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1.1 Objective . The main goal of this exercise is to simulate in an almost autonomous way the relative ﬂow around a soccer spinning-ball with cfd and to evaluate the trajectory deﬂection ! . So you will unravel some of the underlying mysteries of “bending” a soccer ball during kicking which will be a feature of the upcoming Soccer UEFA EURO 2008 in Switzerland; and you should better understand this technically very difﬁcult “art” of scoring soccer goals from dead ball “free kick” situations, perfected by such world class soccer players as Brazil's Roberto Carlos, Germany's Michael Ballack and England's David Beckham.

2 Data

y Fa

**spinning-ball trajectory
**

!

fz d

u

x

. . . . . . .

calm standard ICAO atmosphere diameter of the ball the ball is a perfect sphere with a glossy surface mean velocity of the ball spinning frequency of the ball length of ball ﬂight mass of the ball

(1 atm, 15°C) d = 0.22 m u = 80 km·h-1 f z = 10 Hz L = 27 m m = 0.45 kg.

!

**3 Geometry and Mesh in Gambit
**

. Draw appropriate geometry with gambit. Let sufﬁcient space after and around

the ball. Consider the symmetry of the ﬂow.

**. * Determine the thickness of the ﬁrst cells near the ball wall. For external ﬂow,
**

let: 9"L Y P # ---------- " y + ; with 30 $ y + $ 500 Re L

(3.a)

goal by David Beckham of England versus Greece during the World Cup Qualifiers in 2001

. . . . .

1.2 Memorandum . This exercise will be noted. So you have to give back gambit- and ﬂuent journalﬁles and also a small memorandum containing all items marked with a * in the following text. . Name all your ﬁles with the following scheme: yourname_soccerBall.ext

for this exercise, a coarse value should be sufﬁcient. Cell length should not exceed 2 to 3 times Y P in separation area Create a boundary layer all around the proﬁle with about 10 layers and a growth factor of about 1.1 to 1.15 To have the 3D Boundary layer working properly in gambit, leading walls are necessary, so your probably have to split the ﬂow volume. Create a ﬁxed size function (start size = 2 to 3 times Y P ) Mesh the Flow-volume: and check it (* qualify the skewness of you mesh and make a representative picture of it)

-1

B. Schmutz, le 1/6/07

exer soccerball.fm

3D and turbulent airﬂow around the ball with Fluent . Deﬁne the boundaries.2 Visualise and analyse (in appropriate planes) . it will be modelled with more or less realistic values 5. Schmutz. k-epsilon a robust and efﬁcient turbulent model which gives good results in most cases where turbulence have an isotropic repartition Under: (yourname_soccerBall. lift and drag coefﬁcients. but very robust in term of convergence 5 Post-Processing then (if you have time) Standard Wall Functions Realizable with Non Equilibrium gives better results by positive pressure gradient in the ﬂow direction and when it is not clear where ﬂow separation should take place. ﬂow trajectories. * pressure ﬁeld B.1 Various make the ball-wall spinning around the appropriate axis . Viscous turbulent Model * of the Residuals and of the lift and drag coefﬁcients Save the model case . le 1/6/07 exer soccerball. it is impossible to capture a correct boundary layer on this walls. outlet .5%. bottom and side wall . .1 check y + . leave gambit to unlock licenses top. 4. incompressible. investigate pressure and velocity ﬁelds. A turbulence Intensity of 0. Export the 3d Mesh (yourname_soccerBall. * on the ball wall 5. 20 for viscosity ratio so if there is a backﬂow through the outlet-edge..fm -2 . Pay attention to differentiate the ball wall from the other walls . . and a viscosity ratio of 5 should be representative of a calm atmosphere.cas)” to begin with: Standard exaggerate wall viscosity effects and delays boundary layer separation. let have atmospheric pressure at the outlet.msh) . Monitoring convergence . 2% in the “Backﬂow Turbulence-intensity”-ﬁeld . inlet . with the very coarse mesh we made by the top and down walls. so we have to let the ﬂuid glide on them (set shear stress to 0) or make them symmetry-plane. simulate the stationary. Ball 4 Case setting in Fluent . so type 0 Pa in the “Gauge pressure” ﬁeld .

