? How fast was the area of the spill increasing in square miles per hour ? Assume that by this time the leak had been stopped. Analyze: How would you convert a quantity given in square miles to square feet? How can you solve this problem without using the equation for the area of an ellipse?

Data List: List all known information including unknown quantities or variables that are necessary and any other useful equations. Be sure to include the prescribed units for the information you have and take note of the units needed for the solution.

Solve:

ab where a and b are the lengths of the minor and major 4 axis of the ellipse respectfully. If the length of the major axis of the spill is increasing at twice the rate of the minor axis of the spill, find the rate of change of each of the axes at the 12th hour in feet per hour. b) The area of an ellipse is given by A = Analyze: Will your solutions for part (a) be useful for part (b)? Data List: List all known information. Be sure to include the prescribed units for the information you have and take note of the units needed for the solution.

Solve:

Bonus problem:

1 where x 1e 0.247552x represents the number of hours after the spill was stopped, and f(x) is the thickness in feet. lim a) Find x 0 f x to determine the thickness of the slick when the spill was stopped. Suppose the thickness of the oil slick is modeled by the equation f x =

b) Use a graphing calculator to graph the function and estimate the number of hours between the time that the oil spill was reported and the time that the oil leak was stopped. Hint: you will need to use information from part (a) in the previous problem.

c) Determine the change in area in square miles between the time when the leak was stopped and 12 hours after the initial report of the incident.

References:Kelly, Jeffrey. Prince William Sound: Paradise Lost? 14 Feb. 2009 < http://library.thinkquest.org/ 10867/home.shtml > Oil Spill. Wikipedia. Last Modification: 4 Feb. 2009. 4 Feb. 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill >

Engineering Calculus Peer Led Session Related Rates Activity Report We verify that we all understand and agree with the solutions to these questions. Group #: Manager: Recorder: Spokesperson: Strategy Analyst: Critical Thinking Questionsto be completed by the recorder. Your peer leader will give you instructions on how to fill out this section.

For Instructors Use Only All questions filled out Names and U numbers printed on activity report Critical Thinking fully justified and written in complete sentences Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory

Reflection on Learning---to be completed by the Strategy Analyst.

Group #:

Write a key question which, if answered, would help your team better understand some aspect of today's activity.