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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions. The addition of other materials such as soil may further alter the appearance. Ice appears in nature in forms of snowflakes, hail, icicles, ice spikes and candles, glaciers, pack ice, frost, and entire polar ice caps. It is an important component of the global climate, and plays an important role in the water cycle. Furthermore, ice has numerous cultural applications, from ice cooling of drinks to winter sports and the art of ice sculpting. The molecules in solid ice may be arranged in different ways, called phases, depending on the temperature and pressure. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It can also deposit from vapour with no intervening liquid phase, such as in the formation of frost. The word is derived from Old English īs, which in turn stems from Proto-Germanic isaz.
A natural block of (water) ice
1 Characteristics 1.1 Slipperiness 2 Formation 2.1 Ice pellets 2.2 Hail 2.3 Snowflakes 2.4 Diamond dust 3 Production 3.1 Ice harvesting 3.2 Commercial production 4 Uses 4.1 Sports 4.2 Other uses 5 Ice and transportation 6 Phases 7 Other ices 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
Snowflakes (ice crystals) by Wilson Bentley, 1902
As a naturally occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral. It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms, or H-O-H. However, many of the physical properties of water and ice are controlled by the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent oxygen and hydrogen atoms. It is a weak bond, but is critical in controlling the structure of both water and ice. An unusual property of ice frozen at atmospheric pressure is that the solid is approximately 8.3% less dense than liquid water. The density of ice is 0.9167 g/cm³ at 0 °C , whereas water has a density of 0.9998 g/cm³ at the same temperature. Liquid water is densest, essentially 1.00 g/cm³, at 4 °C and becomes less dense as the water molecules begin to form the hexagonal crystals of ice as the freezing point is reached. This is due to hydrogen bonding dominating the intermolecular forces, which results in a packing of molecules less compact in the solid. Density of ice increases slightly with decreasing temperature and has a value of 0.9340 g/cm³ at −180 °C (93 K).
Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. Grey dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds.
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exerting pressure on the ice. Soft rime contains a high proportion of trapped air. Hard rime is comparatively denser. the free encyclopedia http://en. This explanation has come into doubt with the proposal that ice molecules in contact with air cannot properly bond with the molecules of the mass of ice beneath (and thus are free to move like molecules of liquid water). copepods and annelids. This creates a sheltered environment for bacterial and algal colonies. or stalagmite-like forms as water drips and re-freezes. Ice can also form icicles. Rime is a type of ice formed on cold objects when drops of water crystallize on them. This can be observed in foggy weather. which is an important feature in Earth's biosphere. providing lubrication between the ice and the blade.Wikipedia. However. It has been argued that without this property natural bodies of water would freeze. When ice melts. frozen in the stream bed. often several meters thick. it absorbs as much energy as it would take to heat an equivalent mass of water by 80 °C. This however did not account for skating on ice temperatures lower than −3. −22 °F). While melting. Other colors can appear in the presence of light absorbing impurities. any energy added breaks the hydrogen bonds between ice (water) molecules. The term that collectively describes all of the parts of the Earth's surface where water is in frozen form is the cryosphere. For example. Since absorption is cumulative. they may sublimate or melt. This water then freezes.e.Ice . and causes the local water table to rise.g. It is also a common cause of the flooding of houses when water pipes burst due to the pressure of expanding water when it freezes. when the temperature drops during the night. Norway. The amount of energy consumed in breaking hydrogen bonds in the transition from ice to water is known as the heat of fusion. the blade of an ice skate. These molecules remain in a semiliquid state. Sufficiently thin ice sheets allow light to pass through while protecting the underside from short-term weather extremes such as wind chill. When sea water freezes. resulting in a loss of bottom-dependent animal and plant life in fresh and sea water. As with water. whereas skaters often skate on lower temperature ice. Slipperiness It has long been believed that ice is slippery because the pressure of an object in contact with it causes a thin layer to melt. fed upon in turn by larger animals such as Emperor penguins and Minke whales. algae. For instance. Frozen waterfall in southeast New York Formation Ice that is found at sea may be in the form of sea ice. blocks normal groundwater discharge. sediments. The crystals form at temperatures below −30 °C (i. and giving it a density about one quarter of that of pure ice. over time. and is a basic cause of freeze-thaw weathering of rock in nature. the ice is riddled with brine-filled channels which sustain sympagic organisms such as bacteria. called "pressure melting". this absorption is shifted toward slightly lower energies. During the melting process.wikipedia. which in turn provide food for animals such as krill and specialised fish like the Bald notothen. making it appear white rather than transparent. then leak water after thawing. This explanation. In fact. where the impurity is dictating the color rather than the ice itself. whereby friction of the material was causing the ice layer melting. The result of this process is that ice (in its most common form) floats on liquid water. pack ice. algae. 