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DENTAL CERAMIICS DENTAL CERAM CS CONTENT                Introduction History Structure Classification Composition Properties Strengthening of dental porcelain Condensation of dental porcelain Firing procedure Stages of maturity Metal -ceramic All ceramics Application of ceramics Conclusion References

INTRODUCTION : Man has been obsessed with duplicating, restoring and replacing various lost body parts like the limbs, ear, nose and eyes with artificial prosthesis and teeth being no exception. The quest for an artificial prosthesis similar to the natural tooth, both in function and aesthetics, in the oral environment still remains as a foremost concern to the dentist, which has led to the use of CERAMICS in dentist. WHAT ARE CERAMICS? The term ceramic is derived from the Greek word “keramos,” which means “potter” or “pottery.” This is related to a Sanskrit term meaning “burned earth,” because the basic components were clays from the earth that were heated to form pottery.1 Ceramic is an inorganic compound with non-metallic properties typically composed of metallic (or semi metallic) and non-metallic elements (example AI2O3, CaO) - Kenneth J. Anusavice


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Dental ceramic is an inorganic compound with non-metallic properties typically consisting of oxygen and one or more metallic or semi metallic elements (e.g. Al, Ca, Li, Mg, K, Si, Na, Sn, Ti and Zr) that is formulated to produce the whole or part of a ceramic based dental prosthesis.

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF CERAMICS : Till 18th Century dental technologie remian undeveloped . The candidate material for artificial teeth during these days were :  Human teeth  Animal teeth that were carved to size and shape of human teeth but they were unstable towards coorosive agents in saliva  Ivory : elephant ivory and bone contained pores which got stained easily.2 The current dental ceramics are far from the early ceramics that started being used over 200 years ago. Early records of the first ceramics used as dental materials date back to 1774, when french apothecary alexis duchateau and parisian dentist Nicholas dubois De Cheamnat manufactured the first complete ceramic denture.

Nicholas dubois De Cheamnat

The initial use of ceramics materials in dentistry was in the obtention of complete dentures. Early in the 19th century, Italian dentist Giuseppangelo Fonzi manufactured individual ceramic teeth attached to a metallic substructure which, in turn ,was attached to complete dentures.


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Giuseppangelo Fonzi

The restoration of individual ceramic teeth in the oral cavity was delayed until the late 1800s, when Logan constructed ceramic teeth fused to the metallic post so that these posts could function as an intra radicular for the restoration. During last 40 years ,research has foccused on improving metal free systems and developing superior materials regarding esthetics and clinical performances to offer patients several alternatives to restore missing or damaged teeth.3 1958 first dental porcelain for veneering was introduced, which led to the wide spread use of metal –ceramic restoration in the 1960s and beyond, followed by invention of the porcelain jacket crown that was popularized in hte 1960s by Mclean. 1970 saw the advent of the early experiments in CAD/CAM crown fabrication, followed by an influx of ceramic based restoration systems from 1980s through to the present day1 STRUCTURE: The structure of ceramic material is dictated by the type of atoms present, the type of bonding between the atoms and the way atoms are packed together. The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond and two most common bonds for ceramics are ionic bond(occurs between a metal and nonmetal and involves the attraction of opposite charges when electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal); and covalent occurs between two nonmetals and involves sharing of atoms. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in covalent and ionic than in metallic bonding. Because of this, metals are ductile and ceramics are brittle.


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Many dental ceramics contains a crystal phase and a glass phase based on silica structure. This structure is characterized by a silica tetrahedran in which a Si 4+ cations is positioned at the center of a tetrahedran with O- anions at each of the four corners.

The resulting structure is not closely packed and has both covalent and ionic characteristics. The regular dental porcelain, being glassy in nature, is largely non crystalline, and exhibits only short range order in atomic arrangement, which is referred to as dental glass ceramics. The only true crystalline ceramic used at present in restorative dentistry is alumina (Al2O3), which is hardest and strongest oxide known.4 CLASSIFICATION : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Based on chemical composition According to type According to use According to firing température According to firing technique

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6. According to substrate metal 7. Microstructural classification 8. Processing technique 1. BASED ON COMPOSITION: A) SILICATE CERAMICS: Characterized by an amorphous glass phase with porous structure. The main components are SiO2 with small addition of crystalline Al2O3, MgO, ZrO2 and or other oxides. Dental porcelain falls in this category. B) OXIDE CERAMICS: Contain principal crystalline phase (e.g., Al2O3, MgO, ThO2 or, ZrO2) with either no glass phase or a small content of glass phase. C) NON OXIDE CERAMICS: These are impractical for use in dentistry because of high processing temperatures, complex processing methods or unesthetic color and opacity. D) GLASS CERAMICS: These are types of ceramics containing a glass matrix phase and atleast one crystal phase.4 2. ACCORDING TO TYPE a) b) c) d) e) f) Feldspathic porcelain Leucite reinforced porcelain Aluminous porcelain Glass infiltrated aluminous Glass infiltrated spinell Glass ceramics4

3. ACCORDING TO USE a) Ceramic for artificial teeth b) Jacket crown, inlay and onlay ceramic

4 7. 4. ACCORDING TO FIRING TECHNIQUE 1.850-1101C d) Ultra low fusing . 5. ceramics can be defined by their composition of glass-tocrystalline ratio.1101 t0 1300C c) Low fusing . they can be divided into four basic compositional categories with a few subgroups: a) Composition Category 1: Glass-based systems (mainly silica) b) Composition Category 2: Glass-based systems (mainly silica) with fillers. ACCORDING TO FIRING TEMPERATURE a) High fusing . There can be infinite variability of the microstructures of materials.<850C4 5. Vacuum fired (at reduced pressure) 3. Air fired (at atmospheric pressure) 2. 2. ACCORDING TO SUBSTRATE METAL 1. 3. Cast metal Sintered metal Swaged metal Glass ceramics CAD/CAM. usually crystalline (Typically Leucite or a different high-fusing glass) c) Composition Category 3: Crystalline-based systems with glass fillers (mainly alumina) d) Composition Category 4: 6 . MICROSTRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION At a microstructural level.Seminar -3 c) Metal ceramic d) Anterior bridge ceramic 4.>1300 C b) Medium fusing . Diffusible gas firing 6. METAL CERAMICS (PORCELAIN FUSED TO METAL) METAL FREE CERAMICS (ALL CERAMICS) 8. however.

Leucite  coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE).  The primary crystal types today are leucite. Subcategory 2. and contain various quantities of potassium and sodium. lowering the melting temperature of the material.  Aluminosilicates occurs naturally. Leucite is created in dental porcelain by increasing the K2O (potassium oxide) content of the aluminosilicates glass.  The glass composition is similar to the pure glass Category 1. This filler was added to create porcelain that could be successfully fired on to the metal substructures. and alumina (aluminium oxide).  Derived from group of mined minerals called feldspar and are based on y silicon dioxide (also known as silica or quartz). lithium disilicate. and opacity  It is further subdivided into three groups.Seminar -3 Polycrystalline solids (alumina and zirconia) COMPOSITION CATEGORY 1: Glass-Based Systems. . Amorphous Glass  Best mimic the optical properties of enamel and dentin. 7 .  Glasses based on feldspar are  Resistance to crystallization(devitrification)  Have low firing ranges  biocompatible COMPOSITION CATEGORY 2 Glass-Based Systems with fillers  Filler particles are added to the glass composition to improve mechanical properties. It also acts a flux.1 Low-to-Moderate Leucite-Containing Feldspathic Glass These materials have been called feldspathic porcelains by default. are known as feldspars. Lithium disilicate crystals are made by adding Li2O (lithium oxide) to the aluminosilicates glass. or fluorapatite. And to control optical effects such as opalescence .color. The difference is varying amounts of crystal types have either been added to or grown in the glassy matrix.

COMPOSITION CATEGORY 3: Crystalline-based systems with glass fillers cover the wide scope of all-ceramic restorations. including veneers. In-Ceram Alumina (alumina matrix) has high strength and moderate translucency and is used for anterior and posterior crowns. and anterior/posterior crowns and bridges.” Subcategory 2.2 High-Leucite containing glass  Glassy phase is based on an alumino-silicate glass.3 Lithium-Disilicate Glass-Ceramics It is a new type of glass ceramic.g In-Ceram Spinell (alumina and magnesia matrix) is the most translucent. air-free. Amherst. with moderately high strength and is used for anterior crowns. inlays. all atoms are densely packed together without any intervening matrix to form a dense. In-Ceram Zirconia (alumina and zirconia matrix) has very high strength and lower translucency and is used primarily for three-unit posterior bridges. IPS Empress II (now called as IPS e. where the aluminosilicates glass has lithium oxide added. glass-free polycrystalline structure. 8 . onlay.Seminar -3  Inhibit crack propagation.  The most widely used version is the original iPs empress® (ivoclar Vivadent. E. thereby improving the material‟s strength.  This material is called a glass ceramic.  These materials have been developed in both powder/liquid. E.max). which has had the crystalline phase grown within the glass matrix by a process called “controlled crystallization of glass. COMPOSITION CATEGORY 4: Polycrystalline Solids  Have no glassy component. machinable. ny) but there are several other products in this category.g. and pressable forms.  The amount of Leucite may be adjusted in the glass based on the type of core and required CTE Subcategory 2.

