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Kamarul ‘Asri Ibrahim, PhD

© copyright PCS-FKKKSA

Material Balance

Page 3-1

Introduction

** Material Balance (Mass Balance)
**

Based on the law of conservation of the mass (total mass input) = (total mass output)

** Objectives of this chapter
**

Drawing process diagrams Writing material balance equations based on BASIS Describing process variables Solving equations with unknown variables

© copyright PCS-FKKKSA

Material Balance

Page 3-2

Process Classiﬁcation

** Classification of processes
**

Batch : feed is charged, products are removed some time later Continuous : inputs and outputs flow continuously Semi batch process : semi continuous process

Condition of processes

Steady state : process variables do not change with time Transient (unsteady) state : process variables change with time

** Usage of processes
**

Batch processing is for relatively small quantity of products Continuous processing is better suited to large production rates.

© copyright PCS-FKKKSA

Material Balance

Page 3-3

There are four possible explanations for the observed difference? Methane is leaking from the unit Methane is either being consumed as a reactant or being generated as a product within the unit Methane is accumulating in the unit – possibly adsorbing on the walls The measurements are wrong Page 3-4 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance .Material Balance qin(kg CH4/h) SYSTEM qout (kg CH4/h) Suppose methane is a component of both the input and output streams of a continuous process unit but the mass flow rates of methane in both streams are measured and found to be different.

General Balance Equation qin(kg CH4/h) SYSTEM qout (kg CH4/h) Input .Output + Generation .Consumption = Accumulation Input : Enters through system boundaries Output : Leaves through system boundaries Generation : Produced within the system Consumption : Consumed within system Accumulation : Buildup within system Material Balance Page 3-5 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA .

Each term of the equation is then amount of the balanced quantity Unit: amount of quantity (kg SO2) Normally applied to batch process No accumulation term Page 3-6 Steady state balance © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance .Types of Balances Differential Balances (Rate) Integral Balances (Summing Up) Indicate what is happening in the system at an instant of time Each term of the balance equation is then a rate (eg: flow rate) Unit: balanced quantity unit divided by a time unit (kg SO2/hr). Describe what happens between two instants of time.

Output = Generation .Consumption PROCESS © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-7 .Output + Generation .Balance on Continuous Steady-State Process General material balance Input .Consumption = Accumulation For steady state. accumulation = 0 Then Input .

Example Problem 1000 kg/h of a mixture of Benzene (B) and Toluene (T) that contains 50% Benzene by mass is separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass ﬂowrate of Benzene in the top product is 450 kg B/hr and that Toulene in the bottom stream is 475 kg T/hr. Calculate the unknown component ﬂowrate in the output streams © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Process diagram 450 kg B/hr q1 kg T/hr Process 500 kg B/hr 500 kg T/hr q2 kg B/hr 475 kg T/hr Material Balance * Benzene balance 500 = 450 + q2 * Toluene Balance 500 = q1 + 475 Solution Q1 = 25 kg T/hr Q2 = 50 kg B/hr Page 3-8 Material Balance . It operates at steady state.

Working Session 1 80 kg/hr of a mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T) that contains 40% benzene by mass are separated by distillation into two fractions. The operation is at steady state.8 kg B/kg and that of toluene in the bottom stream is 0.8 kg T/kg. © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-9 . The mass fraction of benzene in the product top stream is 0. Write balances on benzene and toluene to calculate the flow rate in the output streams.

0% benzene and ml (kg) of a residual liquid containing 89. Write the integral balances on total mass an on benzene 3. The operation is is at steady state 1.4% toluene by mass. Determine the expected values of mv and ml Page 3-10 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance . Draw the process flowchart 2.Working Session 2 100 kg of a liquid mixture of Benzene (B) and Toluene (T) that contains 55% benzene by mass in a closed container is partially evaporated to yield mv (kg) of vapor containing 85.

Material Balance Input + generation – output – consumption = accumulation Steady state . accumulation = 0 No reaction involved . 0.45 mv kg /h xB= 0.106ml © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance 3. Process flowchart 100 kg /h xB= 0.7) + 0.3) ~ 45 OK! Page 3-11 .106 xT = 0.894(40.55 xT = 0.3kg B/h Verify solution with Toluene bal.894 2.45(100) = 0.85mv + 0.55(100) = 0.Solution to Working Session 2 1.15mv + 0.15 Distillation column ml kg /h xB= 0. Solution mv = 59.85 xT = 0. Input = Output Total balance : 100 = mv + ml Benzene balance : 0.15(59.894ml 45 = 0. generation = consumption = 0 Hence.7 kg T/h ml = 40.

Integral Balances on Batch Process Inputinitial + Generation = Outputﬁnal + Consumption Accumulation = Outputﬁnal .Inputinitial Accumulation = Generation .Consumption © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-12 .

Integral Balances on Batch or Semi-batch Processes Integral balance on batch processes Sometimes it can be treated like steady-state processes Integral balance on Semi-batch and continuous process Sometimes it can be easily solved. Require integration over period of time © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-13 .