2 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . Energy becomes available to increase the thermal energy (temperature) only after enough hydrogen bonds are broken that the ice can be considered liquid water. ice appears blue. Compared with water. ice absorbs light at the red end of the spectrum preferentially as the result of an overtone of an oxygen-hydrogen (O-H) bond stretch. Thus. particularly in regard to the water cycle. air bubbles) can appear brown. originated in 19th century. or icebergs. Clathrate hydrates are forms of ice that contain gas molecules trapped within its crystal lattice. from the bottom up. The result is a stratified ice deposit. icebergs containing impurities (e. neither explanation explained why ice is slippery when standing still even at below-zero temperatures. the color effect intensifies with increasing thickness or if internal reflections cause the light to take a longer path through the ice. Glaciers and snowpacks are an important storage mechanism for fresh water. Feather ice on the plateau near Alta. this theory also failed to explain skating at low temperature. resulting in water discharge on top of the frozen layer. Aufeis is layered ice that forms in Arctic and subarctic stream valleys. in some cases permanently. grey or green.org/wiki/Ice The effect of expansion during freezing can be dramatic. called "friction heating" was proposed. providing lubrication regardless of pressure against the ice exerted by any object. similar to stalactites in appearance. causing the water table to rise further and repeat the cycle. Ice.. In 20th century an alternative explanation. Ice is an important component of the global climate. the temperature remains constant at 0 °C. with a slightly greener tint than for liquid water. Snowmelt is often an important source of seasonal fresh water.5 °C. melts a thin layer.
000 metres (9.org/wiki/Ice Pancake ice is a formation of ice generally created in areas with less calm conditions. The storm's updraft blows the hailstones to the upper part of the cloud. with sub-freezing air both above and below it. as hail formation is considerably more likely when the freezing level is below the altitude of 11.500 metres (4. about 6 cm (2. hail is actually less common in the tropics despite a much higher frequency of thunderstorms than in the mid-latitudes because the atmosphere over the tropics tends to be warmer over a much greater depth. Ice pellets are usually (but not always) smaller than hailstones. translucent balls of ice. then the droplet freezes around this "nucleus. The growth rate is maximized at about −13 °C (9 °F). and generally do not freeze into a solid mass unless mixed with freezing rain.20 in) or more. high liquid water content. This form of precipitation is also referred to as sleet by the United States National Weather Service." Experiments show that this "homogeneous" nucleation of cloud droplets only occurs at temperatures lower than −35 °C (238 K. it falls from the cloud. The World Meteorological Organization defines several kinds of ice depending on origin.36 in) in diameter Hail forms in strong thunderstorm clouds. Candle Ice is a form of Rotten Ice that develops in columns perpendicular to the surface of a lake. influence and so on. of a diameter of at least 6. large water droplets. and are lifted up again.Ice . but can occasionally be found behind a passing cold front.400 m). and freezing rain will be the result at the surface. In large hailstones. Our understanding of what particles make efficient ice nuclei is poor – what we do know is they are very rare compared to that cloud condensation nuclei on which 3 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM .25 in) and GS for smaller.000 feet (3. particularly those with intense updrafts. Hail-producing clouds are often identifiable by their green coloration. An accumulation of ice pellets This causes the partial or complete melting of any snowflakes falling through the warm layer. −31 °F).5 kilograms (1. Snowflakes Main article: Snowflake Snow crystals form when tiny supercooled cloud droplets (about 10 μm in diameter) freeze. In warmer clouds an aerosol particle or "ice nucleus" must be present in (or in contact with) the droplet to act as a nucleus. size. Within METAR code. if the sub-freezing layer beneath the warm layer is too small.900 ft) and 3. where the liquid outer shell collects other smaller hailstones. Hail See also: Hail Like other precipitation. −0 °F). For this reason. The updraft dissipates and the hailstones fall down. back