 The porcelain is further compacted by visual flow of the glassy component during firing under vacuum.  Have greater translucency than can be achieved using other methods [13].  The porosity and discontinuous nature of the crystalline phase lead to relatively low strength and a wide variation in strength.Seminar -3  This structure makes difficult to drive crack through atoms compared to atoms in the less dense and irregular network found in glasses. Slip casting  A slip is a low viscosity slurry or mixture of ceramic powder particles suspended in a fluid (usually water). so these materials are usually applied as the esthetic veneer layers on stronger cores and frameworks. 9 .  Several processing techniques allow the fabrication of either a solid-sintered aluminous oxide (alumina.  This method results in a large amount of residual porosity. 1. opportunity for depth translucency and accuracy of fit. Al2O3) or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) framework5. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PROCESSING TECHNIQUE Ceramics having same composition may be fabricated by different laboratory techniques and each method of forming results in a different distribution of flaws. Ceramics can be classified as:     Powder condensation Slip casting Hot pressing Computer aided design / computer aided manufacturing Powder condensation  This is the traditional method of forming ceramic prosthesis  Moist porcelain powder is applied with an artist brush and excess moisture is removed to compact powder particles together.  These are relatively opaque and hence these high strength ceramics are used as substructure material upon which glassy ceramics are veneered to achieve pleasing aesthetics.

veneers.  Advantage is its good accuracy of fit  Used only as core and framework materials. and the framework can be removed from the mold after partial sintering to improve the strength to a point where the framework can support its own weight. Pressable  Lost wax method is used to fabricate molds for pressable dental ceramics.  Available from manufacturers as prefabricated ingots made of crystalline particles distributed throughout a glassy material.g. Limited application is because of complicated series of steps.max ZirPress (Ivoclar-Vivadent) CAD/CAM  CAD-CAM ceramics are available as prefabricated ingots  CAD-CAM ceramics are available as prefabricated ingots6 Composition: 10 . Ceramics fabricated by slip casting can have higher fracture resistance than those produced by powder condensation because the strengthening crystalline Particles form a continuous network throughout the framework. glass infiltration (In-Ceram. onlay.  Pressable may be used for inlays. which provide a challenge to achieving accurate fit & may result in internal defects that weaken the material from incomplete glass infiltration The original In-Ceram and some partially stabilized zirconia blocks are fabricated based on slip casting of alumina or zirconia. and some of the powder particles in the slip become compacted against the walls of the mold forming a thin layer of green ceramic that is to become the framework The remaining slip is discarded.g. and they are slowly pressed into the lost wax mold. Vita Zahnfabrik). IPS e.Seminar -3        Slip casting involves forming a mold or negative replica of the desired framework geometry and pouring a slip into the mold The mold is made of a material (usually gypsum) that extracts some water from the slip into the walls of the mold through capillary action. E.  Pressable ingots are heated to a temperature at which they become a highly viscous liquid. and single-unit crowns  E.

phosphorous etc. 11 . Feldspar is the primary constituent. boron. The pyroplastic flow of dental porcelain should be low in order to prevent rounding of margins. molten glass solidifies with a liquid structure instead of a crystalline structure. Glasses are super-cooled liquids / non-crystalline solids with only a short-range order in their atomic arrangement. light potassium based feldspar is generally selected because of its increased resistance to pyroplastic flow and an increased viscosity.Seminar -3 Dental porcelains. For dental applications. Incongruent melting is the process by which one material melts to form a liquid plus a different crystalline material. and all porcelains based on feldspar are referred to as FELDSPATHIC PORCELAINS. color and resistance to devitrification is obtained by the addition of other oxides like potassium. to a large extent. The principal anion present in all glasses is O2 ion. the basic ingredients of these types of porcelains are feldspar kaolin (clay) and quartz. HIGH FUSING PORCELAINS Traditionally. SiO4. calcium. Soda (Na2O) Alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2). These are necessary to increase the thermal expansion compatible with metal coping. Such a structure is called vitreous and the process of forming it is known as vitrification. which forms very stable bonds with small multivalent cations such as silicon. For dental purposes. During cooling. (e. Additional properties like low fusion temperature. high viscosity. boron or aluminium oxides to the glass forming lattice. Feldspars are present in concentrations of 75 to 85% and undergo incongruent melting at temperatures between 1150C and 1530C.g. SiO4 tetrahedral are formed which are responsible for the random network of glass). Natural feldspars can be either sodium feldspar (albite) or potassium feldspar (orthoclase / microline) which are minerals composed of potash (K2O). in silicon glasses. sodium.. loss of tooth from and Obliteration of surface markings. Hence a glassy phase is formed and suspended inside it are crystalline potassium alumino silicate crystals known as Leucite. only two glass forming oxides – silicon oxide and boron oxide are used to develop the principal network. are glassy materials. These ions are termed as glass formers.

This process is referred to as FRITTING and the product so obtained is called a frit. This softening allows the powder particles to coalesce together (sintering) and form a dense solid. The brittle material is then ground to a fine powder of almost colloidal dimensions. It is present in concentrations of 13 to 14%. little or no pyrochemical reaction occurs. It also adheres to the framework of quartz particles and shrinks considerably during firing. For this. In addition the thermal contraction of coefficient of crystalline silica is too low for the alloys. which allows the unfired porcelain to be easily worked and molded.7 GLASS MODIFIERS  The sintering temperature of silica is too high for use in veneering esthetic layers bonded to metal substructure. and the fused mass is the quenched in water. The rapid cooling induces stresses in the glass to the extent that considerable cracks and fractures occur. the raw ingredients are mixed and fused. PURE QUARTZ Pure quartz is used porcelain as a strengthener. the temperature must be controlled to minimize the pyroplastic flow. Unfortunately. at such high temperature metal will melt. On heating. 2H2O) serves as a binder. During subsequent firing. MEDIUM. pure kaolin is white in color and reduces the translucency of porcelain. These additions tend to modify the properties by interrupting the glass network and hence are also known as glass modifiers. and a greater translucency. but the glass phase softens and flows slightly. However. When mixed with water. Consequently. The raw ingredients for the low and medium fusing porcelains are basically the same as for the high fusing porcelain powders but in addition contain balancing oxides / fluxes. it forms a sticky mass. Silica remains uncharged at the usual firing temperatures and hence contributes stability to the mass during heating by providing a framework for other constituents. 12 .Seminar -3 KAOLIN / CLAY Kaolin / clay (Al2O3. it reacts limitedly with feldspar (known as pyrochemical reaction) and thereby provides rigidly. Traces of iron may be present as impurities in the quartz and must be removed to prevent discoloration of porcelain. it is included only in small concentrations of 4 to 5%. The main function of quartz (silica) is to impart more strength and firmness. LOW AN ULTRA LOW FUSING PORCELAINS The low and medium fusing porcelain powders are glasses which have been ground from blocks of matured porcelain. 2SiO2.

there may occur crystallization during the porcelain firing operations  reduce the chemical durability (resistance to attack by water .  These breakage results in  Increased fluidity  Lower softening temperature  Increases thermal expansion  The modifier concentration should not be too high.  These alkali decreases the amount of cross-linking between the oxygen and the glass forming elements like silica i.7 BORIC OXIDE  Boric oxide (B2O3) serves as a glass modifier as well as a glass former.e.  An opacifying agent is generally a metal oxide-ground to a very fine particle size of <5m.  Different wavelength of visible light are scattered differently by the opacifying particles.K and Ca.  Because if too many tetrahedral are disrupted. Other oxides added lithium oxide. they disrupt the continuity of the SiO4 network. magnesium oxide. 13 . phosphorous pentoxide etc8 INTERMEDIATE OXIDES  The addition of glass modifiers not only lowers the softening temperature but also reduces the viscosity of the glass. sodium and calcium oxides.  Decreases viscosity  Lowers softening temperature  Forms own glass network8 OPACIFYING AGENTS  The translucency of porcelain can be decreased by using an opacifying agent. are added .Seminar -3  Bond between the silica tetrahedral can be broken by addition of alkali metal ion such as Na.  To overcome this problem intermediate oxides lie aluminium oxide (Al2O3)..acids and alkalis)  The most commonly used glass modifiers are potassium. These are introduced as carbonates that revert to oxides on heating.  Zirconium oxide is the most common opacifiers  The difference between the refractive indices of the glass and the opacifiers is the basic mechanism behind opalescence.

8 Different coloring pigments used in dental porcelain Ferric oxide (black).8 m generate a blue tinge in reflecting light and turn yellowish red in transmitted light. Nickel oxide Titanium oxide Manganese oxide Chromium-tin. calcification spots. Stains in finely powdered form are mixed with water or glycerine and water or any other special liquid.7 COLOURING AGENTS  Pigmenting or colouring oxides are added to obtain various shades needed to simulate natural teeth.  These pigments are produced by fusing metallic oxides together with fine glass and feldspar and then regrinding to a powder. The wet mix is applied with a brush either on to the surface of porcelain before glazing. or built into the porcelain (internal staining).  The different colouring pigments used in dental porcelain are given in the table below. Particles in the size range 0. fluoresced areas etc. Internal staining is preferable as it gives more lifelike results and also prevents direct damage to the stains by the surrounding chemical environment.4 to 0. Copper oxide Cobalt Salts Ferrous oxide.Seminar -3  This effect depends upon the size as well as the volume distribution of the particles. Chromium-alumina Indium Green Blue Brown Yellowish brown Lavender Pink Yellow / Ivory STAINS AND COLOR MODIFIERS Stains are generally low fusing colored porcelains used to imitate markings like enamel check lines. 14 . the size of the particle should be nearly the same as the wavelength of visible light. platinum gray Gray Chromium oxide.  Preferably.  This powder is blended with the un-pigmented porcelain powder to obtain the proper hue and chroma.

 Add-on porcelains should exclusively be used for simple corrections of tooth contour or contact points  Disadvantages of add-on glazes are 15 .  Self-glazing  Defined as a vitrified layer that forms on the surface of a dental porcelain ceramic containing a glass phase when the ceramic is heated to a glazing temperature for a specified time. nonglazed porcelain.  glazing occurs at temperatures of 955-1065oC.Seminar -3 Color modifiers on the other hand are less concentrated than stains and are used to obtain gingival effects or highlight body colours. It also seals pores on the surface of fired porcelain.  Provides transverse strength  Unglazed porcelain  lead to abrasive wear of the opposing dentition or  increase the rate of plaque accumulation 9 Glazing can be of two types:  Self glazing (auto glazing)  Add-on glazing. rough.  Add-on glazes /over glaze  The surface coating of glass formed by using thin layer of glass powder that matures at a lower temperature than that associated with the ceramic substructure.  If the glaze is removed by grinding . and are best used at the same temperature as the dental porcelain. 7  The aim of glazing is  Sealing of open pores in the surface of fired porcelain. 7 GLAZES AND ADD-ON PORCELAIN  Glazing is done so to produce enamel like lustre after occlusal and morphologic corrections have been made in a porcelain restoration.the transverse strength is reduced By 40-46% compared to unglazed porcelain.  These are uncolored glasses whose fusing temperatures have been lowered by the addition of glass modifiers.  Add-on porcelains are generally similar to glaze porcelains except for the addition of opacifiers and color pigments.  These are medium –fusing feldspathic porcelain is much stronger than ground.