the air speed increases and pressure decreases. This turbulent to laminar boundary layer transition also seems to move according to the spinning rate of the ball and the surface seam pattern of the ball used. le 1/6/07 exer soccerball. His work showed good agreement with the experimental results and extended the analysis to areas the tunnel could not handle. . This separated wake also became skewed to the side as increasing spin was imparted to the ball in the CFD simulations. turbulence dissipation rates % . “Almost certainly.06. copy in there only your gambit. -3 . This is important because the drag experienced by a ball as it ﬂies through the air during a free kick strongly inﬂuences its trajectory especially if the ball is spinning. * velocity ﬁeld turbulence kinetic energy k . Carrè explained that the technique they have developed in Shefﬁeld has allowed them to analyse in detail the spectacular goal by David Beckham of England versus Greece during the World Cup Qualiﬁers in 2001.pdf) with the nice plots and comments your made.” Dr.fm CFD simulations to complement the wind tunnel study were carried out by Mr.p.h. As the air velocity increased the separation got smaller. Dr. 23h55 . For instance. Reconsider the choice of the boundaries location (or the domain). * Estimate the lateral trajectory deviation of the ball after L m of ﬂight cially when considerable spin is applied to the ball at the same time. This imbalance of pressures produces the Magnus side force that is so pronounced at the end of a ball's ﬂight when it slows down. It has long been known that a spinning ball will move sideways as it travels through the air because of a phenomenon known as the Magnus Force. you should reconsider your physical models and boundary conditions. Beckham’s shot left his foot at about 36 m/s (80 m. * Aerodynamic forces due to pressure and wall friction . Detailed force balances were easily derived from the CFD study that could then be fed into a free kick trajectory visualisation model. He also conﬁrmed that the ball's seam caused the air boundary layer over the ball to “trip” and dependent on the orientation of the ball to the oncoming ﬂow (and the pattern of surface patches on the ball) the ﬂow separations in the wake behind the ball were very different and very complex. * Drag c d and Lift factors c l . Schmutz. If ﬂow features do not seem reasonable. he discovered that at low non-spinning soccer ball velocities a large ﬂow separation was visible behind the ball. the ﬂow around the ball changed from turbulent to laminar several metres from the goal” he noted” because otherwise our calculations suggest that it would have gone over the crossbar. air speed decreases and pressure increases.) from about 27m out with considerable spin and he lifted it half a metre over the defensive wall. * Check to see that the solution makes sense based on engineering judgment.-. At high spin rates transition occurs at faster ball speeds. .. An inadequate choice of domain (especially the outlet boundary) can signiﬁcantly impact solution accuracy.2007. This point of transition from turbulent to laminar ﬂow around the ball is critical in soccer free kicks because the drag experienced by the ball increases by 150% in a split second when it happens. Joeri Wilms of Fluent Benelux who used the same model as that used in the experimental analysis. on the side where the movement of the ball's surface opposes ﬂow. .and ﬂuent journal-ﬁles and also your short memorandum (in. before ﬁnally suddenly slowing down to about 19m/s (42 m. CarrÈ added that “the wind tunnel test proves a long-held suspicion by researchers that a nonspinning soccer ball has similar drag characteristics to that of a golf ball and is signiﬁcantly different to that of a smooth sphere. . 7 Epilogue Wind Tunnel Study and Trajectory Modelling At the University of Shefﬁeld.h. Try to make some nice plots with appropriate lightning and colours) . work on a 1/4 scale generic soccer ball in a wind tunnel has shown that the air around the ball transitions from laminar to turbulent ﬂow at speeds between 8 and 10m/s although this is very dependent on the ball's surface structure and texture. vortricity & * velocity vectors * passlines (from inlet and other injections surfaces to be deﬁned. 5. together with providing detailed explanations of underlying ﬂow phenomena.) and dipping into the corner of the goal.p. It is this phenomenon coupled with the almost constant spinning Magnus force that produces the exciting sudden dips and sideways motions of the best free kicks as the ball approaches the goal. This force is caused by the fact that on the side of a spinning ball moving through the air where its rotation and airﬂow are in the same direction. espeB.3 Calculate . Use Moodle upload . This balance of sideways force and drag force stays roughly the same for most of the ball's trajectory but alters considerably near the goal as the ﬂow around the ball transitions. Beckham was applying some very sophisticated physics to his kick!” Computational Fluid Dynamics Study 6 Transmitting your results until 15. The ball rose over the height of the crossbar during its ﬂight as it moved laterally about 3m due to the highspin employed.

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