NI Vision for Power Electronics

Inverter Technology Applications

Brian MacCleery – Principal Product Manager for Clean Energy Technology, National Instruments, Member IEEE
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Power Electronics
The Cylinder and Piston of the Digital Energy Revolution

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Power Electronics
The Cylinder and Piston of the Digital Energy Revolution

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The Digital Energy Revolution
• • • • • Digitized and digitally controlled Networked Field reconfigurable Modeled and simulated Improving at exponential rates

“Today, approximately 30 percent of all power generation utilizes power electronics between the point of generation and consumption. By 2030, it is expected that up to 80 percent of all generated electricity will utilize power electronics. –US Dept. of Energy ” Join the developer community at ni.com/powerdev

5% efficient (3.com 7 .4 times less waste heat) Solar module cost is 110 times cheaper per watt. solar installed cost is 24 times cheaper per watt ni.2020 compared to 2000… • • • • • Processing performance is 113 thousand times cheaper per dollar A power converter controls 27 times more power for its size Lithion-Ion batteries deliver 29 times more energy storage (kWh) per dollar Typical inverters are 99.

Top NI Applications in Digital Energy A. G.com . pumps. 11 ni. etc. traction control Uninterruptable Power Supplies (UPS) Electric & hybrid vehicles (including commercial/ agricultural vehicles) Other: Grid Storage. C. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). compressors Rail auxiliary power buses. F. B. Solar/PV Wind turbines Motor drives. E. D.

26*(ANNUAL_PRODUCTION_GW*1000)^(-1.205)*ANNUAL_PRODUCTION_GW*1000 .Cost per Watt = 14.

The Power Electronics Renaissance .

The Power Electronics Renaissance .

The Power Electronics Renaissance .

000. 416. Knierim. Ph.000. 50% of units 2010 INVERTER UNITS AND GROWTH RATE BY INVERTER SIZE (kW) INVERTER SHIPMENTS (MWp) . of Infinity Physics 260% Growth 500 kW+.300. 6% 190% Growth of units 100 to 500 kW.000.”.The Power Electronics Renaissance “Since the industrial revolution I do not know of a single financial push towards a solitary focus as large as renewable energy outside of war. 728.Glenn A.000. 156. 16% of units 160% Growth 10 to 100 kW.D. 1. 28% of units 90% Growth < 10 kW.

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 17 .ri.Data Source: http://www.cmu.list ni.edu/~hpm/book97/ch3/processor.frc.

Modern Hybrid DSP-FPGA RECONFIGURABLE LOGIC I/O BLOCK Source: Xilinx HARD CORE DSP SLICE Modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 18 .

Modern hybrid FPGAs offer higher performance than traditional DSPs Million MACS per Chip Million MACS per Watt Million MACS per Dollar Dual-Core Spartan-6 Performance Ratio DSP LX45 FPGA (FPGA/DSP) 600 14.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 19 .500 24 571 5.897 10 7 279 40 MACS = Multiply-accumulate operations per second (measure of DSP performance) ni.

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL Analog I/O 20 Streaming .LabVIEW FPGA vs VHDL 66 Pages ~4000 lines Counter ni.

modular blocks.Levels of Hardware Abstraction NI Vision: •“To do for digital energy what the PC did for the desktop” −Standard HW architectures.com 21 . software defined. field programmable •“The software is the inverter” Inverter Power Stack w/ Controller Abstraction Power Stack (Level 2) Intelligent Power Modules IGBT Modules IGBT NI sbRIO GPIC System Complexity ni.

NI Single-Board RIO General Purpose Inverter Controller (GPIC) .

NI Single-Board RIO General Purpose Inverter Controller (NI GPIC) • Industry-proven NI LabVIEW RIO architecture and cutting-edge cosimulation tools • Deployment-ready for high volume commercial applications • Multicore FPGA delivers 40x higher performance per dollar than traditional DSPs ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 23 .

2.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 24 . Co-Simulation. 3. Interface Board Design. Commercial Deployment 1. 3.Design Flow with the NI GPIC 1. ni. 2.

Customer Defined Interface Board 1. NI Single-Board RIO sbRIO-9606 2.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 25 . Custom interface or gate drive PCB (not provided by NI) ni. NI GPIC 9683 RIO Mezzanine Card (bottom orientation connectors) 3.

GPIC Mating PCB Design ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 26 .

GPIC Mating PCB Design • Semikron SKiiP 3 connector • Break-out connector for GPIC inputs ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 27 .

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 28 .SmartPower Stack™ Inverter ni.

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 29 .The System (What is a Stack) • Inside the Stack (diagram) ni.

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 30 .Power Electronics Design Goals & Tradeoffs • Optimize for multiple design goals simultaneously. including: • • • • • • • • • Energy efficiency Cost Component lifetime Systematic reliability Regulatory compliance Smart grid ready Differentiated features … … ni.

NI Vision for Power Electronics Graphical Co‐Simulation  (Multisim. DNP3. PXI) Design Test Cells Prototype Rapid Control Prototyping  (Multicore CompactRIO. SIT) HIL Testing Digital Dynamometers & Grid Simulators Deploy Real‐Time HIL  Simulation (State‐Space and FEA‐Based) Commercial Deployment (General Purpose Inverter Controller) Utility Networking (IEC‐61850. LabVIEW FPGA) Click to navigate Power Electronics Testing (Bloomy Energy. …) .

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL Circuit Design .The Evolution of System Level Design Traditional Methodology Plant Model (Analog) Circuit Design & PCB Layout Mechanical Design Magnetic & Thermal Analysis Closed Loop Simulation Proposed Methodology Plant Model (Analog) Circuit Design & PCB Layout Mechanical Design Magnetic & Thermal Analysis FPGA SW Cost I/O Algorithm (90%) 39 Chip-On-Board with I/O Support Closed Loop Simulation Software Model (Analog) Continuous to Discrete Time Float to FixedPoint Math Graphical Implementation Code (Discrete-Time. Fixed Point) Simulation Context System Level to Register Level Code Automatic Synthesis Deployment Context FPGA SW Cost AlgoI/O rithm (70%) Full-Custom ni.

SMPS.000+ components from leading device manufacturers Power device simulation for transformers.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 40 . IGBTs etc… Customizable simulation analyses & instruments NI LabVIEW FPGA and Control Design & Simulation Module integration • • • • ni.NI Multisim Analog Simulation • Integrated schematic capture & simulation environment 22.

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 41 .NI LabVIEW FPGA NI Multisim NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS GRAPHICAL CO-SIMULATION WITH NI LABVIEW FPGA & MULTISIM (AUTO-VARIABLE TIMESTEP CO-SIMULATION) ni.

closed loop simulation requires co-ordination -> Auto-Variable Timestep Co-Simulation • Effectively creates a continuous time simulation involving both LabVIEW and Multisim • • • SMPS.Auto-Variable Timestep FPGA Co-Simulation Motor Load Power MOSFETs • Traditional system design requires separate analog and digital simulation • Accurate. FET and transistor performance best characterized in SPICE Algorithm development with graphical system design (LabVIEW) Co-simulation possible due to LabVIEW and Multisim nodes ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 42 . cycle-accurate.

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 43 .Demo: Buck Converter Co‐Simulation with MathScript ni.

Open Source Back-to-Back Inverter Research Board ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 44 .

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 45 .Screaming Circuits Back-to-Back 3-Phase Inverter Kit (Does not include NI sbRIO GPIC) ni.

Demo: 3 Phase “Grid-Tied” Inverter Control ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 46 .

Co-Simulation of FPGA-based Control System with Comparison to Experimental Results ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 47 .

4 58% of NI customers 38% of NI customers 42% of embedded market 55% of embedded market NOTE1: The overall embedded market study was a global Email/web study including over 1.5 12.700 responses from embedded engineers from Americas. SW.2 30 $248. Firmware Engineers) Average Months to Complete Project Average Person-Months to Complete Project Average Development Cost (assuming $100k/person/year with overhead) Percent of Projects Completed On or Ahead of Schedule Percent of Projects Completed Behind Schedule/Late EETimes Overall Embedded Market (2012)2 11.100 responses NI embedded customers from Americas.5 144 $1.8 6.New data on LabVIEW graphical system design approach Wilson Research Study NI Embedded Customers (2012)1 Average Development Team Size (HW.8 (average $950.0 4. Europe and Asia .8 (average of 114 personmonth savings per design) 4.000 2.000 Ratio 4. Europe and Asia NOTE2: The study of NI embedded customers was a global Email/web study including over 1.000 cost savings per design) 0.198.7 1.4 2.

Dynapower Case Study "The key to this design was the ability for our power engineers to directly program their product without a software engineer in the middle. “ ni. This new platform and method of development changed our development time from 72 weeks to 24 weeks….These tools take design to the next level. We can have a 90 percent confidence factor in a first design and minimize hardware iterations during the prototype stage.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 49 .

NI Vision for Power Electronics Graphical Co‐Simulation  (Multisim. SIT) HIL Testing Digital Dynamometers & Grid Simulators Deploy Real‐Time HIL  Simulation (State‐Space and FEA‐Based) Commercial Deployment (General Purpose Inverter Controller) Utility Networking (IEC‐61850. …) . DNP3. LabVIEW FPGA) Click to navigate Power Electronics Testing (Bloomy Energy. PXI) Design Test Cells Prototype Rapid Control Prototyping  (Multicore CompactRIO.

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation of Power Electronics Setpoint Error Controller Control Output Kp Plant Feedback Keys to success for power electronics simulations: • High fidelity models • • Non-linear Time varying • • Sub 1us timing High speed I/O (1-10x the loop rate) 51 ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL .

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL .Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation of Power Electronics Setpoint Error Control Output Kp Plant Actual Digital Inverter Controller Simulated Switched-Mode Power System Feedback Keys to success for power electronics simulations: • High fidelity models • • Non-linear Time varying • • Sub 1us timing High speed I/O (1-10x the loop rate) 52 ni.

Solar Array DC Transformer Converter/Rectifier DC DC Management System Inverter/Drive GRID DC Physical Control Board Power System Control  System Inverter/Converter/Drive Motor/Generator AC AC ni.What is a power electronics HIL test system? Real-Time Power Simulation (Cracked ECU or Full Power Simulator) Battery Stack.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 53 HIL = Hardware-In-the-Loop .

  speed matters! .When simulating switch‐mode power systems.

For negligible error. the simulation timestep should be 100 times faster than the PWM switching frequency Image courtesy Prof. University of Toronto . Reza Iravani.

Graphical System Design Graphical  Programmin g Desktop Co‐ Simulation Auto Compilatio n Auto  Synthesis Auto  Place &  Route Deploymen t HARD CORE DSP SLICE LabVIEW FPGA Hybrid DSP‐FPGA .

80 A DC – link voltage: Vdc = 400 V Fundamental Freq = 60 Hz PWM (carrier) Freq = 3 KHz Output Filter: Lf = 800 μH Cf = 500 μF Load: Lload = 2 mH Rload = 5 Ω Simulation loop rate of 3. Processor Reference: MCBRYDE.28 μs) > 3000X Acceleration vs.Open Source FPGA-based Real-Time HIL Simulator System Parameters IGBTs: SEMIKRON SKM 50 GB 123D.57 MHz (0. JAMES. 600 V. . Inverter Efficiency Simulation and Measurement for Various Modern Switching Devices.

JMAG Finite‐Element‐Analysis (FEA) Based FPGA Real‐Time Simulator PMSM Sinusoidal Flux Model* (DQ Reference Frame) JMAG FEA Model Low Fidelity Model Assumptions: • Uniform air-gap • No slot harmonics • No stator saturation • Sinusoidally distributed windings • No zero phase sequence (system is balanced) High Fidelity Model Assumptions: • Complex geometry • Magnetic materials • Permanent magnets • Nonlinear inductance • Saturation effects • Coil winding • Copper and iron losses* • Efficiency* *Post processing .

Modified Nodal Analysis Based FPGA Real‐Time Simulator .

Modified Nodal Analysis Based FPGA Real‐Time Simulator .

SET Electric Motor Emulator (EME) Phase Emulation Motor Model Interface  Sensor Emulation Inverter Power Stage Sensor Interface .

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NI Power Electronics RCP & HIL System ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 64 .

com/powerdev ni.com | NI CONFIDENTIAL 65 .ni.

NEXT STEP JOIN THE DEVELOPER COMMUNITY AT NI.COM/POWERDEV .

com | NI CONFIDENTIAL .IEEE Spectrum – Smart Grid Power Electronics Webcast Series • Real-Time HIL Simulation of Grid-Tied Switched-Mode Power Systems A New System-Level Design Methodology and Platform for FPGA-based Power Electronics Control Modernist Circuit Topologies & Transistors for Smart Grid Power Electronics Power Converter Controller Design for Smart Grid Power Electronics Accelerating Development of Smart Grid Power Electronics Control Systems with RCP and HIL Techniques Developing PMU Technology for Dynamic Conditions in Distribution Under the Hood of the Smart Grid: Smart Sensing and Analytics Smart-Grid Control Systems: Moving Towards a Self-Healing Grid Top 10 Clean Energy Business Opportunities 67 • • • • • • • • ni.