9 PROPERTIES Compressive strength Tensile strength Shear strength Elastic modulus Linear coefficient of thermal expansion Specific gravity Liner shrinkage 50. 4. 3. The tensile strength is low because of the unavoidable surface defects. o Difficult to apply evenly and almost impossible to attain a detailed surface characterization.000 psi 16. 5.0% High fusing Low fusing - Refractive index - 1.2 to 2. 8  Many ceramists prefer polishing instead of glazing to control the surface Iustre. which removes the glaze and markedly weakens the porcelain and surface is left in a rough condition. 2.3 11. Blebs are internal voids tend to reduce the specific gravity of porcelain.Seminar -3 o its low chemical durability.8  Wiley (1989) stated that many studies have shown that polishing porcelain gives a smooth surface similar to that produced from a natural glaze. as clinician will adjust the occlusion by grinding the surface of the porcelain with diamond bur.000 psi 5. 16 . The shear strength is low because of lack of ductility in the material.9  Studies have shown that porcelain with highly polished surface have comparable strength with glazed porcelain.52 to 1. This observation is of clinical importance because after the porcelain prosthesis is cemented in the mouth.5% 14. Voids and blebs greatly reduce the strength of porcelain.54 1.000 psi 10X106 psi 12X10-6 / C 2. The compressive strength is quite high compare to tensile or shear strength.

7. This could be a disadvantage in that it causes excessive wear of the opposing natural tooth structure or the restorative material. The squeezing of the potassium ion into the place formerly occupied by the sodium ion creates large 17 . a common constituent of a variety of glasses. 8. Uranium oxide / cerium oxide is added to match the fluorescence of porcelain to that of the natural tooth.  The potassium ion is about 35% larger than the sodium ion. e. b. Corrosion resistant. Solubility is less. Development of residual compressive stresses 2.  This process involves the exchange of larger potassium ions for the smaller sodium ions. There are several techniques for introducing these residuals compressive stresses into the surfaces of ceramic articles. 9.1% deformation is sufficient to fracture porcelain before fracture. Highly biocompatible.  Ion exchange  Thermal tempering  Thermal Compatibility: Ion Exchange:  The technique also called chemical tempering. d. Conducive to gingival health – as it prevents plaque addition. Relatively inert. Interruption of crack propagation DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDUAL COMPRESSIVE STRESSES:  Strengthening is gained by virtue of the face that the residual stresses must first be negated by developing tensile stresses before any net tensile stress develops. Porcelains extremely hard materials and because of this property offer considerable resistance to abrasion. If a sodium-containing glass article is placed in a bath of molten potassium nitrate. potassium ions in the bath exchange places with some of the sodium ions in the surface of the glass article. Chemically stable. Porcelain: a. f.Seminar -3 6. The brittleness  0. Three of these methods are discussed below. 7 STRENGTHENING OF DENTAL PORCELAIN METHODS 1. c.

the thermal expansion or contraction of the porcelain cannot be precisely matched to that of the alloy. Thermal Compatibility:  Most metals expand linearly with temperature up to the melting range. as a result. alumina core materials. This objective is accomplished by selecting an alloy that contracts slightly more than the porcelain on cooling to room temperature. This rapid cooling produces a skin of rigid glass surrounding a soft (molten) core. this process is best used on the internal surface of a crown.  Ideally. DICOR glass-ceramic core material. The pull of the solidifying molten core. the porcelain should be under slight compression in the final restoration.  For dental applications.000 psi) in the surfaces of glasses subjected to this treatment. As the molten core solidifies.  Thermal tempering creates residual surface compressive stress by rapidly cooling (quenching) the surface of the object while it is hot and in the softened (molten) state. contact with acidulated phosphate fluoride over a cumulative time of 3 hours removes most of the ion-exchanged layer as well.  Consider three layers of porcelain: 18 .Seminar -3 residual compressive stresses (roughly 700 Mpa 100. they have different values in different temperatures ranges. Al2O3. Thus. These residual compressive stresses produce a pronounced strengthening effect. Furthermore.  However.  Not all ceramics are amenable to ion exchange. but the outer skin remains rigid.  One study has shown that grinding of only 100 m from an external surface reduces the strength of the treated structure to its original value. creates residual tensile stresses in the core and residual compressive stresses within the outer surface. it is more effective to quench hot glass-phase ceramics in silicone oil or other special liquids rather than using air jets as it may not uniformly cool the surface. Thermal Tempering:  The most common method for strengthening glass is by thermal tempering. as it shrinks. a metal expands approximately the same amount when heated from 50 oC to 60oC as it does from 200oC to 210oC.  Dental porcelains behave differently. and some conventional feldspathic porcelain that are highly enriched with potash feldspar (K2O. veneer. and. or inlay because this surface is protected from grinding and exposure to acids. it tends to shrink.6SiO2) cannot be sufficiently ion exchanged with potassium to warrant this treatment. For example.

the glass is toughened and strengthened because the crack cannot penetrate the alumina particles as easily as it can the glass.Seminar -3  the outer two of the same composition and thermal contraction coefficient  The middle layer of a different composition and a higher thermal contraction coefficient. Hence. These methods of strengthening are described later Dispersion of a Crystalline Phase: When a tough. The cast glass crown is subjected to a heat treatment that causes micron-sized mica crystals to grow in the glass. thereby strengthening the crown. the use of a dispersed crystalline phase to disrupt crack propagation requires a 19 . One type relies on the toughness of the particle to absorb energy from the crack and deplete its driving force for propagation.  The metal and porcelain should be selected with a slight mismatch in their thermal contraction coefficients (the metal thermal contraction coefficient is slightly larger). This mismatch leaves the porcelain in residual compression and provides additional strength for the restoration.  When the layers are bonded together and the bonded structure is allowed to cool to room temperature. yet fundamentally different. Another ceramic dental material that uses reinforcement of a glass by a dispersed crystalline substance is Dicor glass-ceramic.8 INTERRUPTION OF CRACK PROPAGATION Disruption of Crack Propagation : A further. The technique has found application in dentistry in the development of aluminous porcelains (A1 2O3 particles in a glassy porcelain matrix) for PJCs.  A similar rationale applies to porcelains and alloys for metal-ceramic restorations. these microscopic crystals will disrupt crack propagation.  The inner layer has a higher coefficient of thermal contraction and thus contracts more as it cools. the inner layer produces compressive stresses in the outer layers as previously described for thermal tempering. There are two different types of dispersions used to interrupt crack propagation. The other relies on a crystal structural change under stress to absorb energy from the crack. In most instances. method of strengthening glasses and ceramics is to reinforce them with a dispersed phase of a different material that is capable to hindering a crack from propagating through the material. crystalline material such as alumina (Al2O3) in particulate form is added to a glass. When glass-ceramic restorations are subjected to high tensile stresses. on cooling to room temperature. so that the metal contracts slightly more than the porcelain on cooling from the firing temperature to room temperature.

even the greatest condensation is expected to leave a void space of 45 percent between the particles. and with three or more sized particles. The crystalline material usually used is termed partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ).  With two sized particles. Transformation Toughening: A new technique for strengthening glasses involves the incorporation of a crystalline material that is capable of undergoing a change in crystal structure when placed under stress. The condensation occurs towards the blotted or 20 . This brings the excess water on to the surface. and this scattering produces an opacifying effect that may not be aesthetic in most dental restorations. the void space is reduced to2 5 percent.Seminar -3 close match between the thermal contraction coefficients of the crystalline material and the surrounding glass matrix.  The aim of condensation Is to pack the particles as close as possible in order to  reduce the amount of porosity  Shrinkage during firing. are  The size and shape of the powder particles. Experimental work has shown that transformation toughening may be a viable method for strengthening dental porcelains.  System that uses three sizes of powder is known as the gap grading system.  The shape of the powder particles also governs the packing density. glycerin. 7  Several methods of condensation are employed (1) Vibration method. The energy required for the transformation of PSZ is taken from the energy that allows the crack to propagate.  If only one-size particles are used. the paste is applied on to the platinum matrix and vibrated slowly. Round particles produce better packing compared with angular particles. One drawback of PSZ is that its index of refraction is much higher than that of surrounding glass matrix. the void space comes down to 22 percent. the particles of PSZ scatter light as it passes through the bulk of the porcelain. 8  Two important factors. CONDENSATION OF DENTAL PORCELAIN The process of bringing the particles closer and of removing the liquid binder is known as condensation.  Distilled water is the liquid binder used most commonly. However. which determine the effectiveness of condensation. propylene glycol or alcohol has also been tried. which is then drawn away with a fine brush or clean tissue. As a result.

a large soft brush is moved in a light dusting action over the wet porcelain. it imparts low amplitude. The smoothening action disturbs the particles bringing them closer and also the water rises to the surface. The mix is first vibrated and then whipped with a brush. 8 (4) Whipping method. a small spatula is used to apply and smooth the wet porcelain. surface tension causes the powder particles to pack closely together.  STAGES ARE  PREHEATING 21 . This brings excess water to the surface and the same brush can be used to remove any course surface particles along with the excess water.7 CERAMOSONIC CONDENSOR Through its ultrasonic function. However. The partial fusion or compaction of glass is referred to as sintering  Most of the thermo chemical reactions in porcelain are completed during the manufacturing process. (5) A combination of the vibration and the whipping methods can also be used. As the liquid is withdrawn. Excessive vibration should be avoided as it can cause slumping of the mass (2) Spatulation method. The most important factor in condensation is the effect of surface tension. As the water is drawn towards the dry powder. (3) Dry brush technique involves placement of dry powder onto the wet surface.Seminar -3        brushed area.  The role of firing is simply to sinter the particles of porcelain powder together to form a dense restoration. Improves substructure of the porcelain & dispense trapped air & increase density Less shrinkage during firing Enhanced surface and strength FIRING PROCEDURE/ SINTERING PROCEDURE  Defined as process of heating closely packed particles to achieve interparticle bonding and sufficient diffusion to decrease the surface area or increase density of the structure. the wet particles are pulled together. high frequency vibration enabling Condensation of moist porcelain particle. sufficient amount of liquid should be present so as to wet all the powder particles. which is removed as described earlier. The powder is placed by a brush to the side opposite from an increment of wet porcelain.

 At the initial firing temperature the voids are occupied by the atmosphere of the furnace. Different media can be employed for firing like: A) Air B) Vacuum C) Diffusible gas AIR FIRING PROCEDURE: Whenever air-firing methods are employed. the porcelain particles bond at their points of contact . the sintered glass gradually flows to fill up the air spaces. As the sintering of the particles begins. POROSITY Bubbles or voids in the fired porcelain are caused by inclusion of air during firing or in some cases as a by-product of vitrification of feldspar.preferred method as produces uniform restoration. Porosity reduces both translucency 22 . a very slow maturation period is preferred to allow for the maximum amount of entrapped air to escape.Seminar -3  The condensed mass is placed in front of or below the muffle of a preheated furnace at an approximately 650 C (1200 F) for low fusing porcelain.the porcelain is sintered within a range of atleast 30oC to 50oC below the maximum firing temperature. As a continuous mass is formed. During firing slow heating is done . it is cooled very slowly because rapid cooled might result in surface cracking and crazing.  FIRING Can be fired by following methods  Temperature controlled method:furnance temperature is raised at a constant rate until a specified temperature is raised  Temperature –time control method: furnace temperature is raised at a given rate until a preset temperature is reached.34% for high fusing).as temperature is raised. the porcelain is placed into the furnace and firing cycle is initiated. after which temperature is maintained for specific time till the reaction is completed . After the mass has been fired. This permits removal of excess water and prevent the sudden production of steam that could result in voids or fractures  After pre heating for approx 5 min. Such a temperature will mature porcelain without loss of color and high densities can be achieved. there occurs a decrease in volume referred to as firing shrinkage (32-37% for low fusing and 28. Second change occurs with a further rise in temperature when the particles fuse together by sintering.

high temperatures can cause swelling of these blisters. The vacuum should be broken while the work is still in the hot zone of the furnace. some of it is left behind. a diffusible gas like helium. Large sized particles have fewer but larger air voids between them compared to small sized particles. Hence. fine sized particles have multiple small air bubbles present in between them. Vacuum should not be applied after the surface skin has sealed and the porcelain has matured. This permits the dense skin to hydraulically compress the low-pressure internal voids. even of large size. Factors to be kept in mind while firing porcelain in vacuum are: 1. When air at normal atmospheric pressure is allowed to enter the furnace.. The interstitial spaces are hence reduced before the surface skin seals off the interior too rapidly. hydrogen or steam is substituted for the ordinary furnace temperature. 4. Additionally. it exerts a compressive effect on the surface skin. It works on the basis of removing air or atmosphere from the interstitial spaces before surface sealing occurs. 3. Vacuum firing cannot reduce the large sized bubbles to any significant degree. Although the vacuum (760 torr) removes most of the air from interstitial spaces. clear that porcelain powders fired in air must be of necessarily coarse nature. the remaining air spaces assume a spherical appearance. Air is driven out of the porcelain powder bed and 23 . which further compresses the internal voids to one tenth of their original size. Prolonged application can force the residual air bubbles to rise to the surface and cause surface blistering. VACUUM FIRING This technique is used to reduce porosity in dental porcelains. give improved translucency. which make them highly opaque. With the increase in temperature and because of surface tension. it is necessary to avoid porcelains with large interstitial spaces i. This results in very dense porcelain with very few remaining bubbles and that too of extremely small size. On the other hand. It is.Seminar -3 and strength of dental porcelain. Porcelain powders must be dried slowly to eliminate the water vapour. DIFFUSIBLE GAS FIRING In this technique. therefore. Fewer bubbles. porcelain powders with small sized particles are preferred. Translucency depends on the number and size of the entrapped air bubbles. 2.e. and vacuum should be applied before the placement of porcelain in the hot zone of furnace.

The common terminology used for describing the surface appearance of unglazed porcelain is „bisque‟.8 24 . To fabricate this restoration. but decrease in size or disappear.a thin layer of opaque porcelain is fused to the oxidized metal surface to establish porcelain. shaped. This occurs because these gases diffuse outward through the porcelain or actually dissolve in porcelain. are fused to the opaque porcelain. The method by which this disadvantage can be minimized is to bond the porcelain directly to a cast alloy substructure made fit the prepared tooth. finished and heat treated (oxidized).7-8 VARIOUS STAGES OF MATURITY Several stages of dental porcelain have been identified when it is „sintered‟ or „fired‟.Seminar -3 replaced by the diffusible gas. staine to improve the esthetic appearance and glazed. thereby completely sealing the surface and presenting smoothness to the porcelain. As a result. With these gases. but the flow of glass grains is increased. any entrapped furnace atmosphere that could not escape via the grain boundaries becomes trapped and sphere shaped. Medium bisque: Pores still exist on the surface of porcelain. High bisque: The flow of glass grains is further increased. In the case of non-Feldspathic porcelains. the interstitial spaces do not enlarge under the influence of increasing temperature. The fired body is strong and any corrections by grinding can be made prior to final glazing at this stage. a metal substructure is waxed. Then enamel and dentine porcelains referred as incisal and body porcelains.metal bond and mask the color of substructure. Shrinkage is minimal and the fired body is extremely weak or friable. a slight shine appears at this stage.7-8 METAL CERAMICS: The chief objection to the use of dental porcelain as a restorative material is its low strength under tensile and shears stress conditions. A definite shrinkage is evident. The grains of porcelain begin to soften and „lense‟ at their contact points. cast. Low bisque: The surface of porcelain is quite porous.

Some additive bond strength because of mechanical interlocking of porcelain under compression. Gold –palladium-silver alloys GOLD FREE: 1. Therefore metal porcelain bond can be classified into 3 main components: 1. Chemical MECHANICAL RETENTION: Depends upon good wetting of the metal or metal oxide surface by the porcelain.Palladium silver alloys BASE METAL ALLOY SYSTEM: 1. Mechanical 2.Seminar -3 TYPES OF METAL CERAMIC SYSTEMS A large number of metal-ceramic systems have been developed for the use in dentistry and they may be classified as follows: NOBLE METAL ALLOY SYSTEM: HIGH GOLD : 1. Rough surface enhances the bond resistance against induced shear stresses especially for base metal alloy system. Advantages of an air abraded surface over smooth surface for noble metal alloys and base metal alloys are: 1. Gold –platinum-palladium alloys 2. Gold –platinum-tantalum alloys LOW GOLD 1. Enhancement of wettability of the metal substrate by porcelain 2. Nickel chromium alloy 2. 25 . Cobalt –chromium alloys10 THE NATURE OF METAL CERAMIC BOND THE success of metal –ceramic crowns and fixed bridges depends upon the firmness of the bond between metal and ceramic. Compressive 3.

Steep interface angles that may not allow complete wetting and therefore result in air entrapment and voids at the metal ceramic interface. Increased surface area for porcelain chemical bonding Disadvantages are: 1. 3. at the metal ceramic interface 2. 2. Metal –oxide porcelain: The metal oxide porcelain at the metal oxide surface leaving the oxide firmly attached to the metal. May also be due to conyaminated or porous metal surfaces. Excessive roughness resulting in stress conc.8 TYPES OF METAL/ PORCELAIN FAILURE: 1. METAL –PORCELAIN: The interfacial fracture occurs leaving a clean surface of metal.seen when Metal surface is completely depleted of oxide prior to the baking of porcelain or when no oxides are available. CHEMICAL BONDING: A bulk diffusion of base metal atoms produces an oxide film on the metal surface which forms a chemical bond with porcelain. Metal –metal oxide: 26 . COMPRESSIVE STRESSES: COMPRESSIVE STRESSSES Developed during cooling of sintered porcelain veneer will also play a part in improving the bond strength. Common in base metal alloy system.Seminar -3 3.

Esthetic Dent 1997. 6.this is the most common frature in the high gold content alloys. 5. 4. such as Feldspathic porcelain. Metal oxide – metal oxide: This fracture occurs through the metal oxide at the interface and results from an over production of the oxide causing sandwitch effect between metal and porcelain. 9(2):86 Advantages • • • • • • • Increased translucency Improved fluorescence Greater contribution of color from the underlying tooth structure Inertness Biocompatibility Resistance to corrosion Low temperature / electrical conductivity 27 . Cohesive within metal This type of fracture would only occur in cases for eg. An ideal situation is created when the oxide film is only a few molecules thick and forms a solid solution with the porcelain. Most unlikely type of fracture for the individual metal –ceramic crown. alumina core systems and certain combination of these materials J. glass ceramic.Seminar -3 This is an interfacial fracture in which the metal oside breaks away from the metal substrate an d is left attached to the porcelain. Where the joint areas in the bridges breaks. Cohesive within the porcelain: This is the optimum type of fracture in which tensile failure occurs within the porcelain.10 ALL CERAMIC SYSTEMS The term of “All ceramic” refers to any restorative material composed excessively of ceramic. Common in base metal alloy system when there is over production of chromium and nickel oxide athe this case the bond strength exceeds the strength of porcelain.

