Operating Systems & Intro to UNIX

Class 6

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004

What is an Operating System?

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

What is an Operating System?

The software that supports a computer's basic functions, such as scheduling tasks, executing applications, and controlling peripherals.

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Early Computers
• • • •
Didn’t have operating systems Ran one program at a time Operators would have to allocate computer resources and memory The first OS was developed in the late 1950s

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Operating Systems
• • • • • • •
An Operating System (OS) is a piece of software The kernel is the main part of the OS that is the bridge between the applications/peripherals and the actual data processing Application software, also known as an application or app, is a piece of computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks Runs “on top” of the OS Depends upon the basic capabilities of the OS Usually only works on one type of OS A peripheral is a device that is connected to a computer but not part of it. It expands the computer’s capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture. It is often completely independent.

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Operating Systems

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Operating Systems

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

More OS tasks/terms
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Process Management - keeping applications running, scheduling applications so they share the processor A central processing unit (CPU), also referred to as a central processor unit, is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/ output operations of the system. Storing Data in the Computer’s Memory - retrieving data from the hard drive, caching data, making sure the computer doesn’t run of out memory Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be accessed quickly in any random order. Other types of data storage memory: Hard Disks, CD-ROMs, Flash Drives, External Hard drives,

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

OS usually have...
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A file system where data is stored using the metaphor of a filing cabinet: Files Folders Applications that allow you to easily browse the file system

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

The Desktop Metaphor
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The monitor is the top of your desk // The Desktop Documents and Folders sit on top of your desk // Files and Folders Documents can be opened up on your desk // Windows Office accessories can be used with your files // Applications

Are their aspects of this metaphor that don’t make sense?

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

CLI vs GUI
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CLI: Command Line Interface = issues commands to an OS by typing lines of code GUI (“gooey”): Graphical User Interface = interacting with the OS by manipulating images rather than text commands

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

UNIX
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Developed by AT&T’s Bell Labs in 1969 Uses a Command Line Interface (CLI) Free distribution, Open System (open source) Portable, mutli-tasking, multi-user Servers, workstations, mobile devices Basis of Linux and Mac OS, BSD Unix, AIX....

Many OS are based off of UNIX and are considered “unix-like” systems

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

So why use CLI vs GUI?
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The car metaphor: Automatic vs Manual Transmission With CLI you are working directly with the data, so non-data elements can’t get in the way Powerful for many tasks (ie: moving, copying, renaming 100s of files) Ability to use scripts Uses less memory

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

TERMINAL
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Terminal is a Mac application that works with the UNIX shell program, allowing you to type commands to the OS directly Uses Command Line Interface You can find terminal under Applications > Utilities > Terminal

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

• • •

Use Command + or Command - to shrink or grow the window Use up and down arrows to see previous commands Type exit or close window to end

COMMAND LINE PROMPT USER

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

COMMAND STRUCTURE

COMMAND

OPTIONS

ARGUMENTS

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Unix File System
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File and directory paths use the forward slash “/” to separate the directory (folder) names in a path use cd to change the directory to your home directory cd.. ill take you up one level (think the back button) cd <dir name> will take you to that directory

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

Reading for Class

UNIX Cheat Sheet

Introduction to Web Design & Computer Principles CSCI-UA.0004-003

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