into the updraft. GR is used to indicate larger hail. Hail in the tropics occurs mainly at higher elevations. Entrainment of dry air into strong thunderstorms over continents can increase the frequency of hail by promoting evaporational cooling which lowers the freezing level of thunderstorm clouds giving hail a larger volume to grow in.800 ft) above the ground. they re-freeze into ice pellets. great vertical extent. A large hailstone. The hailstone then may undergo 'wet growth'. These droplets are able to remain liquid at temperatures lower than −18 °C (255 K. the free encyclopedia http://en. Hailstones can grow to 15 centimetres (6 in) and weigh more than . Ice pellets form when a layer of above-freezing air is located between 1. Ice discs are circular formations of ice surrounded by water in a river. hail is most common within continental interiors of the mid-latitudes. Once a hailstone becomes too heavy to be supported by the storm's updraft. and where a good portion of the cloud layer is below freezing 0 °C (32 °F).4 millimetres (0. hail forms in storm clouds when supercooled water droplets freeze on contact with condensation nuclei. the precipitation will not have time to re-freeze. However. The hailstone gains an ice layer and grows increasingly larger with each ascent. latent heat released by further freezing may melt the outer shell of the hailstone. such as dust or dirt. (In Commonwealth English "sleet" refers to a mixture of rain and snow). Hail has a diameter of 5 millimetres (0.wikipedia. Stones just larger than golf ball-sized are one of the most frequently reported hail sizes.Wikipedia. As they fall back into the sub-freezing layer closer to the surface. A temperature profile showing a warm layer above the ground is most likely to be found in advance of a warm front during the cold season. Accordingly. and becomes vanishingly small much below −30 °C (−22 °F) as supercooled water droplets become rare. shape. They often bounce when they hit the ground. The METAR code for ice pellets is PL.1 lb). Ice pellets See also: Ice pellets Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small. a few molecules in the droplet need to get together by chance to form an arrangement similar to that in an ice lattice. because to freeze.
This was allegedly copied by an Englishman who had seen the same activity in China. although to what extent is unclear. and stored in specially designed. there were 426 commercial ice-making companies in the United States. A swing saw is used to get ice for the Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival each year from the frozen surface of the Songhua River. Switzerland sent it to France. the Hungarian Parliament building used ice harvested in the winter from Lake Balaton for air conditioning. In 400 BC Iran. with a combined 4 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . the first cargo of ice was sent from New York City to Charleston. it was not unusual to have a regular ice delivery service during the summer. The droplet then grows by condensation of water vapor onto the ice surfaces. The METAR identifier for diamond dust within international hourly weather reports is IC. South Carolina in 1799. Persian engineers had already mastered the technique of storing ice in the middle of summer in the desert. and which was known to be resistant to heat transfer. India Harvesting ice on Lake Saint Clair in Michigan. using a variety of techniques.wikipedia. The ice was used to chill treats for royalty. lime. goat hair. Diamond dust See also: Diamond dust Diamond dust. c. to make ice available all year long. who became known as the “Ice King. Commercial production Ice is now produced on an industrial scale.Wikipedia.” worked on developing better insulation products for the long distance shipment of ice. Corfu. Artificial nuclei are used in cloud seeding. Many ice sculptures are made from the ice. also known as ice needles or ice crystals. 1905 B&W film of 1919 ice harvest at Pocono Manor in the Poconos Ice is still harvested for ice and snow sculpture events. and early refrigerators were known as iceboxes. especially to the tropics.Ice . Large batch ice makers can produce up to 75 tons of ice per day. This mixture was thought to be completely water impenetrable. and often contained a system of windcatchers which could easily bring temperatures inside the space down to frigid levels on summer days. this became known as the ice trade. and widely used to keep fish fresh when caught in distant waters. forms at temperatures approaching −40 °C (−40 °F) due to air with slightly higher moisture from aloft mixing with colder. naturally cooled refrigerators. desert dust and biological particles may be effective. ice harvesting had become big business. There were thriving industries in 16/17th century England whereby low lying areas along the Thames estuary were flooded during the winter. clay. composed of sand. Icehouses were used to store ice formed in the winter. Ice harvesting Main article: Ice cutting Ice has long been valued as a means of cooling. because they had a block of ice in them. concrete mixing and curing. The ice was brought in during the winters from nearby mountains in bulk amounts. This was a large underground space (up to 5000 m³) that had thick walls (at