Cerec. Dicor MGC. Infiltrated ceramic  In-Ceram 4. • Pressable Ceramic Systems: They are produced by molding under pressure and heat (IPS Empress. by bonding the aesthetic ceramic directly to the enamel and dentine. • Machinable Ceramic Systems: They are based on taking an optical impression of a patient‟s oral situation and have a restoration milled from a ceramic block chairside with CAD/CAM and copy-milling systems (Cerec Vitablocks. Conventional powder slurry ceramic  Hi Ceram – Alumina reinforced porcelain  Optec HSP – Leucite reinforced porcelain  Duceram LFC – Hydrothermal low fusing ceramic 2. Optec) ACCORDING TO supporting structure (Van Noort 2002)  Reinforced ceramic core systems: The support for the aesthetic ceramic is provided by another ceramic material. • Infiltrated Ceramic Systems: They are based on the principle of two infiltrated phases. Pressable ceramic  IPS Empress  Optec Pressable ceramic 3. Al 2 O 3 and a glass (In-Ceram). which has the necessary high strength and toughness‟ but may lack the desired aesthetics (In-Ceram.  Resin-bonded ceramic systems: The support of the ceramic is provided by the tooth structure itself. Procera All.Seminar -3 CLASSIFICATION7 1. Celay. Celay). Castable ceramic  DICOR  Cera Pearl 5. Rosenblum and Schulman 1997): 11 • Castable Ceramic Systems: They are modelled in a wax (Dicor. Mechinable ceramic  Cerec Vitablocs Mark I and II  Celay Blocks  DICOR MGC ACCORDING TO Crispin 1994.Ceram). Cerapearl). In this instance the ceramic provides the necessary aesthetics and the strength is provided by the ability to bond to 28 . Procera AllCeram.

These are based on the principle of dispersion strengthening i. to improve strength by Prevention of crack propagation.bonded ceramic restorations are varieties of glass –ceramics. A core structured is formed that has increased flexure Strength. The materials available for resin.Seminar -3 the tooth tissues. dispersing alumina Crystals of high strength and elasticity in a glass matrix. The 2 imp requirements when using these filler reinforced porcelains are: Bond between filler particles and matrix Identical CTE of the two phased If CTE of Glass matrix > alumina crystals. Conventional powder slurry ceramic ALUMINA REINFORCED PORCELAIN It was introduced by McLean and HUGES in 1965. Glass used for incorporating alumina crystals is BOROSILICATE GLASS Containing:  Silica  Alumina  Potash  Soda  Lime  Boric acid  Strength and opacity of aluminous porcelain is dependent on alumina crystal:  Size  Shape  Concentration SIZE OF ALUMINA CRYSTALS: 29 . For dental purpose single crystals of alumina are preferred over fine powdered alumina. to avoid excessive opacity which occurs because of difference in the refractive index of glass porcelain and alumina crystals.e. there would occur radial compression and tangential tension in the glass matrix on cooling resulting in decrease in Elasticity and strength. elasticity and fracture toughness compared to conventional porcelains.

7-8 LEUCITE REINFORCED PORCELAIN:  Commercially available as OPTEC HSP  Leucite conc. Uses:  Used both for incisal and body portions being more aesthetics Advantages:  Lack of metal or opaque substructure . but results in increased opacity. due to high difference in refractive index of the two component .higher than conventional Feldspathic porcelains 30 . is:50. Commercially available product is Hi-Ceram (Vita). being37 µm) that would allow light transmission of atleast 10-15% on 1 mm thick discs and fine enough to give sufficient strengths.Therefore more stronger than conventional Feldspathic porcelains. Grain size on average should be 25 µm (max. Uses: Forming refractory framework capable of supporting weaker. Shape: rounded grains are preferable over angular ones as latter interface with the flow of the glass Phase producing flaws around grains and reducing strength. defeating the esthetics. Coarse grain size: reduces strength because of the “notched effect” created on glass boundaries. Higher concentration Prevent complete flow and wetting by the glass matrix.good translucency  Moderate flexure strength . Concentration of alumina crystals should range from 40-50% by weight.  The buildup.Seminar -3 Finer the grain size: greater is strength . They are opaque.  Because of its increased strength it does not require core when used to fabricate All ceramic Restoration as is necessary with aluminous porcelain PJCs. more translucent Dentin and enamel Porcelain.6%  These porcelains contain dispersed LEUCITE {potassium aluminosilicates} in glassy Matrix. condensation and contouring is done using powder slurry technique on special semi permeable die material.which causes increased scattering of light.  Lecuite and glass matix are fused together during the baking process at 1020 C.

Seminar -3  Ability to be used without any special lab equipments Disadvantages:  Margins inaccuracy caused by porcelains sintering shrinkage  Potential to fracture in posterior teeth  High wear of opposing tooth due to high Leucite content No clinically published studies on Optec HSP DUCERAM LFC:  Also known as hydrothermal low fusing ceramics.  Properties: compared to Feldspathic porcelain  Greater density  Higher flexure strength  Greater fracture resistance  Lower hardness  Because of the absence of Leucite crystals.Lang BR. Restoration from Duceram LFC is made in 2 layers: The base layer is Duceram metal ceramics (Leucite containing porcelain) which is placed on refractory die using powder slurry technique and then baked at 930 C.  Available in variety of shades and can be characterized by variety of stains and modifiers. there are no clinical studies to substantiate the manufactures claim that the material is less abrasive than feldspathic porcelain.Beard CC.  It is a low fusing ceramic. the hardness of the materials and its ability to abrade the opposing natural tooth structure is reduced.  It is then strengthened by ion exchange mechanism involving h hydroxyl ions thus decreases the surface micro flaws and increase fracture resistance.  However. veeners. the result of 1 year clinical study recently conducted for manufacture r seems to indicate that the material wears at a rate equivalent to that of natural tooth enamel ( Showtwell J. composed of an amorphous glass containing hydroxyl ions. Over the base layer is Duceram LFC is applied using powder slurry technique and then baked at 660 C. However. Lang B. and full contour crowns PRESSABLE GLASS CERAMIC 31 .unpublished data 1990). USES: Ceramics inlays.

invested and placed in specialized mold that has an aluminium plunger.  The ceramic ingots are placed under the plunger.  The ingot are heated and molded under pressure to produce the restoration.  A full contour crown is waxed. OPTEC PRESSEABLE CERAMIC : 32 .  In the veneering technique.3 mm. causing increased strength and toughness. the original wax –up is cut by about 0. and then subjected to a heat treatment to induce partial devitrification (that is loss of glassy structure by crystallization of the glass).) IPS EMPRESS :  A leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic material was first described by Wohlwend and Scharer12  This type of Feldspathic porcelain is supplied in the ingot form.Seminar -3  IPS empress  Optec pressable ceramics A glass ceramics is material that is formed into desired shape as a glass. the entire assembly is heated to 1150C and the plunger presses the molten ceramic into the mold. feldspathic porcelain is added to the surface to obtain full contour and the correct shade.(pressing oven and die material. ADVANTAGES :      Lack of metal Translucent ceramic core Moderately high flexure strength Excellent fit Excellent aesthetics DISADVANTAGES:  Potential to fracture in posterior areas  Use of resin cement to bond crown micromechanically to tooth structure  Require special equipment. The crystalline particles.  The final shade of the crown is adjusted by staining or veneering.  After molding and baking as described. needles or plates formed during this ceramming process serve to interrupt the propagation of the cracks in the material when intraoral force is applied.

processed by molding under pressure and heat. for veenering conventional powder alurry techniques with high Leucite content Feldspathic porcelain. veneers. similar to Optec HSP porcelain. namely alumina (Al 2 O 3).11 INFILTERED CERAMICS: IN-CERAM  SADOUN developed INCERAM in 1985 In-ceram is supplied as one of the three core ceramics:  In-ceram spinnel  In-ceram alumina  In-ceram zirconia The slurry of one of these materials is slip cast on a porous refractory die and heated in the furnace to produce a partially sintered coping and framework.  Crystalline Leucite particle size is reduced and content is increased which result in increase in flexural strength  Because of high Leucite content abrasion of opposing natural teeth is high. 27 vol % glass and 5 vol % porosity12 The microstructure consists of blocky alumina grains of various sizes and shapes. bridging and crack deflection was reported with this type of 33 . The partially sintered core is infiltered with glass at 1100 C for 4 hours to eliminate porosity and to strengthen the slip cast core. 4 Thus A porous infrastructure is produced by slip-casting. 7.  Used for –  Full contour restoration : inlays. Three crystalline phases are available. spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) and Zirconia-alumina (12 Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 ). full crowns.  Can be used as core material. Evidence of grain pull-out. one composed of the glassy phase and the other being the crystalline infrastructure. sintered.8 Alumina-based slip-cast ceramics contain 68 vol % alumina. and later infiltrated with a lanthanum-based glass.Seminar -3  Type of Feldspathic porcelain with increased lecucite content.8. producing two interpenetrating continuous networks.

accompanied by micro crack nucleation. Spinel-based slip-cast ceramics offer better translucency . with about 8 vol % residual porosity . The glass phase represents approximately 23 vol % of the final product. The presence of large alumina crystals with a high refractive index. at the expense of mechanical properties Zirconia-toughened alumina slip-cast ceramics comprise 34 vol % alumina and 33 vol % of 12 mol % ceria-stabilized zirconia (12Ce-TZP). as well as circumferential tensile stresses around the grains. account for some degree of opacity in this all-ceramic system. The dual crystalline reinforcement in this system allows two types of strengthening mechanisms: (1) The stress-induced transformation in zirconia grains produces compressive stresses within the transformed grains and surrounding glassy matrix. contact shielding and crack bridging are expected from the presence of large alumina grains The combination of these two strengthening mechanisms explains why alumina-zirconia slip-cast ceramics offer the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness of all slip-cast ceramics.onlays crowns and veeners. similar to that of lithium disilicate heat-pressed ceramics. Transgranular fracture is difficult in zirconia. In clinical situations where maximum translucency is needed In ceram alumina: Anterior and posterior crowns Anterior 3 unit prosthesis 34 . this represents an efficient strengthening mechanism. and a non-negligible amount of porosity.Seminar -3 ceramic indicative of efficient crystalline reinforcement. INDICATION: In-ceram spinnel: Anterior single unit inlays. and accounting for mechanical properties in the range of heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. (2) Crack deflection. It has also been suggested that the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the alumina crystals and the infiltration glass could contribute to strengthening due thermal residual stresses.

