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: SEMH TUN :21003139 : ELECTRIC- ELECTRONIK ENG : EUA (BURSA DOAL GAZ ELEKTRK EVRM) : Pc.41 16105 Genosman - Osmangazi, Bursa

DATES OF PRACTSE : 18.07.2011 12.08.2011




1. INTRDUCTION This report contain 3 main part first introduction where I am going to give some fundamental information about the power plant. Then in the second part which is production I am going to give some significant information about how they produce the electric. Finally at the last part I am going to tell what I have done in power plant in my working days. Before all I want to do my internship program in energy sector because it is a rapidly increasing sector in Turkey .t is increasing due to technological improvements and increasing population. Since the population and technology increase companies are run up their investment on energy sector. In parallel with this, I apply Electricity Generation Incorporated Company Bursa Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant Operational Management for an internship position. Then, I have been accepted for an internship position. Then I have successfully finished my summer practice in two different departments. First electric maintance then test and control department.

1.1 . Purpose of the Power Plant

a) Meeting of electric energy demand of Bursa region and South Marmara in economical ways with minimum electrical loss and minimum cost.Due to the increasing number of people and growing industry in Marmara region and especially in Bursa city government had to do something and they decide to establish the natural gas fired combined cycle power plant operational management to correspond the energy demand .

b) Provide with uninterrupted electricity to the industrial enterprises. There are 3 industrial regions in Bursa and thus they havent got ability to produce their own energy they need to be provided by a uninterrupted electricity. The industrial regions are DOSAB (demirtasanayiblegesi ) which is the nearest place to power plant. BOSB (BURSA ORGANZE SANAY BLGES) kksanayi( bursabeevlersanayisitesi)

c) Reduction of electric loss due to the power transmission lines.

d) Meeting of predicted electric energy deficit for following years.

e )Employment opportunities for increasing population growth.

1.2 Location

There were 16 possible areas were determined in Bursa to establish the power plant respect to following criteria and after 1 year research Bursa commission select the Ovaaka plain. a) Geological conditions b) Close to natural pipe line c) Close to consumption area ( ndustrial regions) d) Transportation state e) Soil and agricultural features f) Cooling water conditions g) Topographical state h) Closeness to 154 kV transformer station

1.3 General Information about Power Plant Bursa Natural Gas Cycles Main Units Gas turbines (2 for each block) Heat recovery boilers Steam turbine (1 for each block) Cooling water and steam condensation system Water demineralization system Switchyard and electric systems Control and command systems

Bursa natural gas cycle power plant contain two symmetric block and each blocks are consisted of two gas turbines and a steam turbine and each block produces 705 MW/h and there are two cooling towers which are working for cooling the circulation water. They are cooled water naturally due to the hyperbolic shape.

Gas turbines use natural gas to generate electricity and at the end of the burning session steam comes out with 1350 C and this steam use for again generating electricity from steam turbine. A gas turbine consumes 68.000 Sm / h natural gas so four units consume 270 000 Sm / h natural gas. At maximum load two gas turbines + one steam turbine which has 8100 kCal / Sm heat value, work with 1564 kCal / kWh. Its efficiency is %55.



2.1 Production System 2.1.1. Gas Turbines Bursa Natural Gas Combined Cycle contain two symmetric blocks. Each has two gas turbines and generator units and one steam turbine and its generator unit. Gas turbines can generate 239 MWh and its worked with 50 hz which means 3000 revolution per minute. After this air combines with natural gas which is 200c and 40 bars, it goes to combustor. Then a combustion gas which is 1.350C goes to four level gas turbine blades thus turbine rotor is rotated. The turbine rotor is coupled with generator rotor so at the same time also generator rotor is rotated. At each block there are two heat recovery boilers. They have three phases which are low pressure , medium pressure and high pressure . They use 3 phase because they want to increase the efficiency of the power plant with using all phase of steam. Heat recovery boilers consist of deaeratordom super-heater and cold-heater and economizer.







