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Learning Objectives for Experiment #7, Spring 2013

A. Chemical Concepts This experiment offers a review of several aspects of equilibria and of thermodynamics. Solubility equilibria: KHT(s) K+(aq) + HT-(aq), Kc = Ksp The relation between the reaction quotient (Q) and the equilibrium constant, Kc Go = Ho - T.So; Go = - RT ln(Kc) B. Experimental Procedures How to measure Ksp as a function of T. How to measure Ho and So for the dissolution of a salt in water. C. Scientific Method, Understanding and Problem Solving Understanding the experimental procedure in terms of the Chemical Concepts Drawing and using a graph Showing clear calculations in the report Pooling data to improve precision; determining the mean and standard deviation of the mean. D. Opportunities for Creativity New Technique: Controlled heating and cooling of a solution; observing the onset of precipitation. With experience, aim to improve ones technique. Discovery: Challenge item #5 on Page 82: interpreting a set of data.

ID Stops: Once again, we encourage you to "Pause and Think" at the following points of the experiment. 1. Quality assessment (Understanding Skill #2) during Part A. In your first run, you may not know what to expect to see. Thus your first value of Tp may not be very good. It is important for you to think how you can improve your technique in subsequent runs. This includes control of the cooling, and observing the mixture in such a way as to detect the first appearance of the cloudiness, which indicates the onset of precipitation. With skill, it is definitely possible to locate Tp to within a fraction of a degree. 2. Before starting Part B. It is preferable for you to pause and think how Part B differs from Part A in terms of the concentrations of K+ and HT- ions, and to predict qualitatively how Tp will change. 3. After Item #6 of the Part A report (page 80). The instructions in the Lab Manual prompt you to check your So value with the instructor before proceeding.


Pre-lab Preparation for Experiment #7

Each student should read the Lab Manual instructions for Experiment #7. Please come to lab prepared to discuss procedural aspects of the experiment. We shall use the pre-lab questions on page 78 of the Lab Manual. For Pre-lab Item #4, you need to use an Excel spreadsheet, 120-Graphing; the instructions are in a Word file, 120-Graphing Instructions-S13. Please download these files from your Courseweb site or as instructed by your lab TA. Include your results with the rest of your pre-lab work.