which packs the particles into a rigid network. This solution of alumina is referred to as “slip” which is then painted onto the gypsum die with a brush. Fabrication Procedure An All-Ceramic restoration system INCERAM is based on the slip casting of an alumina core with its subsequent glass infusion. The INCERAM aluminous glass ceramic produced by lanthanum glass infiltration is about 50% translucent as dentin. This should be in air environment as recommended by the manufacture. The alumina powder is mixed with deionized water supplied in pre-measured container.Seminar -3 Inceram zirconia: Because of high strength and fracture toughness it is indicated for posterior crowns and FPD.2% thus an interconnected porous network is created connecting pores on the outer surface with those on the inner surface. After the impression is taken the die is poured with special gypsum supplied with INCERAM. The cycle involves a slow heating of approximately 2oC/min to 1120oC for 2 hours to produce approximation of the particles with minimal compaction and minimal shrinkage of alumina. The water is removed by the capillary action of the porous gypsum. The external surface of the core is placed on the glass. This mixture is sonicated in VITASONIC thus initiating the dispersion process. Dispensing agent is added to create a homogenous mix of alumina in water. which is heated in the IN-CERMET to 1100oC for 4-6 hours. Then vacuum is applied to remove the air bubbles. The glass is mixed with water and placed on a platinum – gold alloy sheet. The last step is fabrication of INCERAM restoration involves application of aluminous porcelain to the core to produce the final form of restoration. then the INCERAM ALUMINA is applied onto the die. 35 . Low viscosity lanthanum aluminosilicate glass is used to fill the pores in the alumina. The excess glass is removed by sandblasting with alumina particles. The alumina is built up to form a core for the ceramic tooth. The glass becomes molten and flows into the pores by capillary diffusion. The low viscosity lanthanum glass is used to infiltrate the alumina core in INCERAM. Sintering is only about 0. The aluminous core is then placed in the IN-CERAMET furnace and sintered.

0 0.  These crystals function in 2 ways:  They create a relatively opaque material out of the initially transparent crown and increase the fracture resistance and strength of the ceramic. DICOR. This heat treatment is known as ceramming causes partial crystallization (55%) of tetrasilic mica like crystals. PROPERTY Density. DICOR 2.4 0. was developed by corning glass works and marketed by Dentsply international. Classification of Castable Dental Glass Ceramics:  Flucoromicas Dicor  Apatite glass ceramics pearl  Other glass ceramics Lithia .56 22000 120000 FELDSPATHIC ENAMEL PORCELAIN 3.48 1500 58000 2.cm3 Translucency Modulus of rupture psi Compressive strength.Seminar -3 In clinical situations where there is a discolored preparation or a cast post and core this increased opacity over the dentin is advantageous were as when maximum translucency is necessary INCERAM ALUMINA is problematic. Properties The physical properties of DICOR are given in the table.27 11000 25000 36 . g.  The fabrication method uses lost wax and centrifugal casting technique similar to those used to fabricate alloy castings.  Crystals are also less abrasive to opposing tooth structure.Calcium Phosphate DICOR  A Polycrystalline glass ceramic is a material that is formed into the desired shape as a glass and subsequently heat-treated under controlled conditions to induce partial devitrification.7 0. CASTABLE GLASS CERAMIC The first commercially available castable ceramic material for dental use.  A full contour transparent glass crown is cast at 1350 C then is heat treated at 1075 C for 10 hours.

37 . These coarse grained opaque porcelains generally promote the adherence of plaque. 2. Application of an external coloring system allows independent control over hue.2 343 12. Two reasons for this property are: a. psix106 Microhardness 10. as mentioned before. Little wear of the cast ceramic or the opposing dentition occurs when using DICOR restorations. In addition. chroma and value.2 362 12. Precision Of Fit The resistance of DICOR to chemicals and staining agents also compares favourably with conventional feldspathic porcelains. The DICOR shading porcelains contain minimal abrasive opacifying agents. However. The periodontal tissue reaction to DICOR is considered quite favorable because 1. the castable ceramic permits a one-piece restoration made entirely of the same material. The absence of an opaque layer allows the technician to obtain natural contouring often found in metal ceramic restorations. which closely matches that of natural enamel. b. and no opaque substructure exists to impede light scattering. A chameleon effect is seen with DICOR restorations in which the restoration acquires a part of the color from adjacent teeth and fillings as well as the underlying cement lute. there are chances of losing this external layer thereby defeating the best of esthetics.0 450 Esthetic Qualities DICOR restorations are highly esthetic because of their translucency. The numerous small mica crystals that constitute castable ceramic closely match the index of refraction to the surrounding glass phase.Seminar -3 psi Modulus of Elasticity. which closely matches that of natural tooth enamel. Closely matching hardness between the cast ceramic material and natural enamel. There is no need for opaque porcelains to mask the metal substructure. Little discomfort occurs on contact with hot or cold foods because of its extremely low thermal conductivity and a coefficient of thermal expansion. Tissue Acceptance DICOR is chemically inert and has shown to pass all the biocompatibility tests.

Chances of losing low fusing feldspathic shading porcelains. MgO (5%) helps in the formation of hydroxyapatite and along with CaO decreases the viscosity of the compound when melted. which have been applied for good colour matching. Inherent resistance to plaque accumulation (seven times less than on the natural tooth surfaces). SiO2 and traces of other elements. Excellent aesthetics resulting from natural translucency 8. Can reproduce wax patterns precisely by using the lost wax technique 5. The Young‟s modulus. onlay. complete crowns and possibly partial tooth coverage restorations. Ease of adjustment 7.Seminar -3 Radiographic Qualities The radiographic density of DICOR is similar to that of enamel allowing proper evaluation of the underlying structures and the margins. Excellent marginal fit 2. MgO. Physical properties • • Coefficient of thermal expansion: 11. Cera Pearl is quite biocompatible. Advantages 1. Relatively high strength 3. ceramming and colouring 6. Uses Inlays.0 x 10-6/oC. tensile strength and compressive strength of Cera Pearl are appreciably higher than conventional porcelains. SiO2(34%) in combination with P2O5 forms the matrix. Simple uncomplicated fabrication from wax up to casting. P2O5. They are essential for formation of hydroxylapatite crystals as well. Disadvantages 1. CaO(45%) and P2O5 (15%) are the main ingredients in glass formation. Because the crystalline constituent is similar to natural enamel.  Cera Pearl is composed of CaO. CERA PEARL  Castable apatite ceramic was first developed by Hobo and Bioceram Group as CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2 glass ceramic. Young‟s modulus – 103 Gpa 38 . Surface hardness and occlusal wear is similar to enamel 4. It is not indicated for fixed partial denture or removable partial denture abutments with deep rests or internal attachments. Further SiO2 regulates the thermal properties.

A12O3. The use of a shrink-free ceramic coping formed on an epoxy die by a transfer molding process overcomes the limits and firing shrinkage of conventionally 39 .Seminar -3 • Casting shrinkage – 0. It is fabricated using lost wax technique and then injection molding to produce a coping. Calcium phosphate glass ceramic • • Reported by Kihara and others Combination of calcium phosphate and phosphosus pentoxide plus trace elements • Cast at 1050°C in gypsum investment mold • Clear cast crown is converted to a crystalline ceramic by heat treating at 645°C for 12 hours Disadvantages • Weaker than other castable ceramics • Opacity reduces the indication for use in anterior teeth SHRINK FREE CERAMIC CERESTORE It is a shrink-free alumina crown developed by the Coors Biomedical Co.53% • Flexural strength similar to Dicor • Biological properties – Dense material. MgAl2O4 spinell and an alpha-alumina oxide make the core replaced by Alceram. PH similar to natural enamel • Non toxic / biocompatible Lithia based glass ceramic Developed by Urgu Composition: It contains mica crystals and Beta spodumene crystals of LiO.4SiO2 after heat treatment. chemically stable. and later sold to Johnson & Johnson.

ceramic or a polymer pattern and transfers the traced special positions to a cutting station. he began to fabricate crowns with an optical impression of abutment followed by designing and milling. an innovative approach to fabricate same day restorations at the chair side in the dental office.Anderson developed Procera System He attempted to fabricate titanium copings by spark erosion and introduced CAD/CAM technology into the process of composite veneered restorations.  Later he developed Sopha system. strength and wear properties are similar to Feldspathic porcelain used for PFM restorations  Cerec Vitablocks Mark II This is feldspathic porcelains of increased strength and has finer grain size the mark I composition. Flexural strength: It is approximately 150 Mpa. Mormann developed CEREC System. The different types of ceramic ingots used in the process as follows: 11  Cerec vitablocks Mark I: This is a feldspathic porcelain which was the first composition used with the Cerec system (Siemens).  Dr. MACHINABLE CERAMICS: Brief history:  Development of CAD-CAM (Computer Assisted Design-Computer Aided Manufacturing) system for the dental profession began in 1970‟s with DURET in France.  From 1971. ALTSCHULER in US & BRANDESTINI in Switzerland.its composition.  This system later developed as a processing center networked with satellite digitizers around the world for the fabrication of all ceramic frameworks13 Machinable ceramic:  CAD/CAM ceramics: a ceramic restoration fabricated by use of a computer aided design and computer aided milling  Copy milled ceramics: a process of milling a structure using a device that traces the surface of a metal.Seminar -3 produced aluminous porcelain jacket crowns.  Dr. The Cerestore coping is veneered with conventional aesthetic porcelain. 40 .

the operator records multiple images within seconds.procuses less abrasive wear. With Cerec 1 and Cerec 2.0±33.5 µm ±19.Cerec introduced in 1980s. enabling clinician to prepare multiple teeth in same quadrant and create a virtual cast for the entire quadrant. which is used by the milling device to create the shape from a restorative material CAD CAM SYSTEMS: CEREC : An acronym for chair side economic reconstruction of esthetic ceramic . CAD/ CAM process:  A CAD/CAM system utilizes a process chain consisting of scanning. an optical scanner is used to scan the prepared tooth or impression and a 3-D image is generated on monitor.  Dicor MGC (Dentsply L.  Celay: Can be used CAD-CAM produced restorations or used in the copy-milled technique. The coping is glass infiltrated and veneer porcelain added. It has greater flexural strength than castable Dicor and Cerec composition. It is a fine grained Feldspathic porcelain with reduced wear of opposing tooth . Cerec in-lab is a lab system in which dies are laser scanned and image displayed on screen. In vitro evaluation of marginal adaptation of crown of cerec 3-D (47. Designed restoration is transmitted to a remote milling unit for fabrication. designing and milling phases. The computer translates this information into a 3-D map (point could).8 µm) 41 .Seminar -3 Less abrasive wear of the opposing teeth. A milling unit is used to prepare the restoration.D caulk Division): This is a machinable glass ceramic composed of flurosilicic mica crystals in a glass matrix. With newer Cerec 3-D. improved Cerec 2 introduced in 1996 and the advanced 3-D Cerec 3 in 2000.  The operator designs a restoration shape using the computer which generates a tool path. After designing VITA In-cream blocks are used for milling.5 µm) was better compared with cerec 2 (97.  The scanning device converts the shape of the prepared teeth into three dimensional (3-D) units of Information (voxels).

It is one of the few systems that can mill titanium and fully dense sintered zirconia. which is sintered at 1. Veneering is done with a low fusing. a precision 42 . This enlargement compensates for sintering shrinkage. leucite free cercon Ceram to provide esthetic contour. It can scan 14 dies simultaneously and mill up to 30 frameworks unit in one fully automated operation.350°C for 6-8 hrs. An in vitro study showed that marginal discrepancies of alumina and ziroconia based posterior fixed partial denture machined by the DCS system was between 60 µm to 70µm CERCON: Commonly referred to as a CAM system. PROCERA ALL CERAM SYSTEM Introduced in 1994. Aluminum oxide powder is compacted on the die and coping is milled before sintering at a very high temp (>1550°C).3 µm respectively. metal and Ceramic sintering and computer assisted milling to obtain restoration. This enlargement compensates for sintering shrinkage. The DCS software automatically suggests connector sizes and pontic forms for bridges. Basic reconstruction includes layered life like ceramic for natural esthetics. Marginal adaptation for cercon all ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures was reported 31. Once the master die is scanned the 3-D images is transferred through an internet link to processing center where an enlarged die is milled by a computer controlled milling machines. it does not have a CAD component. The system scans the wax pattern and mills a zirconia bridge coping from presintered zirconia blanks. it is the first system which provided outsourced fabrication using a network connection.3µm and 29. it includes optical scanning. Aluminum oxide powder is compacted on the die and coping is milled by a computer controlled milling machines. The coping is sent back to the lab for porcelain veneering.Seminar -3 DCS PRECIDENT: Comprises of a Preciscan laser Scanner and Precimill CAM multitool milling centre. According to research data average marginal gap for Procera all Ceram restoration ranges from 54 µm to 64 µm CICERO SYSTEM (COMPUTER INTEGRATED CROWN RECONSTRUCTION) Introduced by Denison et al in 1999.

HOYA ConBio) is used to expose Subgingival margins. The aim of CICERO is to mass produce ceramic restoration at one integrated site. Lava system uses a laser optical system to digitize information. CAM produces an enlarged framework to compensate shrinkage. DioDent Micro 980. The Lava CAD software automatically finds the margin and suggests a pontic. The soft tissue diode laser offer precision. 43 . LAVA CAD/CAM SYSTEM Introduced in 2002. used for fabrication of zirconia framework for all ceramic restorations. Ivoclar Vivadent. Studies on marginal adaptation of Y-TZP bridges processed with Lava system for 2 milling times (75 mins Vs 56 mins) did not affect the 16 marginal adaptat CAD/CAM Restorative Technique: 15  Consists of Handheld scanning device that digitally records the form and margins of the preparation. This system uses yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia poly crystals (YTZP) which have greater fracture resistance than conventional ceramics. GENTLEray 980. A partially sintered ziroconia block is selected for milling. It includes rapid custom fabrication of high strength alumina coping and semi finished crowns to be delivered to dental laboratories for porcelain layering / finishing. Kavo. Milled framework undergoes sintering to attain final dimensions.  The soft tissue diode laser (Odyssey Navigator. and produces good hemostasis. density and strength. that result in a narrow band of lased tissue.Seminar -3 milled occlusal surface and a machined high strength ceramic core.  The scanners require a dry field and soft tissue that must be thoroughly separate at the level of the margin from the hard tissue.

the clinician must ensure that all margins of the cavity are captured by the scan and visualized. strong material requiring minimal post-milling esthetic adjustment to minimize Chairside time is needed.Seminar -3 SOFT TISSUE DIODE LASER  Alternative soft tissue management techniques include electro surgery and standard manual retraction technique. Paradigm C. Sirona. D4D TECH). E4D. 3M ESPE) lithium disilicate glass ceramics (IPS e. the clinician can see the preparation magnified on the computer screen as the scan is being processed. an esthetic. a very thin layer of powder is distributed over the preparation using the CEREC system. while the E4D uses a laser in the handheld scanning device  A third system.  Two basic techniques can be utilized for CAD/CAM restorations.  Prior to scanning. Ivoclar Vivadent. Ivoclar Vivadent) Advantages         One-visit fixed restorative procedure No impression making No temporary restoration required Reduced potential for tooth sensitization No laboratory costs No model or die pouring Accuracy Less opportunity for error compared to traditional technique 44 . Leucite-reinforced glass ceramics (IPS Empress CAD.  For Chairside CAD/CAM restorations. and milling technique prior to laboratory finishing of the restoration.  During scanning.  Chairside – a single-visit technique  Integrated Chairside—laboratory CAD/CAM Procedure. CICERO.max. sintering.  Depending on the system used. Chairside CAD/CAM Technique:  The chairside technique involves scanning the preparation and then fabricating the restoration in the milling device (CEREC 3. was developed in The Netherlands and used a pressing.  The CEREC 3 uses still images.

ANTERIOR ESTHETIC ZONE15 Maxillary incisor pretreatment CAD/CAM milled & finished restoration Finished CAD/CAM restoration placed 45 . customization may be required  High learning curve  Higher production required to cover capital investment CASE 1.Seminar -3  Aids prep visualization  Projects a state-of-the-art image Disadvantages  Less conservative than direct composite fillings  Slightly less exacting fit than laboratory-made  Esthetic capabilities are limited 14  Soft tissue management more critical than with traditional technique  Depending on the material and patient.

Seminar -3 CASE 2. REPLACEMENT OF FAILING AMALGAMS CAD/CAM conservative preparation design preserves more of the natural tooth structure compared with a crown and offers the clinical longevity of gold without the esthetic drawbacks. the CEREC ceramic will recreate a tooth like strength Amalgam restoration and caries pre-treatment preparation. When using the current generation bonding adhesives according to the manufacturer‟s instructions. Completed esthetic CAD/CAM restoration (IPSempress CAD) 46 .

 ceramic blocks for laboratory-milled restorations are available as Zirconia (zirconium oxide) and lithium disilicate glass blocks.Seminar -3 INTEGRATED CHAIRSIDE—LABORATORY CAD/CAM TECHNIQUE  Requires two visits. or can take a traditional impression.  CEREC Connect (Sirona) and iTero (Cadent) scans either take a series of stills and send the digital image either to a laboratory for milling of the restoration (CEREC Connect).  Chairside scanning of a preparation and digital transmission to the laboratory can be achieved by several systems. or for milling of the coping at the manufacturer‟s lab (iTero). Advantages         Automates steps or all of fixed restorative fabrication Accuracy Less opportunity for error compared to traditional technique Opportunity to subcontract CAD/CAM to avoid capital costs Opportunity to focus on artistic ceramics Scanned image transferred directly to the laboratory from the office Reduced Chairside time Team approach to fixed restorations Disadvantages  Requires two visits 47 .  The external ceramic layer can be created either using press ceramics (in the same manner as for a traditional bridge) or layering ceramic material onto the substructure using a !ne brush and powder/liquid.  The clinician either can scan the preparation directly and then send the scan to the laboratory. after which a stone model is poured and the laboratory scans the stone model.

Seminar -3 Case Presentation: Integrated Chairside— Laboratory Technique Preoperative view: discolored central incisor with disparity in color crown and veneer preparation Scanning image from dental office CAD/CAM 48 impression milled using .

Seminar -3 In lab image of crown In lab image of veneer design Poured model and CAD milled wax restoration CAD ceramic blocks used for the Milled restoration ceramic layering in process 49 .

 Duceram LFC.  IPS Empress>Optec HSP>Optec OPC>Dicor> Duceram 50 . MARGINAL FIT With exception of the machined ceramics restoration.Compenstion for discrepancy or gaps can be made by using resin cements. 4. strengthened by dispersion of Leucite crystals throughout their internal structure. all ceramic system use specialcialized equipments and techniques. strengthened by an ion exchange mechanism involving hydroxyl ions. WEAR OF OPPOSING TOOTH STRUCTURE:  All of the Leucite containing all ceramic materials wears opposing natural tooth.  IPS Empress and Optec pressable ceramic.  In-ceram has highest flexural strength values for all the ceramic system and can be used for multiple unit bridges. So can be considered disadvantage because of the added cost of fabrication. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES: With exception of Optec HSP and Duceram system. the fit of the all ceramic crowns to the underlying tooth structure is extremely accurate. STRENGTH:  All systems have adequate strength for single units but significantly less than that of ceramic metal crowns. 2.Seminar -3 Final seated crown and veneer COMPARISON OF THE ALL CERAMIC SYSTEMS: 11 1.  Dicor is strengthened through the partial recrystallization of the glass through a ceramming process.  Ability of bonding to tooth structure provides additional strengthening mechanism. 3.

It provides an essential depth of translucency in the cervical root areas  Excellent biocompatibility and does not exhibit galvanic corrosion DISADVANTAGE:  Relatively low fracture strength and fracture toughness. Almost simultaneously with the introduction of the current all-ceramic systems. thus altering the appearance of thin gingival tissue.Procera.'' Furthermore. Dental Ceramic material used for all ceramic post and core Ø Ø Ø Conventional dental ceramics High toughness ceramic . the use of the all posts and cores was suggested as an alternative to solve the esthetic problems that metal posts and cores exhibit.Seminar -3 ALL-CERAMIC POSTS AND CORES: Endodontically treated teeth often need a post and core as foundation for the final restoration.In ceram. corrosion products may deposit in the gingival tissues or cause root discoloration. ADVANTAGES:  Dentine like shade it is related to the deeper diffusion and absorption of the transmitted light in the ceramic core mass  An all ceramic restorations transmits a certain percentage of the incident light to the ceramic core and the post on which it has been placed thus the color of the final restorations will be derived from an internal shade similar to optical behavior of the natural teeth  Does not reflect intensively through thin gingival tissues.' In addition. Depending on the thickness and the opacity of the luting cement and the all-ceramic restoration. the metal post and core may shine through or at least decrease the depth of translucency of the restoration. especially when nonprecious alloys are used for post-and-core fabrication. 51 .' The restoration of anterior nonvital teeth with metal posts and cores and all-ceramic restorations may lead to compromised aesthetics because of the semi translucence of ceramics and the opacious metal substructure of the underlying post and core. Dense sintered alumina ceramic . metal posts may also shine through in the cervical root areas. well as for copy-milled In-Ceram posts and cores. as an alternative to the slipcasting technique.  Used only in wide root canals without a crucial reduction of the circumferential dentin structure. In-Ceram. TWO-PIECE TECHNIQUE: Because the fracture strength of In-Ceram posts and cores is less than that of metal posts and cores. InCeram ceramic does not seem to provide a sufficient strength. This method can be used for inlay. In-Ceram ceramic restorations made with the Celay method present a 10% higher flexural strength (about 500 iVlPa) than do conventional In-Ceram restorations. for that reason. until 52 .Ceram posts and cores have only been recommended for wide root canals. veneer.Seminar -3 Ø Zirconium oxide ceramics Techniques or construction of all ceramic post and core with high toughness ceramic materials Ø Slip casting technique Ø Copy milling technique Ø Two piece technique  Heat press technique SLIP CASTING TECHNIQUE:  described by Kem and Knode in 1991  core buildup and post are made in 1 piece from the aluminum oxide ceramic material. COPY MILLING RECHNIQUE: the glass-infiltrated alumina ceramic.and crown-and-bridge framework fabrication. The Celay system involves a rnanually guided copy-milling process in which a predesigned resin pattern is surface traced and copied in ceramic. and its fabrication process have been adapted to the Celay copy-milling method (Mikrona)." The cases of regular root canals (smaller than ISO 110). onlay. Vita Zahnfabrik). The ceramic substructures are prefabricated blanks made of presintcrcd aluminum oxide ceramic (Celay Alumina Blanks. In.

Transducers utilizing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based piezoelectric ceramics are the heart of ultrasonic systems. promote tissue formation and provide protection from the immune system. Ivoclar) is heat. For a 2-piece post-and. it became possible to combine both materials. The applications are based on the fact that when used as implants or even as coatings to metal replacements. After the recent development of zirconia ceramic posts. Moreover. Ivoclar).Seminar -3 presently. The zirconia ceramic posts are commercially available in three ISO sizes (050. and therefore both materials are fused into a solid post-and-core restoration.core construction a post made of yttrium oxide-partially stabilized zirconia (ER-Cerapost. Gadgets for Dental Applications. and other body parts . knees.pressed over a prefabricated zirconium dioxide post (Cosmo Post. 090. These transducers generate the ultrasonic acoustic waves and detect the reflected signals to form the image. Brasseler) is used in conjunction with an all-ceramic core made of alumina or alumina-magnesia'-* ceramics. 53 . a castable. 110} and supplement the existing ER-Post system (Brasseler). modern ceramic materials play an important role in gadgets used for medical diagnosis including both ultrasonic and X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems. precerammed Leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic material is heated and pressed in an investment mold after the burnout of the wax analog (lost-wax technique). HEAT-PRESS TECHNIQUE The heat-press technique has recently found application to an all-ceramic post-and-core construction.diseased heart valves. ceramic materials can stimulate bone growth. fabricated either by the copy-milling or the slip-casing technique.17 OTHER APPLICATION OF CERAMICS Ceramics in Medical Applications Ceramics are employed in a wide range in the medical specialty such as repair and replacement of human hips. a glass-ceramic core (EmpressCosmo. In this system. In the heat-press technique. It is based on the well-known IPS Empress system (Ivoclar). an all-ceramic post and core was not recommended for such eases.

The hard. Polycrystalline (Hydroxyapatite) Glass (Bioactive glass) Glass ceramics (Ceravital) Composites (Stainless steel reinforced Bioglass) Types of Bioceramics There are about four types of bioceramics: INERT: Attached by compact morphological fixation. granular and injectable forms. Conversely. Porous Alumina.impedance based 3rd generation . when an electric field is applied. chemical and piezoelectric characteristics able to be tailored to specific applications. the structure changes shape producing dimensional changes in the material. Alumina. Bioglass.Seminar -3 Various recently introduced diagnostic and working tools of which ceramics play an integral part include: Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) Pulp tester Apex locators 1st generation . The piezoelectric materials use polycrystalline ceramics instead of natural piezoelectric crystals.g. e. which are biologically active materials rich in calcium and phosphate. The various forms of bioceramics are Single crystals (Sapphire). Hydroxyapatite 54 . Piezo Ceramics Piezoelectricity can be defined as pressure electricity which is a property of certain classes of crystalline materials including natural crystals of Quartz. Carbon POROUS: Attached by vascularisation through pores. SURFACE ACTIVE: Directly attach by chemical bonding with bone. Rochelle salt and Tourmaline plus manufactured ceramics such as Barium Titanate and Lead Zirconate Titanates (PZT).g.resistance based. 2nd generation . Bioceramics Bioceramics are a group of ceramics. These bioactive materials are packed in the required site providing a scaffold for new bone growth and are Osseo-inductive in nature. dense ceramics can be manufactured in almost any given shape or size. When mechanical pressure is applied to one of these materials. the crystalline structure produces a voltage proportional to the pressure. which are chemically inert and immune to moisture and other atmospheric conditions. They are more versatile with physical. e.g. Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate are similar in composition to bone and teeth and can be used for augmentation of alveolar ridges and filling bony defects. They are manufactured and are available in block.e.frequency based.

9. Dent Clin North Am.quintessence publ. 5.Piddock V. Chu S.Seminar -3 RESORBABLE Designed to be slowly replaced by bone.Ceramics update.Chicago. 51(3): 713–727. Recent Advances in Materials for All-Ceramic Restorations.chapter 19. 8. Ahmad I. 11th Edition.J Am Dent Assoc 1997.Mclean JW: The science and art of dental ceramics. 3. Ceramics for Dental restoration –An introduction. Trend Biomater. Historical perspectives of synthetic ceramics and traditional Feldspathic porcelain.1979. Dyna 2010. 17(9):593-598.There is no doubt that new materials and processing routes will continue to be developed and that ceramics will play a growing role in the provision of aesthetic restorations. Giordano R.J Dent 1997. J Prosthet Dent 1996 . 77(163):26-36.Rosenblum MA. Dental news 1999. The Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 6. 2007.g. Sukumaran VG. 11. Ceramics in Dentistry : historical roots and current perspectives. Griggs JA. Tricalcium Phosphate4 CONCLUSION: There has been a revolution in the provision of ceramics for dental restorations in the last 15 years. Wahadni AA.1st edition.textbook of operative dentistry. Ceramics in dental applications. Dental porcelain: composition. 2.types.25:91 55 . Al-Ajlouni RF. 128:297-307 12.1. McLaren EA Ceramics Overview: Classification by Microstructure and Processing Methods. Bharadwaj N. Nishimura I. Monteiro FJ.Organs2006. Sikri V.glazing and clinical applications. such that now all-ceramic restorations can be used both anteriorly and posteriorly. Santander SA. Khasawneh S. REFERNCES 1.Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2005. Phillips Science of Dental Materials.pg439-481. USA. Therefore need for dental practitioners to be aware of the rapidly changing field of dental ceramics to ensure that the correct choice is made for each patient. 4. Pennsylvania. Vargas AP.e.p. Schulman .vol. Tamayo LFR. 75 :18-32.6(3):33-37. Chapter 21. Escobar JS. 7.Artif. 20(1):7-11.CBS publishers & didtributors.Qualtrough AJE . Campbell SD. New Delhi India. Kelly JR.72. WB Saunders review of all ceramic restorations. pg692. Anuvanice KJ (Ed) Phillips RW. 10.

Sneha SM. Ritter.André V. 2002 15. All ceramic posts and cores: the state of the art.James Klim. Ceramics for Dental Applications: Review Materials 2010. . 17. 3.II Issue 3 July – Sept.Innovation in Dentistry: CAD/CAM Restorative Procedures 16. Bhasin. 1999.Denry S.Seminar -3 13.Koutayas SO. Abhilasha S. Kern M. 30(6):383-392.Chairside CAD/CAM in Dentistry JERD15( 2 ). Holloway JA. Corrales KV . 351-368. 56 .CAD/CAM in dental restorations: an overview Annals and Essences of Dentistry Vol. 2010 14. Quintessence international.

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