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Engineering Calculus Peer Led Session First Derivative Test Reference: Section 4.

3 Pre-Assignment: Read the "Why" section and do questions 1, 2, and 3 (a) through (e) of the activity. Why? Engineers and scientists often need to know when a complicated function is increasing or decreasing. For example, they may want to determine when a projectile is speeding up or slowing down or when a population is increasing and decreasing. This activity introduces how to determine the intervals over which a differentiable function increases or decreases using its derivative. Activity:

(a) y= f x

(b) y=g x

(c) y=h x (1) For each graph above, describe what happens to the y values as x increases. (a) (b) (c) (2) Determine whether the derivatives of each of the functions above is positive, negative or zero. (a) (b) (c)

(3)

(a) What is happening to the values of f (x) as x increases from -2 to 1? (b) What is happening to the values of f (x) as x increases from 1 to 3? (c) Is the derivative is positive, negative, or zero on the interval (-2, 1)? (d) Is the derivative is positive, negative, or zero on the interval (1, 3)? (e) Is there any x-value at which the derivative is zero? If so, what is the x-value? (f) Use the graph of f to estimate the derivative at several x-values then use this information to sketch a possible graph of the derivative of f.

(5)

(a) What is happening to the values of f (x) as x increases from 3 to 5? (b) What is happening to the values of f (x) as x increases from 5 to 8? (c) Is the derivative is positive, negative, or zero on the interval (3, 5)? (d) Is the derivative is positive, negative, or zero on the interval (5, 8)? (e) Is there any x-value at which the derivative is zero? If so, what is the x-value? (f) Use the graph of f to estimate the derivative at several x-values then use this information to sketch a possible graph of the derivative of f.

(6) Below is the graph of f x =

1 3 2 x 3 x 5 x 3 and its derivative. 3

(a) How is the graph of f above connected to the graphs of f in questions 4 and 5?

(b) How do the graphs of f ' that you drew in questions 4 and 5 compare to the graph of f ' above? What is the same and what is different?

(7)

(a) Use the equation in 6 to find f '(x).

(b) Find x such that f '(x) = 0. These x values are called the critical numbers of f.

(c) Notice that the critical numbers divide the number line into three intervals. Write down the three intervals. (d) In the following table, write the intervals from part (c) in the first row. Use the graphs of f and f ' to answer the following questions. For the x values in the first interval, what do all of the values of f '(x) have in common? What about the second interval? The third? Use this information to fill out the second row of the table. Let indicate that y values are decreasing as x values are increasing and indicate that y values are increasing as x values are increasing. Use the arrow notation and your results from the second row to fill out the last row of the table.

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Interval sign of f '(x) f (x) (e) As x increases from -2 to 8 use the table to describe how f '(x) changes as x "crosses" the critical numbers when going from one interval into the next. How does f (x) change?

(f) If you did not have the graph of f ' but only its equation, how would you fill out the second line of the table above?

(8) Given a derivative f ', what type of information can you find out about the function f using only f ' ?

(9) Question 7 parts a,b,c, and e outline a process called the first derivative test. Suppose that you are given a function g(x). Explain in your own words explain how to apply the first derivative test to g(x) and how you can use the information that you get from the test.

Exercise Apply the first derivative test to the function h x = 2x39x212x1 . Use the information to sketch the graph of h.

Problem The mean monthly temperature T (in degrees Fahrenheit) for Honolulu Hawaii can be modeled by the equation T =0.0418 t 3 0.605t 273.4 where t is the month, with t = 1 corresponding to January. What are the highest and lowest average temperatures for the year? Approximately when do they occur? When is the temperature increasing? When is it decreasing? Analyze: What is the realistic range of the function?

Solve:

Engineering Calculus Peer Led Session First Derivative Test Activity Report We verify that we all understand and agree with the solutions to these questions. Group #: Manager: Recorder: Spokesperson: Strategy Analyst:

Critical Thinking Questionto be completed by the recorder. Your peer leader will instruct you on how to fill out this section.

For Instructors Use Only All questions filled out Names and U numbers printed on activity report Critical Thinking fully justified and written in complete sentences Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory

Reflection on Learning --- to be completed by the Strategy Analyst

Group #:

What information do you need to determine on which intervals a function is increasing?