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A Control Strategy of Hybrid Active Filter to Compensate Unbalanced Load in Three-Phase ThreeWire Power System

Yen-Ching Wang

Dept. of Electrical Engineering National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, TAIWAN diodeathdeath@yahoo.com.tw

Tzung-Lin Lee

Dept. of Electrical Engineering National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, TAIWAN tllee@mail.ee.nsysu.edu.tw

AbstractThis paper presents a control strategy of hybrid active filter for compensation of the three-phase three-wire industrial power system considering unbalanced loading. In addition to harmonic current compensation, the hybrid filter is designed to compensate both positive- and negative-sequence reactive power based on the so-called instantaneous power theory. Therefore, the compensated system behaves as a resistive network even in a reactive, nonlinear, or unbalanced circuit. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are given to verify effectiveness of the proposed method. Keywords- Active filter; Unbalanced load

frequency-tuned LC filter and an active filter, is connected in parallel at the point of the common coupling (PCC). In the proposed method, the definition of the negative-sequence power [7] is applied to estimate the reactive power induced by the unbalanced load, while improve the accuracy of the conventional real and reactive power estimation. The hybrid active filter is designed to dynamically compensate the corresponding reactive power and harmonic current in case of load varying. Experimental results obtained from a laboratory platform verify the proposed method. II. OPERATION PRICIPLES

I.

INTRODUCTION

Various compensating methods have been presented for power quality problems in the power system. Multi- or singletuned passive filter is usually installed to filter out harmonic current of nonlinear loads and also provides power factor correction for industrial facilities [1], [2]. Power electronic based solutions, such as active power filters, were widely researched in order to enhance compensating performance and flexibility. S hunt hybrid active filter, composed of a tuned passive filter and a voltage source inverter, was proposed for harmonic filtering in the medium-voltage applications [3], [4]. Since the series capacitor of shunt hybrid active filter is able to sustain the fundamental component of the grid voltage, the active filter can operate with reduced kVA rating of power switching devices, compared with the pure shunt active filter. Hybrid active front-end converter with power flow control strategies were presented for interface converters of distributed generation systems in [5], [6]. In which, the reactive power flow can be controlled by providing the orthogonal valtge based on the instantaneous power theory. When unbalanced loading, the negative sequence current will induce extra negative-sequence reactive power [7] and cause the disturbances which may r educe the accuracy of the devices and controls. The negative impact of voltage unbalance on induction motor has been studied in [8] [9]. However, no so much research is related to compensation of unbalanced load. This paper proposes a control strategy of shunt hybrid active filter for reactive power compensation considering unbalanced load. The hybrid active filter, being composed of a harmonic-

Fig.3. shows the simplified circuit diagram of the hybrid active filter in industrial system and the proposed control block diagram. An unbalanced load, inductive loads and a diode rectifier are considered. The hybrid active filter is installed in parallel at the PCC, and the hybrid filter is composed of a LC passive filter and a voltage source inverter in series connection. The LC filter functions capacitive and draws amount of leading current at system frequency, then the active filter in series modifies this output reactive power according to the load condition. The control block diagram mainly includes reference current generator for positive- and negative-sequence reactive power compensation, harmonic compensator and a dc bus controller, while a modified instantaneous power calculation provides the load and filter reactive power for the reference current generator. Finally, the obtained reference filter current synthesizes the switching signals through the current control and the PWM. The following section deals with the composition of reference filter current and overall control algorithm. A. Definition of Negative-Sequence Power This section introduces the four components of the fundamental power. They are active and reactive positivesequence components P and Q and the two components of the negative-sequence power SD and SQ [7]. The three-phase balanced voltages Vabc and the unbalanced currents iabc are considered in the three-phase system, where the unbalanced currents including positive- and negativesequence components. These instantaneous phase voltages and

This research is funded by the National Science Council of TAIWAN under grant NSC100-2628-E-110-005.