least two meters at the base) made of a special mortar called sārooj. In many cities. Ice production is a large business.org/wiki/Ice liquid droplets form. The advent of artificial refrigeration technology has since made delivery of ice obsolete. for uses including food storage and processing. and consumer or packaged ice. egg whites. and ice harvested in carts and stored interseasonally in insulated wooden houses as a provision to an icehouse often located in large country houses. the free encyclopedia http://en. Clays. and ash in specific proportions. Ice was imported into England from Norway on a considerable scale as early as 1823. and Zante. Most commercial ice makers produce three basic types of fragmentary ice: flake. The space often had access to a qanat. Frederic Tudor. Trieste sent ice to Egypt. An ice manufacturing plant in East Midnapore. surface based air. but before refrigeration was developed ice was harvested from natural sources for human use. Snowflake viewed in an optical microscope Production Ice is now mechanically produced on a large scale. Until recently. in 2002. In the United States. and by the first half of the 19th century. and Germany sometimes was supplied from Bavarian lakes. called yakhchal (meaning ice storage). tubular and plate. chemical manufacturing.
all year long. where drivers must speed on lake ice. formerly Finland) and Vardø (Norway). This usually happens when a vehicle has been left alone after being driven for a while. Igloos are another example of a temporary structure. Many of the different sports played on ice get international attention every four years during the Winter Olympic Games. Ice and transportation Ice can also be an obstacle. tour skating.Ice . Moisture from the driver's breath is the source of water for the crystals. Black ice is very difficult to see. and not practical for long-term habitation. due to the ease with which a large deck could be constructed. The structures are mostly ornamental (as in the case with ice castles). Ice can be used to start a fire by carving it into a lens which will focus sunlight onto kindling. Ice piers have a lifespan of three to five years. As the ice melts. A fire will eventually start. Ice has even been used as the material for a variety of musical instruments. made primarily from snow. although places with flowing water require much colder temperatures. luge and skeleton. A sort of sailboat on blades gives rise to ice yachting. ideally. Antarctica use of pykrete (wood fibers mixed with ice) as a possible material for warships. being ice-free is an important advantage. The human quest for excitement has even led to ice racing.7 m). Such ice piers are used during cargo operations to load and offload ships. Ice can be used to reduce swelling (by decreasing blood flow) and pain by pressing it against an area of the body. For small-scale ice production. February 2002 windows. which will typically make ice cubes or crushed ice. Structures and ice sculptures are built out of large chunks of ice.org/wiki/Ice value of shipments of $595. It is troublesome to remove this form of ice. it is common for ice to build up on the windows of vehicles. A similar problem can happen in homes. ice climbing. Fleet operations personnel make the floating pier during the winter. Project Habbakuk was a British programme which investigated the McMurdo Station. Stand-alone icemaker units that make ice cubes are often called ice machines. many modern home refrigerators can also make ice with a built in icemaker. which is reflected in the name "iceboxes. Harbors which are not ice-free are opened up using icebreakers. it absorbs heat and keeps the drink near 0 °C (32 °F). so people often open their windows slightly when the vehicle is parked in order to let the moisture dissipate. Ice forming on roads is a dangerous winter hazard. while also controlling the skid of their vehicle (similar in some ways to dirt track racing). ice hockey.Wikipedia. U. ice fishing. Ice pier during 1983 cargo operations. Coast Guard icebreakers near Far enough below the freezing point. Examples are Murmansk (Russia). curling. though removing the ice can be a long and laborious process. if the outside temperature is low enough.S. During World War II. for harbors near the poles. the free encyclopedia http://en.000. and it is now common for cars to have rear-window defrosters to solve the problem. Driving safely requires the removal of the ice build-up. very thick layers of ice can form on lakes and other bodies of water.487." Ice can be used as part of an air conditioning system. but can happen while driving. Petsamo (Russia. They build upon naturally-occurring frozen seawater in McMurdo Sound until the dock reaches a depth of about 22 feet (6. Engineers used formidable strength of pack ice when they constructed Antarctica's first floating ice pier in 1973. which is one reason why many colder regions require double-pane windows for insulation.wikipedia. especially aircraft carriers. broomball and sled racing on bobsled. for example by percussionist Terje Isungset. because it lacks the expected frosty surface. a thin layer of ice crystals can form on the inside surface of McMurdo Station. The ice can become thick enough to drive onto with 5 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . Ice sailing on the Żnin Small Lake Other uses Ice cubes or crushed ice can be used to cool drinks. Uses Sports Ice also plays a central role in winter recreation and in many sports such as ice skating. The sport has even been modified for ice rinks. Ice hotels exist on a seasonal basis in a few cold areas. but the idea was given up when there were not enough funds for construction of a prototype. When the outdoor temperature stays below freezing for extended periods. Ice was once used to cool refrigerators in the 19th century. Whenever there is freezing rain or snow which occurs at a temperature near the melting point. Ice scrapers are tools designed to break the ice free and clear the windows.
Doing this safely requires a thickness of at least 30 cm (one foot). the free encyclopedia http://en. The increasing use of fuel injection—which does not require carburetors—has made "carb icing" less of an issue for reciprocating engines. Ice. Amorphous ice is more common. For ships. the engines can be quickly restarted and flights are not endangered. However. the British aviators Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown encountered such icing conditions – Brown left the cockpit and climbed onto the wing several times to remove ice which was covering the engine air intakes of the Vickers Vimy aircraft they were flying. For aircraft. very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) and hyperquenched glassy water (HGW). ice XV was found at extremely high pressures and −143 °C. As well as crystalline forms. and cause it to fail. the strong hydrogen bonds in water make it different: water. ice can cause a number of dangers. both fully hydrogen-disordered. and water vapour can coexist at the triple point. and find the best methods to prevent. however. Unlike most other solids. During the first non-stop flight of the Atlantic. the carburetor will be colder.Ice . ice at −3 °C was superheated to about 17 °C for about 250 picoseconds. low-density amorphous ice (LDA). And icebergs – large masses of ice floating in water (typically created when glaciers reach the sea) – can be dangerous if struck by a ship when underway. freezes at a temperature below 0 °C. This will block the supply of air to the engine. which is exactly 0. the most famous probably being the Titanic. Subjected to higher pressures and varying temperatures.16 of the difference between this triple point and absolute zero).org/wiki/Ice automobiles and trucks. ice can form in fifteen separate known phases. or damaged by internal icing in certain types of atmospheric conditions much more easily than previously believed. Jet engines do not experience carb icing. and XIV are hydrogen-ordered forms of ices Ih. solid water can exist in amorphous states as amorphous solid water (ASW). ice is difficult to superheat. As air is sucked through the carburetor into the engine. some of which may be conducive to ice formation. ice is predicted to become a metal. In 2006. this may adversely affect the flying qualities of the aircraft. Ices XI. the local air pressure is lowered. hexagonal crystalline ice (the predominant form found on Earth) is extremely rare. Icebergs have been responsible for the sinking of many ships. So. ordering and density. hexagonal crystalline ice can be formed via volcanic action. In an experiment. Most liquids under increased pressure freeze at higher temperatures because the pressure helps to hold the molecules together. in humid near-freezing conditions. but research continues to determine the exact conditions which produce this type of icing. In outer space.73 Pa (the Kelvin is in fact defined as 1/273. high-density amorphous ice (HDA).16 K) at a pressure of 611.01 °C (273. or reverse it. this has been variously estimated to occur at 1.55 TPa or 5. XIII. these are IV and XII. ice presents two distinct hazards. XIII and XIV were discovered. it passes through air layers of different temperature and humidity. water.62 TPa. At even higher pressures. In 2009. The types are differentiated by their crystalline structure. Ice XII was discovered in 1996. V.10 MPa). aircraft reciprocating engines with carburetors are provided with carburetor air intake heaters. and XII respectively. in flight. under a pressure higher than 1 atm (0. With care all these phases except ice X can be recovered at ambient pressure and low temperature. Pressure dependence of ice melting.wikipedia. If ice forms on the wings or control surfaces. and tend to ice up. Ice formation on window glass of high altitude flying airplane Phases Ice may be any one of the 15 known solid phases of water. As an aircraft climbs. 6 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . For this reason. There are also two metastable phases of ice under pressure.Wikipedia. A particular icing vulnerability associated with reciprocating internal combustion engines is the carburetor. Spray and freezing rain can produce an ice build-up on the superstructure of a vessel sufficient to make it unstable. In most cases. which causes adiabatic cooling. stopped. and to require it to be hacked off or melted with steam hoses. but recent evidence indicates that they can be slowed. The melting of ice under high pressures is thought to contribute to the movement of glaciers.
Formed by cooling water to 270 K at 1. with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic. A tetragonal crystalline ice. LDA forms by extremely quick cooling of liquid water ("hyperquenched glassy water". Least dense of the high-pressure phases. Exhibits Debye relaxation. or below.org/wiki/Ice Log-lin pressure-temperature phase diagram of water. the free encyclopedia http://en. The hydrogen atoms' positions are disordered. A metastable rhombohedral phase. A monoclinic crystalline phase. It is formed from ice VII. The oxygen atoms are arranged in a diamond structure. by depositing ice water vapour on very cold substrates ("amorphous solid water". formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa.wikipedia. Exhibits Debye relaxation. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih. It can be formed by heating high-density amorphous ice slowly at a pressure of 810 MPa. by cooling it below 5 °C (278 K). Ice Ic 7 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . A more ordered version of ice VII. HGW). forming at higher Amorphous pressures. high density (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA). It doesn't form easily without a nucleating agent. A metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. Most complicated structure of all the phases. Ice Ih Normal hexagonal crystalline ice. where the hydrogen atoms assume fixed positions. A tetragonal crystalline phase. It may occasionally be present in the upper atmosphere.Wikipedia. Ice II Ice III Ice IV Ice V Ice VI Ice VII Ice VIII A rhombohedral crystalline form with highly ordered structure. Formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa. A cubic phase. It is produced at temperatures between 130 and 220 K. Formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 190–210 K.1 GPa. and can exist up to 240 K. The Roman numerals correspond to some ice phases listed below. The hydrogen bonds form two interpenetrating lattices. Denser than water. Amorphous ice exists in three forms: low-density (LDA) formed at atmospheric pressure. ASW) or by heating high density forms of ice at ambient pressure ("LDA"). it undergoes transformation to ice III. When heated.Ice . when it transforms into ice Ih. Phase Characteristics Amorphous ice is an ice lacking crystal structure.
"Why is ice slippery?" (http://lptms.Ice .faa.com/2006/02 /21/science/21ice..ru/gdsidb /XML/wmo_259. the free encyclopedia http://en.pdf) . ^ "Hail (glossary entry)" (http://www. ^ Chang. Retrieved 15 February 2009.weather. http://www.gov/fai/afss /metar+taf/sametara. 2006).aari. A monoclinic crystalline phase.google. Retrieved 3 May 2011. pp. 2.archive. generally a volatile is classed as an ice if its melting point lies above around 100 K.2 GPa. Kenneth (February 21. A tetragonal.nytimes. An orthorhombic crystalline phase. Cambridge University Press.faa. Formed below 118 K at 1. Forms at about 70 GPa.php?word=hail.com/Minerals/OXIDES /ice/ice. Formed by cooling water to below 130 K at 500 MPa. "Explaining Ice: The Answers Are Slippery" (http://www. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.gov/fai/afss/metar+taf/sametara. Federal Aviation Administration via the Internet Wayback Machine. 10. Retrieved 8 April 2009.htm) on 2008-05-01. William Charles Livingston (1 July 2001).alaska.aq/access /page/?page=d664da82-b244-102a-8ea7-0019b9ea7c60) . Lynch.nw. Proton-ordered symmetric ice. (2005).haydenplanetarium. ^ a b David K. It is ferroelectric.16 g/cm3.). 12. dense crystalline phase. R. 13.aq. http://books.fr/membres/trizac /Ens/L3FIP/Ice.weather. Retrieved 8 April 2012. The best known example is dry ice. Acecrc. New York Times. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Ice XII Ice XIII Ice XIV Ice XV Other ices Main article: Volatiles The solid phases of several other volatile substances are also referred to as ices.com/Minerals/OXIDES /ice/ice. 9.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice Ice IX Ice X Ice XI A tetragonal phase. ^ Rosenberg. Archived from the original (http://www. ^ "The Mineral Ice" (http://www. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.gov/glossary/index.Wikipedia. ISBN 978-0-521-77504-5. It has density of 1. ^ Neil deGrasse Tyson.galleries. 8. 6.nytimes. D. D. Color and light in nature (http://books.. approximately 1. Retrieved 2007-03-20. See also Density of ice versus water Ice climbing Ice famine Pumpable ice technology Detail of an ice cube References 1.pdf. It is observed in the phase space of ice V and ice VI.sipex.alaska.php) ) World Meteorological Organization / Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. 4.gov/glossary /index. Ice XI is considered the most stable configuration of ice Ih.php?word=sleet) . stable below 140 K and pressures between 200 MPa and 400 MPa.org/web/20080501074014/http: //www. http://lptms. http://www. ^ Lide. ^ "WMO SEA-ICE NOMENCLATURE" (http://www.google. The proton-ordered form of ice XII.3 times more dense than water).weather.aari.sipex. ^ Lide. These materials are called spin ice. ^ Sea Ice Ecology (http://www.alaska. Retrieved on 2011-10-30. (2005). http://web. ^ "Sleet (glossary entry)" (http://www.weather. metastable. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.gov/fai/afss 8 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Boca Raton (FL).html?pagewanted=all) . "SA-METAR" (http://web.u-psud.php?word=sleet.e. The natural transformation process is very slow and ice XI has been found in Antarctic ice 100 to 10.gov/glossary /index. CRC Press 3. R.html?pagewanted=all.fr/membres/trizac/Ens/L3FIP/Ice. 161–. ^ The word crystal derives from Greek word for frost.php?word=hail) . It can be prepared by heating high-density amorphous ice from 77 K to about 183 K at 810 MPa. low-temperature equilibrium form of hexagonal ice.acecrc.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-20.archive. slightly higher than ordinary ice.com/2006/02/21/science /21ice.000 years old.3 g cm−3 at 127 K (i.htm) . 11.htm) . Formed gradually from ice III by cooling it from 208 K to 165 K. http://www.1 GPa. "Water.u-psud. 7.org/tyson/read/1998/05/01 /water-water. 5. A "magnetic analogue" of ice is also realized in some insulating magnetic materials in which the magnetic moments mimic the position of protons in water ice and obey energetic constraints similar to the Bernal-Fowler ice rules arising from the geometrical frustration of the proton configuration in water ice. Physics Today: 50–54.ru /gdsidb/XML/volume1. http://www. ^ a b c Alaska Air Flight Service Station (2007-04-10).galleries.org/tyson/read/1998/05/01/waterwater) . the solid form of carbon dioxide. Robert (December 2005). The proton-ordered form of ice VI formed by cooling water to around 80–108 K at 1.com /books?id=4Abp5FdhskAC&pg=PA161) .com/books?id=4Abp5FdhskAC&pg=PA161. The proton-ordered form of ice V.haydenplanetarium.nw. ed. That study indicated that the temperature below which ice XI forms is −36 °C (240 K).org /web/20080501074014/http://www. Water" (http://www. An orthorhombic. It has a density of 1.faa. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed. http://www.php?lang1=0&lang2=1&arrange=0& self=0) (Multi-language (http://www.gov/glossary/index.
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