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BASIC PENUMATIC OPERATIONS
1. To get an idea about pneumatic equipments. 2. To understand about pneumatic logic circuits.
1. Followed the given circuit diagrams and completed the all circuits by using supplied equipments. 2. The complete behavior of the system was observed.
we can understand the operation of this valve.1 The operation of shuttle valve By constructing the above circuit. 6.1. Compressor is the power source and connected lines are power paths. SHUTTLE VALVE CIRCUIT FIG. . PB-1 press press - PB-2 press press - CYLINDER extended extended extended - That means the valve is actuated as a logic OR gate. By observation we can see it is actually worked as a logic OR gate. In here two push buttons worked as two input switches in a logic circuit and the single acting cylinder is worked as the indicator.
2. we can understand the behavior of this valve. PB-1 press press PB-2 press press CYLINDER extended - . we can say it is worked as a logic AND gate. 6. Considering the two push button operated 3/2 way valves as inputs. TWO PRESSURE VALVE CIRCUIT FIG.2 The operation of two pressure valve By simulating above.
6. we were named the two cylinders as A and B and extension moment was denoted by “+” sign and retraction moment was denoted by “ -“ sign. After the full extension of the second one. SEQUENCE CIRCUIT FIG.3 Pneumatic diagram for the given sequential operation Our problem is to actuate two double acting cylinders in following manner. We want to repeat this procedure as a loop. at the same moment the second one should starts its retraction.B- . A+ B+ A. at the same moment the first one should starts its retraction. 1. After the full retraction of first one. Actuate 1 cylinder first 2. 4. 3. For example.3. When it is fully extend the other one should start its actuation. Extension of cylinder A is denoted as A+ and retraction of it is denoted as ASo according to the above notation our requirement can be explained as. Before we continue.
In here we were got some idea about connecting a hydraulic circuit. we were design a simple pneumatic system with a theoretical manner and evaluated it by using real components. there are only be two kind of errors. Both of these systems have various applications in industry. The pressure was controlled to 6 bars by using a pressure regulating valve. Within our first practical. In here pilot operated 5/2 way vale was replaced by the solenoid operated 5/2 way valve and roller operated 3/2 way valves are replaced by limit switches. it is came as the first practical. When considering the pneumatic systems. and also a single acting cylinder can control by using an 3/2 way valve. Then the actuator is actuated by the proper handling of directional control valves. the fluid lines are reduced when we use electric control. So the pilot operated valves were used. Gear) and pressurized the liquid (hydraulic oil) and extra pressure is released by the relief valve. In our first practical we were used roller operated 3/2 way valves and pilot operated 5/2 way valves for pneumatic control purpose. then we can say pneumatic system is much more effective than the hydraulic system. an every pneumatic system is consisted with a compressor. then we have to use 5/2 way valve to control it. If we can neglect the load limitation. When cindering our simple hydraulic system.DISCUSSION : Within this practical session we were studied about the construction of simple pneumatic and hydraulic circuits. etc. A hydraulic circuit is basically constructed with a hydraulic pump. motor. So cost become less and complexness of the circuit becomes less. pressure relief valve. That means if we want to control double acting cylinder. In here we only used pneumatic valves for both control circuit and power circuit. When compeering those two circuits. control valve and an actuator (ram. Human errors can completely remove and some component nonlinearities may affect in high precession applications. it was basically depend on the counter balance valve which is used to control the retraction of the hydraulic ram. Within this practical. In this practical we were got an idea about how to connect directional valves with an actuator. They are. The design of a pneumatic system has some kind of methodology as we were seen in our practical. we also study to manipulate those valves in real world applications. component errors and instrument errors. .. When considering the practical “Lift and transfer station” . Considering the errors of our pneumatic radicals. And we were studied about two special type of logic valves called Shuttle valve (for logic OR function) and Two pressure valve (for logic AND function). air service unit. but the difference is the control is taken by the limit switches and solenoids. Because there is a systematic way to approach to the solution. Axial piston.). The electrically powered motor drives the pump (Vane type. control valves and actuator.
because the S1 limit control the S1 valve. Because of that we were used normally open 3/2 way valve for S3 and normally closed 3/2 way valve as our start switch which can be bush and actuate. . According to those variables we can suggest four roller operated 3/2 way valves which are actuated with our 4 limit switches in some programmed manner. when we pressed the start switch the cylinder A gets extend and S1 connection lost and S2 connection build up with time. we can add another push button operated 3/2 way valve as start switch. In here. A+ B+ ABS1 S2 S2 S1 S3 S3 S4 S4 S3 S2 S4 S1 The column of the above table can named as uncommon variable table according to our solution method. According to our diagram. In our diagram. When the piston of A reached to the S1 position. the normally open S3 is denoted as initially pressed normally closed 3/2 way valve. then S1 sends the signal to B for retraction through S1 valve and actuator becomes the 5/2 way valve which was connected to the cylinder B. After the piston of B reached to the S4 position it sends the signal to cylinder A to get retraction. S2. the A+ is the first operation and we are using a start switch. S3 and S4 are the 4 limit switches which are used to track the moments of full retractions and extensions. In here we have to control 2 double acting cylinders with pneumatically signaling manner. According to our solution strategy. The valve S1 also initially pressed. So we have to use 2 pilot operated 5/2 way valves for our design. When it reached to S2 the valve S2 gets actuate and energized the cylinder B through its 5/2 way valve.I here the S1. Then we were constructed the following table which was used to draw above pneumatic diagram. for A+ operation the S3 valve should signaled to actuation of the cylinder A. For safety and quality of our design.
hence. allowing air to flow from „P2‟ to „A‟ only. air pressure is applied alternately to the relative surface of the piston. air motors and etc… PENUMATIC CYLINDER Once actuated. a wheel which is used make reciprocating motion of a piston (piston type compressor) and etc. and compressed some trapped amount air at a time and store pressure energy. this type of cylinder has limited extension due to the space the compressed spring takes up. the piston becomes displaced by the compressed air expanding in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. and a spring to return to the "home" position. a vane (vane type compressor). compressed air enters into the tube at one end of the piston and. Pneumatic cylinders are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. the sphere will seal and block the other inlet „P2‟. In a double acting cylinder.COMPRESSOR This is the instrument. SHUTTLE VALVE Shuttle valves are also known as double control or single control non-return valves. the sphere will block inlet „P1‟. Air can then flow from „P1‟ to „A‟. Single-acting cylinder Single-acting cylinders use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction. the thrust produced during retraction is relatively weak. The impeccable tubes of double acting cylinders are usually made of steel. More often than not.. As the effective area of the piston is small. Pneumatic symbol . pneumatic rams. A shuttle valve has two air inlets „P1‟ and „P2‟ and one air outlet „A‟. imparts force on the piston. The working surfaces are also polished and coated with chromium to reduce friction. This energized fluid is use to actuate several pneumatic elements such as valves. producing a propelling force and a retracting force. Consequently. When compressed air enters through „P1‟. which convert the electrical energy into the pressure energy. The electric motor rotates two intermeshing screws (screw compressor). When the contrary happens. Single acting cylinders are recommended for applications that require no more than 100mm of stroke length.
add two active inputs and the shuttle remains centralised allowing flow through the valve.) (a) Normally closed type (b) Normally open type . The valves can be driven manually.C. 3/2 directional control valves can further be divided into two classes: Normally open type (N.These valve types are commonly associated but not limited to safety circuits. Pneumatic symbol 3/2 WAY DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE A 3/2 way directional control valve can be used to control a single acting cylinder. Then another valve will open the sealed base between „A‟ and „R‟ (exhaust). electrically or pneumatically. mechanically.O. for example a two push button operation system whereby an operator is required to use both hands to activate two push buttons. This is achieved by a similar system to the one shown below.TWO PRESSURE VALVE A two pressure valve requires two pressurised inputs to allow an output from itself. this would ensure the operators hands are out of reach of any hazardous operations. The open valves in the middle will close until „P‟ and „A‟ are connected together.) and normally closed type (N. one active input slides the shuttle valve shut blocking any air flow.
The directional valves will remain in this operational position until signals of the contrary are received. connecting inlet „P‟ and work passage „B‟. Work passage „A‟ will then make a release of air through „R1‟ and „R2‟.5/2 WAY DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE When a pressure pulse is input into the pressure control port „P‟. Cross section of 5/2 way valve . the spool will move to the left.