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3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 2012

S Lq S Fq S Ld S Fd

PI

N* iFde

PI

N* iFqe

abc to dqe - t

N iF *

Vs

Ls

is

Vabc

IL

iF QL QF

N iF *

CF LF vF RL2 LL2

PI

P* iFde * VF

Linear Load

iL

abc to dq

HPF

P* iFqe

abc to dqe t

* iF

KP

P iF *

PWM

RL3

Unbalance Load

iF

vdc* vdc

PI Vabc

PLL

Figure 1. The proposed control block diagram and the hybrid active filter circuit.

the currents are converted into - coordinates by applying Clark Transformation. Then the four electrical quantities [ p, q, sd, sq ] are defined as:

Where SF and SB present the amplitude of the positiveand negative-sequence apparent power, and p, n are their phase angles. It is clear that

p q sd sq

vD v E vD vE

vE vD iD vE iE vD

B

(2)

F * e j 2 Zt

(5)

This means that the first term SBe-j Q of B in (4), which are dc components, equals to the second term of F in (3) by applying a coordinate transformation e j 2Zt . B. Power Detection Fig. 2 shows the block diagram for detecting P, Q, SD and SQ. It can be realized simply by adding LPFs (low pass filters) and/or band-reject-filters to filter the ac components, especially components in (3)(4). However, the filters with both a small tracking time and a significant attenuating characteristic are difficult to be realized. According to (5), when P and Q are applied the coordinate transformation e j 2Zt , the results will equal to the components of sd and sq in (4). Based on this characteristic, the proposed block diagram in Fig. 2 feedbacks the estimated P, Q, SD and SQ with coordinate transformations to eliminate the components in [ p, q, sd , sq ], before the LPFs are applied. For instance, P and Q eliminate the components of sd and sq, while SD and SQ reduce the components of p and q. This feedback topology improves the frequency attenuating characteristic of the entire power detecting diagram.

Where the v , v , i and i are the instantaneous phase voltages and the current in - coordinates. The arguments p and q are the instantaneous real and imaginary powers defined by Akagi et al. [11], while the arguments sd and sq are defined as the negative-sequence powers. These negative-sequence powers are generated by the assumed negative-sequence voltage [ v , -v ] and the actual current [ i , i ]. The relationship between [ p, q ] and [ sd, sq ] becomes more clear by considering the instantaneous power vectors F and B on the complex plane defined by the following expressions:

p jq

2 2 ( P jQ ) S D SQ e j ( 2Zt T n )

SF e

B

jT p

S B e j ( 2Zt T n )

( S D jSQ ) P 2 Q 2 e

j ( 2 Zt T p )

j ( 2 Zt T p )

(3)

sd jsq

S B e jT n S F e

(4)

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3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 2012

iabc

abc to

LPF LPF

Sd-Sq Tran.

E. DC Bus Control Because the series capacitor draws the fundamental reactive current from the grid, the active filter can draw real power by outputs a fundamental voltage in phase with the leading current. According to this feature, the dc voltage of the hybrid active filter can be regulated by a PI controller to adjust the fundamental reactive filter current iFqeP* according to the dc bus voltage vdc and the reference dc voltage vdc*. F. Current Control After transferring the positive- and negative-sequence reference filter current into the three-phase system, the sum of the three-phase reference filter current iF,abc applies a proportional controller and the space vector PWM to synthesize the gating signals of the active filter. Therefore, the proposed hybrid active filter can be controlled with the desired compensating current.

TABLE I.

Parameter

PARAMETERS OF THE CURRENT LOOP

SD

SQ

p-q Tran.

Figure 2. Block diagram of the instantaneous power detection with positiveand negative-sequence power definition.

C. Reference Current Generator Due to series capacitor C, the LC filter draws amount of leading current at system frequency. When the inverter outputs a fundamental voltage being in phase with the fundamental leading current of the passive filter, the active power contributed by the leading current and fundamental output voltage will be delivered into the dc side. Analogously, when the inverter output voltage is orthogonal to the fundamental leading current of the passive filter, the filter reactive power will be varied. Therefore, the quantity to be provided by the positive-sequence reactive power QF feedback loop will be iFdeP* in positive-sequence synchronous reference frame (SRF) with the system angle + t, where the d-axis in SRF implies the components in phase with the grid voltage and the q-axis implies the components orthogonal to the grid voltage. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is required for grid synchronization. The definition of the PI regulator is shown as:

Name

value

unit

F T LF CF RF

Sampling Frequency Sampling Period Filter Inductor Filter Capacitor Filter Resistor

kHz s mH uf Ohm

1 sLF+1/sCF+RF

iF

TPI

kp

ki s

where s is the Laplace operator, kp and ki are proportional and integral gains, respectively. Similarly, the difference between the load negativesequence power SLd and the filter negative-sequence power SFd in d coordinate determines the fundamental current commands iFqeN* by applying the PI regulator in negative-sequence SRF, while the error between SLq and SFq determines the iFdeN*. D. Harmonic Compensator The harmonic load current can be determined by using the SRF transformation as shown in Fig.3. In the SRF, the fundamental component becomes a dc value, whereas the harmonic components are ac value. Therefore, the harmonic load current iLde,h, iLqe,h in the SRF can be simply extracted by high-pass filters (HPFs). Then the harmonic load current is treated as the harmonic reference filter current iFde,h, iFqe,h in the positive-sequence SRF.

Magnitude (dB)

Phase (deg)

10 2

10 3 Frequency (Hz)

10 4

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3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 2012

Utility

U=|U| 0

iF

C L

U v U X F cos T XC XC

(6)

X = XC+XL XC

(a) Delivery of positive-sequence filter current iF.

Because the reactance of the series inductor XL is far less than XC at fundamental frequency, the reactance of the LC filter will be replaced by XC while XL is neglected in following analysis. When the dc bus voltage vdc is fixed, the maximum output filter voltage vFp-max can be represented as:

v Fp max

3 2 2

v dc

Utility

iFn

C L

Then the equation (6) can be rewired as follow when the output filter voltage is maximized to vFp-max:

Q U XC 2

2 3 2

v dc U XC

cos T

U QFC XC

(7)

X = XC+XL XC

(b) Delivery of negative-sequence filter current iFn. Figure 5. The simplified one-line diagram for power delivery.

Where the second terms of the right-hand side in (7) is the reactive power compensated by the active filter. When equals to 0 , the compensating filter reactive power becomes maximum and is defined as QFC+_Max:

QFC _ Max

3 2 2

III.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

v dc U XC

(8)

A. Stability of the Current Controller Fig. 3 shows current controller block diagram of the proposed hybrid active filter, where the filter resistance RF is included. Computational delay of digital signal processing is equal to one sampling delay T and PWM delay approximates to half sampling delay T/2. The detailed parameters are shown in Table II. Fig. 4 shows the open-loop gain of the current control with the different proportional gain kp. The parameters are shown in Table 1, which also are the platform parameters. The 7th-ordertuned LC passive filter provides resonant gain and great current tracking ability around 420 Hz, while the kp determines the current tracking ability for all frequency. Larger the kp is, wider the open-loop bandwidth, which increases the controllability and transient response. But the larger kp will risk the control being unstable. When the kp is 10, the gain margin is 6.54 dB; when the kp is 10, the gain margin is 0.53 dB. When the kp is larger than 20, the gain margin of the control loop becomes less than 0 dB and the control become unstable. For instance, when the kp is 25, the gain margin is -1.43 dB and the control loop becomes unstable. Considering both the wider control bandwidth and the stability of the control loop, the proportional gain kp of the current control is determined as 10. B. Capability of Reactive Power Delivery The limitation of power delivery is dependent on the output filter voltage vF and the series capacitor C. Fig. 5(a) shows the simplified one-line diagram of the hybrid active filter in positive-sequence. The reactive power Q injected into the power system can be expressed as:

The reactive power delivered to grid is proportional to the filter voltage, but inversely proportional to the capacitor reactance XC. When the output voltage is fixed, the larger capacitor will permit the larger range of the delivering reactive power provide by active filter. Fig. 5(b) shows the current injection in negative-sequence, where the iFn is the negative-sequence filter current. The utility voltage is assumed positive-sequence balanced, so the utility terminal is equivalently grounded in negative-sequence. According to the definition of negative-sequence power in equation (2), the negative-sequence reactive power SD, SQ are induced by injecting negative-sequence current into the positive-sequence voltage of utility. The negative-sequence power SD, SQ received by the utility can be represented as follow:

QFC _ Max

3 2 2

2 2 S D SQ

U i Fn 3

U 3

1 3

v Fn max XC

(9)

vdc U XC

Where QFC-_Max represents the maximum negative-sequence power provided by the active filter. The iFn is the negativesequence filter current provided by the active filter. The vFn-max presents the maximum negative-sequence filter voltage. The deliverable negative-sequence power is also inversely proportional to the capacitor reactance XC. According to the equation (8) and (9), the maximum deliverable apparent power SMax is defined as:

453

3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 2012

while the LC passive filter is connected to the PCC and providing power factor correction and filter characteristic. Following are the steady- and transient-state experimental results of positive-, negative-sequence reactive power and harmonic compensation. The argument QF is the reactive power flowing from the active filter to the PCC; the QS is the reactive power flowing from the source; the the QL is the reactive power flowing from PCC to the load. A. Steady-State 1) Positive-sequenc reactive power compensation Fig.8.(a) shows the steady state waveforms of the three-phase source current iS, filter current iF, load current iL and the voltage of PCC V before the inverter operates. The reactive load power QL is -3.3 kVar, and the filter reactive power QF is -2.9 kVar. The remainder is the source reactive power QS which reduces the source power factor. The THD of the source current iS is 14.15% because of the nonlinear load. The 7thorder-tuned LC passive filter extracts the 7th order harmonic load current well but leaves the 5th order and other harmonic components to the source. Fig.8.(b) shows the steady state waveforms when the inverter operates. The filter reactive power QF is increased from -2.9 kVar to -3.3 kVar, and the source current iS become being in phase with voltage of PCC V. The THD of iS is also reduced to 4.3%.

S Max

3 2 2

(10)

Where QFC+ and QFC- are the positive- and negativesequence reactive power compensated by the active filter. These reactive powers can be estimated by the power detection block mentioned in the previous section. The maximum deliverable power SMax will be the kVA capacity of the hybrid filter. Because the proposed control is designed for reactive power compensation, the real power P is not considered. The capacitor reactance XC and dc bus voltage vdc determine the maximum deliverable apparent power SMax in the equation above. When the right-hand term of equation (10) becomes larger than SMax, the output voltage will become over modulation. Fig. 6 shows the relationship of maximum deliverable apparent power SMax to XC with different vdc in 220V, 20kVA three-phase system. The parameters of series capacitor and the dc bus voltage vdc will determine the compensable range of the reactive power. Since the series capacitor CF (0.137 p.u.) is already designed for power factor correction, the vdc is the left factor to determine the range. But the higher vdc results in the higher kVA capacity of active filter, which increases the cost and size. For the deliverable apparent power of 0.5kVA (0.025 p.u.), the vdc of 100V is chosen in this paper. IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Vs

Ls

is

QS

Vabc

QL

IL

LL

QF

iF CF LF RL2 LL2

Linear Load

vdc

vF IGBT RL3 Unbalance Load

TABLE II.

Parameter

EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS

Name value unit

An experiment circuit of Fig.7. with parameters in Table II is established to verify the proposed strategies, where only nonlinear loads, inductive loads and unbalanced loads are considered. The inverter of the hybrid active filter is composed of IGBTs and a dc capacitor. When the active filter is not operating, the lower switches of the three legs turn on and short the inverter output terminal. The filter output voltage vF is 0V,

System Capacity Voltage Rating System Frequency Source Inductor Filter Inductor Filter Capacitor DC Bus Voltage Nonlinear Resistor Nonlinear Inductor Balanced Resistor Balanced Inductor Unbalanced Resistor

454

3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 2012

iSa

iSb

iSc

iSa

iSb iFc

iSc

5A/div

iS

iFa iFb iFc

5A/div

iS

iFa iFb

iF

5A/div

iF

iLa iLb iLc

iLa iLb

5A/div

iLc

5A/div

iL

5A/div

iL

Va Vb Vc

Va Vb

Vc

50V/div

V

50V/div

V

(a) Steady-state waveform before inverter operates

iSa

iSb

iSc

iSa

iSb iFc

iSc

5A/div

iS

iFa iFb iFc

iS

5A/div

iFa

iFb

iF

iLa iLb

iF

5A/div

5A/div

iLc

iLa

iLb

iLc

5A/div

iL

Va Vb

iL

5A/div

Vc

Va

Vb

Vc

50V/div

V

50V/div

V

(b) Steady-state waveform when inverter operates (b) Steady-state waveform when inverter operates Figure 9. Steady state waveform of considering unbalanced load RL3, 2.9 kVar inductive load and nonlinear load.

Figure 8. Steady state waveform of considering 3.3 kVar inductive load, nonlinear load.

2) Negative-sequence reactive poweror compensation Fig.9.(a) shows the source current iS and load current iL are unbalanced considering an unbalanced load RL3 100 Ohm. The filter reactive power QF, which is mostly provided by the LC filter, approximately equals to load reactive power Q ccording to IEEE Std. 141-1993[10], the unbalance factor of the source current iS is 0.115, where the unbalance factor is defined as:

B. Transient- State 1) DC bus control Fig.10. shows the transient-state waveform of the dc voltage of the hybrid filter. The hybrid filter operates at time of T, then the dc voltage vdc is established and well-controlled at 100V. 2) Positive-sequence reactive poweror compensation Fig.11. shows the transient behavior of reactive power when the balanced inductive load varies from 300 mH to 150 mH at T. When the inductive load raises, the filter reactive power QF increases from -2.9kVar to -3.3kVar and matches the new QL. When QF equals to QL, the reactive power flowing to source is compensated and reduced. 3) Negative-sequence reactive poweror compensation Fig.12. shows the transient behavior of negative-sequence reactive power SD and SQ when the unbalanced load RL3 is connected at T. The negative-sequence load apparent power SLDQ is 0.5kVar.The negative-sequence filter apparent power SFDQ varies dynamically from 0kVar to 0.5kVar to maintain the source current balanced.

unbalance factor

After the inverter is started, the inverter provides the negativesequence apparent power SFDQ=0.53 kVar and the source currents become balanced with the reduced THD = 4.4% in Fig.9.(b), where SFDQ2= SFD2+ SFQ2. The unbalance factor of the source current iS is almost reduced to zero.

455

3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 2012

V.

SUMMARY

A control strategy of shunt hybrid active filter is proposed for reactive power compensation considering unbalanced load. The instantaneous power theory with negative-sequence power definition are employed to generate the reference filter current to compensate the power system, and the hybrid active filter can dynamically compensate the corresponding reactive power in case of load varying. Therefore, the power system will behave as a balanced resistive network even in unbalanced and nonlinear loadings. In the experimental result, the lab-scaled hybrid active filter can provide reactive power and negativesequence power to compensate unbalanced loads.

T

QS

[1]

REFERENCES

R. L. Almonte and A. W. Ashley, Harmonics at utility industrial interface: a real world example, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 14191426, Nov./Dec. 1995. [2] R. H. Simpson, Misapplication of power capacitors in distribution systems with nonlinear loadsthree case histories, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 134143, Jan. 2005. [3] H. Akagi, S. Srianthumrong, and Y. Tamai, Comparison in circuit configuration and filtering performance between hybrid and pure shunt active filters, in IEEE Industry Applications Conference 38th IAS Annual Meeting, 2003, pp. 11951202. [4] S. Srianthumrong and H. Akagi, A medium-voltage transformerless ac/dc power conversion system consisting of a diode rectifier and a shunt hybrid filter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 3, May/Jun. 2003, pp. 874882. [5] T.-L. Lee, Z.-J. Chen, and S.-H. Hu, Design of a power flow control method for hybrid active front-end converters, in IEEE Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009. [6] T.-L. Lee and Y.-C. Wang. An Improved Control Strategy for Hybrid Active Front-End Converters in Grid-Connected Applications, in Power Electronics Conference (IPEC), 2010, pp. 32203224. [7] Matsui, M.; Fukao, T. "A detecting method for active-reactive-negativesequence powers and its application," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. 26, no. 1, 1990 , pp. 99106 [8] Y. J. Wang, Analysis of effects of three-phase voltage unbalance on induction motors with emphasis on the angle of the complex voltage unbalance factor, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 16, no. 3, Sept. 2001, pp. 270275. [9] K. Lee, T. M. Jahns, W. E. Berkopec and T. A. Lipo, Closed-form analysis of adjustable-speed drive performance under input-voltage unbalance and sag conditions, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. 42, May/Jun. 2006, pp. 733741. [10] IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, IEEE Std. 141-1993. [11] H.Akagi, Active Harmonic Filters, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 93, no. 12, pp. 21282141, Dec. 2005. [12] H. Akagi, H. Watanabe, and M. Aredes, Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning. John Wiley &Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2007.

QF QL

T

Sd

S

Sd

Sd

T

Sq

L

Sq

Sq

(b) Negative-sequence power in Sq-axis Figure 12. Transient behavior of Negative-sequence reactive power.

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