Steam Turbine

2.1.2. Steam Turbine After gas turbines done their jobs. They obtain air which is at 1350 C and f they let it go to the nature we might face with lots of natural problem. They dont let it go and moreover they use this air to obtain some new electricity from steam turbine. Steam turbine can generate 237 MW/h of electricity with 50 hz revolution. Steam turbine has three pressure phase high pressure medium pressure and low pressure.They use this three phase to use the potential energy more efficiently. At the end of the gas turbines work the air reduces its heat to 100C. There are 2 steam turbine they obtain 237*2 MW/h =474MW/h which corresponds to %33 energy of total power plant .They dont waste any energy however efficiency is not

more than %55. 2.2 ANNUAL GENERATION As I have already mentioned in Bursa power plant there are 2 symetric block and each block has two gas turbines and one steam turbine. Gas turbines generate 232 MW/h each and steam turbine 237MW/h totally one block can generate 704MW/h and since there are two blocks the power plant can generate 704*2=1408 MW/h. When Bursa Power Plant established it can provided %8 energy of Turkey however now it can only provide %3.5 nearly %4.That means energy sector growing significantly fast.


Voltage output of the power plant is 13.08 KV and there are two types of transmition line one is 154 kV which they use this line to transfer energy to a closer place like Gemlik, Gkta, Demirta and other is 380kV which they use for far centers like Adapazar,Teperen(Istanbul) and ta (anakkale).They use 380kV for far centers because since the Voltage is high current will small and if current small energy loss will be smaller. Gemlik, Gkta, Demirta, Aslelik, Otosansit 1 ve 2 and Bursa SanayiSitesi are supplied by 154 kVs bus and Adapazar, Bursa SanayiSitesi, Teperen and ta (anakkale) are supplied by 380 kVs bus. Energy production in natural gas power plants can change regarding to other types of power plants energy production to illustrate this in summer you may not find water to produce energy in hydro-electric power plants and you need to fill this gap with other types of power plant so you need to use natural gas power plant and in the winter citizens demand more natural gas due to that natural gas power plants doesnt produce a lot energy . As you can observe from the generation chart energy production showing big differences year to year because government does not want to use natural gas power plant because natural gas is coming from other countries like Russia and Iran. the YEARS 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 PRODUCTION(MWh) 4.769.421 9.149.350 10.654.140 8.589.123 3.097.440 764.917 2.384.187 5.008.734 8.110.871 8.956.289 8.478.411 7.097.587


3.Work Done 3.1 RESEARCH 3.1.1 SCADA SYSTEM Scada control system is the most significant thing in Bursa Power Plant it is a data acquisition system. By using this system without human hand you can control the following things. a) Monitoring generated energy b) Control cooling towers and cooling water c) Control gas turbine and steam turbine energy generation d) Control substance they add to obtain pure water e) Control water pumps and oil pumps f) Control transformers g) Finally works done in real time without any significant delay Scada system done all these jobs with the help of sensors and PID system which I m going to explain below. Part of Scada System PID System A proportionalintegralderivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate constant parameters, and is accordingly

sometimes called three-term control: the proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted P, I, and D. Heuristically, these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change.[1] The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve, or the power supplied to a heating element. In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process, a PID controller has historically been considered to be the best controller.[2] By tuning the three parameters in the PID controller algorithm, the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability.Some applications may require using only one or two actions to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise, whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action


Physical systems Scada system physical events are temperature ,pressure and velocity . At this part simply sensors convert analog data that they ve taken and convert in to digital data and finally these data are computerized.

Signal Processing

This system is used to increase the quality of signals which are made by sensors. Some way of this processing is scaling, linearization, filtering and amplification. The systems which are based on PC generally use amplification in order to make signal clear. Data Collection and Control Equipment

Control equipment has some units and cards which is placed on PC bearing element. Some of the units are CPU, operating system, analog input and output, counter and timer, programmable amplifier, memory and buffer memory. In order to evaluate, screen and save the data which are collected, they should be transferred to PC. The crucial point is that if we assume that our card is programmed for converting every second, when card makes analog to digital conversion, it should transfer the data immediately.


3.1.2 Research Switchyard Although we are not allowed to get in to switchyard without any engineer it is one of the most significant part of the power plant. Thus I havent taken any lesson about power electric devices I didnt know anything about switchyard . Switchyards consist of of selectors, breakers(Even if there is a short circuit condition, it interrupts circuit under load condition), busbars(is a conductor and it is used to communication of equipments which control and conduct electrical energy.) and auxiliary accoutrements that I am going to explain below. Bursa power plants switchyard consist of two blocks 154 Kv and 380 Kv First part is fed by first block of the plant which has gas turbine 11-12 and steam turbine 1. Second part is fed by second block of the plant which has gas turbine 21-22, steam turbine 2. Maneuver is done by order of dispatching center. There are current and voltage transformers (decreases high voltage and phase difference is close to zero. AC voltage leads to current on primary winding. This current triggers magnetic flux and with the effect of this flux, voltage is occurred on secondary winding), surge arresters, insulators and conservation wires in the first and second parts. Output of the plant is 13.8 kV and by using transformers it converts to 154 kV and 380 kV and in order to make 154 kV / 380 kV and 380 kV / 154 .


