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# Part 2: Beam Analysis

Arne Gullerud

## CE 398 SA, March 9 1998

Overview
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Review of ABAQUS Input Specification of Beam Elements Non-Global Constraints Distributed Loads Output Requests Example: Non-Global Constraints HW

ABAQUS Input
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Model Data J Geometry - - Nodes, Elements, -Connectivity J Element Section Properties J Material Data History Data J Loads and Boundary Conditions J Analysis Type J Output Requests

## Specification of Beam Elements

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Element Specification J *ELEMENT, TYPE = B## J First number is 2 for plane beams (2-D), 3 for space beams (3-D) J Second number is order of element: 1 is linear (2 nodes), 2 is quadratic (3 nodes), 3 is cubic (4 nodes) J Can specify additional point to compute element normal (described later) Element Degrees of Freedom J 2-D: 1,2 = translation; 6 = rotation J 3-D: 1,2,3 = translation; 4,5,6 = rotation; (7 = warping)

## Specification of Beam Elements

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Section Property Definition - - Two Types: -J *BEAM GENERAL SECTION direct calculations (no numerical integration on cross section) ? faster provides GENERAL section type only linear elastic J *BEAM SECTION allows any material definition uses numerical integration on cross section better for more complicated analyses Both Allow Many Different Section Types

## Specification of Beam Elements

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*BEAM GENERAL SECTION Syntax: *BEAM GENERAL SECTION, ELSET=<elem set>, SECTION=<section type> <section data> <specification of normal to beam (optional)> E, G (material constants) *BEAM SECTION Syntax: *BEAM SECTION, ELSET=<elem set>, SECTION=<section type>, MATERIAL=<material name> <section data> <specification of normal to beam (optional)>

## Beam Section Types

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GENERAL J Section data: A, I11, I12, I22, J, (G , G ) o w J To specify centroid (if not at center): *CENTROID X1, X2 J To specify shear center (if not at center): *SHEAR CENTER X1, X2 BOX J Section data: a, b, t1, t2, t3, t4 2 t2
a

t3

t4
b

1
t1

## Beam Section Types

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CIRCULAR J Solid circular bar J Section data: r (radius) RECTANGULAR J Solid rectangular bar J Section data: a (width), b (height) HEXAGONAL J Hexagonal tube J Section data: d (distance from center to farthest outside edge), t (thickness) PIPE J Circular tube J Section data: r (outside radius), t (thickness)

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b2 h t2 t1 t3 b1

2 2 1
l a b t2 t1

## L-SECTION J Section data: a, b, t1, t2 Others: ARBITRARY, ELBOW, TRAPEZOIDAL

Beam Orientation
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ABAQUS must be given information about the orientation of the beam for the 3- case (the direc-D tion of the local 1 axis in global coordinates) There are two ways to specify this: J Give an extra point for each element; the vector between this point and the first point is in the 1- plane. For instance: -3
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B31, ELSET=ELEMS 14,29,43

uses the vector between node 14 and 43 to determine the normal in the 1 direction. Give a vector in the section definition:
*BEAM SECTION, ELSET=ELEMS, SECTION=BOX 10,20,2,1,2,1 0.424,0.565,0.707

Non-Global Constraints
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There are several ways to specify non-global constraints: J *TRANSFORM option defines a local coordinate system for given node set. Second line gives the x,y,z coordinates of vectors in the X' and Y' directions. For example:
*TRANSFORM, NSET=NODESET 25.0,90.0,0.0,-90.0,25.0,0.0

creates a local coordinate system at each node in NODESET with the X' axis in the (25,90,0) direction and the Y' axis in the (-90,25,0) direction. Create multi-point constraints through the *MPC command. See the ABAQUS manuals for more information.

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Use the *DLOAD command for distributed loads Syntax: <element or element set>, <load type>, <magnitude of load> Load Types for Beam Elements: J PX, PY, PZ - - uniform distributed load in -global X,Y, or Z directions J P1, P2 - - uniform distributed load in -beam-local coordinates 1 or 2 J Can also specify non-uniform loads using user subroutines Examples:
*DLOAD 101, PX, -100.0 TOPELEMS, p2, 90.9

Output Requests
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Stresses and Strains: J S11, E11; axial J S22, E11; hoop stress/strain for pipes J S12, E12; torsional shear stress/strain Stresses and strains are reported at specific points in the cross section; use *SECTION POINTS command to define specific locations Section Forces: SF1 (Axial Force) Section Moments: J SM1 (bending about local 1 axis) J SM2 (bending about local 2 axis) J SM3 (twisting about beam axis) Can also output curvatures (SK1-3), section strains (SE1-3)

## Example: Non-Global Constraints

*HEADING Non-Global Supports Example Lengths are in inches, forces in kips ** ======== Model Definition ======== *NODE 101, -600., 0., 0. 102, 600., 0., 0. 103, -900., 1080., 0. 104, 0., 1440., 0. 105, 900., 1080., 0. *NSET,NSET=NSET1 101, 103 *NSET,NSET=NSET2 102, 105 *TRANSFORM,NSET=NSET1 25., -90., 0., 90., 25., 0. *TRANSFORM,NSET=NSET1 25., 90., 0., -90., 25., 0. *ELEMENT, TYPE=T2D2, ELSET=TRUSS1 14, 103, 101 17, 102, 105 *ELEMENT, TYPE=T2D2, ELSET=TRUSS2 15, 101, 104 16, 104, 102 *ELEMENT, TYPE=T2D2, ELSET=FRAME 11, 103, 104 12, 104, 105 13, 101, 102

1.0 k/in F T2 T2

1.0 k/in F

T1

T1

F F = Frame (Beam) Element E = 30,000 ksi A= 10 in2 I = 1000 in4 T1 = Truss Element with A=2 in2 T2 = Truss Element with 4=2 in2

## Example: Non-Global Constraints

*SOLID SECTION, ELSET=TRUSS1, MATERIAL=STEEL 2.0 *SOLID SECTION, ELSET=TRUSS2, MATERIAL=STEEL 4.0 *MATERIAL, NAME=STEEL *ELASTIC 30000., 0.3 *BEAM GENERAL SECTION, ELSET=FRAME 10.0, 1000.0, 1000.0, 1000.0, 1000.0, 1000.0, 1000.0 0.0,0.0,-1.0 30000.0 ** ======== History definition ============== *STEP,PERTURBATION Distributed load on Beams 11 and 12 *STATIC *BOUNDARY 101, 2 102, 2 103, 2 105, 2 *DLOAD 11, P2, -1.0 12, P2, -1.0 *RESTART, WRITE *NODE PRINT U RF *EL PRINT SF SM *END STEP

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105

15 14 13 101

16 17

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