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Uni International Examinations English as a Second Language Focus on Writing Alison Digger INTRODUCTION Exam overview How to use this book IMPROVING YOUR INFORMAL WRITING 1 Different kinds of English 2 Friendly register 3 Friendly letters: the basics PRODUCING INFORMAL WRITING 1 Friendly letters: descriptive 2 Friendly letters: advice 3 Friendly letters: narrative 4 Friendly letters: descriptive narrative IMPROVING YOUR FORMAL WRITING 1 Basic tools 2 Suggestions 3 Opinions 4 Views and arguments PRODUCING FORMAL WRITING 1 Compositions 2. Formal letters 3. School magazine articles 4 Book reviews READING 1 Overview 2 Summaries LISTENING AND SPEAKING 1 Listening overview 2 Speaking, overview REFERENCE 1 Register 2 Key grammar points 3 Essential prepositions 4 Word partners and sayings 5. Confused phrases 6 Spelling tips 7 Problem spellings 8 Exam hints for the writing exam DATABASE OF TOPIC-RELATED VOCABULARY AND IDEAS ANSWERS TO EXERCISES INDEX 18 124 138 141 141 149 7 171 180 182 182 186 200 216 219 220 222 224 231 245 253 INTRODUCTION IGCSE English as a Second Language is designed primarily for students preparing for the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) examination in English as a Second Language, but will also be extremely useful to students taking a course in English as a first language. All parts of the exam are covered, with strong emphasis on the written component, which is the area where students usually need most help. Detailed units, geared to exam techniques, cover each aspect of the written paper, including letter writing, formal writing, school magazine articles and summaries. The skills needed for the written component are taught through the extensive use of examples in a step-by-step, hands-on guide, designed to boost students’ confidence in their ability to answer exam questions successfully. Equal attention is paid to the importance of style and content as. ‘well as accuracy, with reference to regular mistakes made by students in these areas. Many units include students’ answers to previous exam questions, annotated with teachers’ comments. Much emphasis is placed on the correct use of different registers, and a unit in the reference section outlines many of the common register mistakes made by students and how to overcome them. Also included in the reference section is a selection of grammar points relevant to the requirements of the IGCSE exam In an attempt to ensure that there is no barrier to understanding for the student working alone, every effort has been made to use clear, carefully selected language throughout, and grammatical terms are included only where absolutely necessary. The IGCSE English as a Second Language exam is very demanding, requiring intimate knowledge of both language and culture. To bridge the gap of cultural difference, the final section of this book, Database of topic~ related vocabulary and ideas, provides students with relevant cultural information and encourages both development of ideas and ways of expressing them IGCSE English as a Second Language is an invaluable guide for students preparing for the First Certificate in English (CE) and Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) exams, for any students keen to improve their level of language proficiency and writing skills, and for teachers of students at these levels @ Exam overview ‘The IGCSE exam is offered at both Core and Extended tier. Candidates who take the Core tier may obtain Grades C to G. Candidates who take the Extended tier may obtain Grades A* to E. At both Core and Extended levels there are two compulsory papers and an oral component. Marks for the oral component do not contribute to the overall grades candidates receive for the reading, writing and listening components. Results are given on a separate certificate with grades from, 1 (high) to 5 (low).