3.2 TEST AND CONTROL 3.2.1 Diesel Generator Test Diesel generator is working for to generate 14MW .It is tested twice in a month. Its purpose is when 154 kV and 380 kV transmission lines are disabled diesel generator supplies electricity in order to feed where it need. In this test we focus on the electrical values and mechanical values. Electrical values are AC voltages , current , power , and power factor. Mechanicals are oil temperature water temperature. Test includes two parts with load and without load. In load part excessive vibration is occurred due to incompatibility of freq. Load part takes 4 minutes and other part takes 10 minutes and after 5 minutes test is terminated then engineers decided to order new governor card which adjust controlling of the primary frequency automatically. 3.2.2Control Oil Pump Oil pump has one significant purpose in the power plant. It cools the mechanical devices running part. Like transformers or gas turbine . Controlling oil pump system contain two important main and auxiliary oil pump .For controlling oil pump fault signal is warned because of excessive vibration. Engineers deactivate this unit and activate auxiliary oil pump.


We have made some test like temperature control with thermal cameras and current test after those test we have noticed that oil temperature is too high . So device is need to maintenance immediately.

3.2.3Water Pump Test We can split the water pumps in to two main and auxiliary water pumps. Main water pump can be splited in to three low pressure high pressure and medium pressure . Simply they are working for to use the 3 phase of the steam and increase the efficiency of the energy. If there is a problem on main water pumps auxiliary pumps starts to work . The water pumps should be tested twice in a month. Test is splited in to two first main pump test second auxiliary pump test. In this test engineers measure the pressure level of each different pressure level and decide if they make pressure enough or not. While they were making the test they got help from scada system for measuring the pressure levels. Finally they decide that there is no problem on water pumps. 3.2.4 AUXILIARY ENERGY UNIT Normally the energy that power plant produces feed the facilities of the Bursa Power Plant and as you can guess there are some places which need energy without any corruption like first aid room or fire department. For this purpose there is a energy unit which is consisted of batteries. There always 1MW energy store in this unit. Energy unit is charged by the power plant when plant is online and it is simply feed the power plants significant places The energy unit is tested frequently once in a month.


Test contain just one part, engineers corrupt the energy which feed the facilities of the power plant than they will test if auxiliary unit feed the significant rooms or not. Finally they observe that there is no problem with auxiliary unit. 4. CONCLUSION First of all t was my first experience on real engineering working area. I was very curious about electric and electronic engineering applications. I have learned lots of things about how a natural gas power plants works and how energy is transmitted to us. In my first ten days I read manual of the power plant however it was too complicated and too advance for me. So I started to search what I had wanted to learn, from internet and I asked lots of question to my supervisor engineer OrhanKk. Thus they are not in revision he had many time to explain how power plant works. Every day we went some part of power plant and he explained how things work. Mostly I have worked on how gas turbines and steam turbines works. I havent taken power electronic and power electronic devices lessons in Bilkent University so I need to study some lessons which I have never seen before. I guess it has been beneficial for me. After that my supervisor took me to the switchyard and explain which device work for what . In my last ten days I changed my department and I transferred to testing and controlling department. In this department I spent most of my time with technicians and I tried to learn technical parts. I have learned how scada system works and I have worked on PID systems. To sum up I have done my summer practice frankly I has been beneficial for me in terms of engineering knowledge. I had a change to experiment what I have learned in my lessons.


5. References

[1] This graph is taken from EVD Energy Efficiency Consulting

[2]This graph is taken from EVD Energy Efficiency Consulting [3] This flow diagram is taken from information notes about the power plant [4]This flow diagram is taken from information notes about the power plant [5] [6] This graph is taken from EVD Energy Efficiency Consulting

Sources which I used indicated below; a) b) Electricity Generation Incorporated Company Bursa Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant Operational Management sources especially General Information Notes. J.Kuffel, E.Kuffel, W. Zaengl, High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals