=
=
1
0
1
0
) , ( ) , (
1
m
i
n
j
j i K j i I
MN
MSE
2
(3)
where the sum over j; k denotes the sum over all
pixels in the images, and N is the number of pixels
in each image [7].
3. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio:
PSNR tends to be cited more often, since it is a
logarithmic measure, and our brains seem to
respond logarithmically to intensity [12]. Increasing
PSNR represents increasing fidelity of compression


.

\

=
MSE
MAX
PSNR
1
10
log 20
(4)
Here, MAX
i
is the maximum possible pixel value of
the image.
V. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS IMAGE
PROCESSING PARAMETER USING
HAAR WAVELET (SPIHT)
The Haar transform is the simplest of the
wavelet transforms. This transform crossmultiplies
a function against the Haar wavelet with various
shifts and stretches, like the Fourier transform
crossmultiplies a function against a sine wave with
two phases and many stretches. The Haar wavelet
is a certain sequence of rescaled "squareshaped"
functions which together form a wavelet family or
basis. Wavelet analysis is similar to Fourier
analysis in that it allows a target function over an
interval to be represented in terms of an
orthonormal function basis.
Table 1: Result of different parameter using
SPIHT based method with haar wavelet
transform
STEPS CR BPP MSE PSNR
1 0.09 0.01 6.3739e+004 2.37
2 0.09 0.01 6.3739e+004 10.08
3 0.09 0.01 6.3739e+004 10.08
4 0.09 0.01 3.6824e+003 12.46
5 0.09 0.01 3.1046e+003 13.21
6 0.11 0.01 2.3597e+003 14.40
7 0.15 0.01 1.6745e+003 15.89
8 0.30 0.02 997.23 18.23
9 0.59 0.05 501.25 21.13
10 1.21 0.10 242.77 24.27
11 2.49 0.20 105.27 27.89
12 4.63 0.37 41.72 31.92
13 7.51 0.60 17.03 35.81
14 11.81 0.94 7.09 39.62
15 18.62 1.49 3.23 43.03
16 29.79 2.38 1.68 45.86
17 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43
18 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43
19 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43
20 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43
VI.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Progressive methods starting with the well
known SPIHT algorithm using the Haar wavelet.
The key parameter is the no. of steps. Increasing it
leads to better recovery of MSE and PSNR value
but worse compression ratio as we going through
the table we find that step 12,13,14 gives
satisfactory results. The compression ratio CR
means that the compressed image is stored using
Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and
Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 3, Issue 1, January February 2013, pp.15071512
1510  P a g e
only CR% of the initial storage size.The BitPer
Pixel(BPP) gives the no. of bits use to store one
pixel of the image.
Step 1 Step 2
Step 3 Step 4
Step 6
Step 5
Step 7 Step 8
Step 10
Step 9
Step 11
Step 12
Step 14 Step 13
Step 15 Step 16
Step 18 Step 17
Step 19
Step 20
Fig.2: Results of various compressed image
Fig.3 Graph between no. of steps and various
parameters
VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the
performance of SPIHT algorithm of progressive
method based on no. of step which gives facility to
the user to achieve appropriate compression ratio,
PSNR and MSE, means by choosing various steps
he decide which step is suitable for compression.
this method is different from other wavelet
compression methods because in conventional
method wavelets compress maximum level and not
Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and
Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 3, Issue 1, January February 2013, pp.15071512
1511  P a g e
give the facility to choose user from a set of
compressed image but in SPIHT algorithm
progressive compression ratio gives this facility to
which compressed image user want to be send on
transmission channel. In the above graph CR for
step 15 is fixed (no changes) further it increases
and going constant after step 17 which shows
further compression of image is not possible.
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Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and
Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 3, Issue 1, January February 2013, pp.15071512
1512  P a g e
AUTHORS PROFILE:
SARVESH KUMAR GUPTA
B.E. degree in Electronics & Communication
Engineering from R.G.P.V. University Bhopal,
India in 2009 and M.E. Degree in Digital
Techniques & Instrumentation Engineering from
S.G.S.I.T.S., Indore India in 2012.Now working as
Assistant Professor in Department of Electronics &
Communication Engineering, MIST Engineering
College Indore, India.
KHUSHBU BISEN
She has received the B.E. degree in Electronics and
Instrumentation Engineering from. S.G.S.I.T.S.,
Indore India in 2009 and M.E. Degree in Digital
Techniques & Instrumentation Engineering from,
S.G.S.I.T.S., Indore India in 2012.She is now
working as Assistant Professor in Department of
Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering,
S.G.S.I.T.S Indore, Her interest of research is in
field of Image enhancement using Matlab .