The first mixture contains 40 wt% methanol.6) + (150)(0.4 gM/g) + (150 g)(0.529 g CH3OH/g Water Balance (For checking) (200)(0. and the second contains 70 wt% methanol.Balances on a Batch Mixing Process 200 g 0. If 200 g of the mixture are combined with 150 g of the second. what are the mass and composition of the product? Methanol Balance (200 g)(0.3 g H2O/g PROCESS Total Mass Balance 200 g + 150 g = Q Q = 350 g Q x (g CH3OH/g) Problem Two methanol-water mixtures contained in separate flasks.4 g CH3OH/g 0.6 g H2O/g 150 g 0.3) = (350)(1-0.529) ok! © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-14 .7 g M/g) = (350g) (x gM/g) x = 0.7 g CH3OH/g 0.

Working Session 3 100 kg of a liquid mixture of Benzene (B) and Toluene (T) that contains 45% toluene by mass in a closed container is partially evaporated to yield mv (kg) of vapor containing 15. Determine the expected values of mv and ml Page 3-15 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance .0% toluene and ml (kg) of a residual liquid containing 10. Write the integral balances on total mass an on benzene 3. The operation is in equilibrium 1. Draw the process flowchart 2.6% benzene by mass.

Material Balance Inputinitial + generation = outputfinal + consumption No reaction involved .894 2.106 xT = 0.85mv + 0.106ml 3.55(100) = 0.15 Closed Container ml kg xB= 0. Solution mv = 59.45 mv kg xB= 0.3 kg B © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-16 .Solution to Working Session 3 1.85 xT = 0.55 xT = 0. Inputinitial = Outputfinal Total balance : 100 = mv + ml Benzene balance : 0. Process flowchart 100 kg xB= 0.7 kg T ml = 40. generation = consumption = 0 Hence.

output calculate unknown values Flow Charts : simple way to visualize process flow PFD (Process flow diagram) P&ID (Process and Instrumentation diagram) © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-17 .Material Balance Calculations Objective : Given values of input.

these gasses are recompressed and sent to a high pressure distillation column in which propane and propylene are separated. One hundred pound per hour of propane are fed to pre heater where they are heated to 670oC before being passed to reactor. The stripped oil is recycled to the absorption tower. The product stream from the distillation column contains 98% propylene and the recycled stream is 97% propane.Beneﬁts of using ﬂowcharts Process Description The catalytic dehydrogenation of propane is carried out in a continuous packed bed reactor. The reactor efﬂuent which consist of propane. releasing dissolved gases. methane. easy to understand Material Balance Page 3-18 . not easy to understand © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Compact. hydrogen is cooled from 800oC to 110oC and fed to an absorption tower where the propane and propylene are dissolved in oil. The oil then goes to stripping tower in which it is heated. propylene. Flowchart Preheater 100 lbm/h propane 670oC Recycle Stream (97% Propane) Reactor (dehygdro -genation) Cooler 800oC Propane Propylene Methane Hydrogen 110oC High P Distillation Propane Propylene Stripping Tower Propane Propylene Oil Absorption Tower Methane Hydrogen Oil 98% Propylene Oil Complex.

The flowchart is given below: 50 mol C3H8 750 mol O2 3760 mol N2 150 mol CO2 200 mol H2O 100 mol C3H8 Combustion Chamber 50 mol C3H8 750 mol O2 Condenser 1000 mol O2 3760 mol N2 200 mol H2O © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance 3760 mol N2 150 mol CO2 Page 3-19 . condensing water. and the product is then cooled.Example: Development of Flowcharts Gas containing N2 and O2 is combined with propane in a batch combustion chamber in which some (but not all) of the O2 and C3H8 react to form CO2 and H2O.

Rules for Labeling Flowchart (1) Write the values and units of all known stream variables at the locations of the streams on the chart.4 atm © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-20 . Example: A stream containing 21 mol % O2 and 79 mol % N2 at 3200C and 1.21 mol O2/mol 0.79 mol N2/mol T = 3200C and P = 1.4 atm flowing at the rate of 400 mol/h might be labeled : 400 mol/h 0.

Flow rate of the stream and the fractions of each components 100 kmol/min 0.6 kmol N2/kmol 0.4 kmol O2/kmol © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-21 . Amount or Flow rate of each component 60 kmol N2/min 40 kmol O2/min 2.Rules for Labeling Flowchart (2) The information can be given in two ways: as the total amount or flow rate of the stream and the fractions of each component: 1.

x kg N2/kg.Rules for Labeling Flowchart (3) Assign algebraic symbols to unknown stream variables (such as Q kg solution/min. Unknown : ﬂow rate Unknown : fraction N (mol/h) 0.4 atm 400 mol/h y (mol O2/mol) 1-y (mol N2/mol) T = 320 oC.79 mol N2/mol T = 320 oC.21 mol O2/mol 0.4 atm Try to limit the unknown to the minimum © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-22 . P = 1.) and write these variable names and their associated units on the chart . etc. n kmol C3H8. P = 1.

5 mole% water. Draw and label ﬂowchart of the process. The output gas is analyzed and is found to contain 1. © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-23 . the balance N2). fed at a rate of 20. Three inputs streams are fed into an evaporation chamber to produce an output stream with the desired composition A: Liquid water. C: Pure O2. B: Air (21 mol% O2.Example: Development of Flowchart Air Humidiﬁcation and Oxygenation Process An experiment on the growth rate of certain organisms requires the establishment of an environment of humid air enriched in oxygen. and calculate all unknown stream variables.0 cm3/min. with a molar ﬂow rate 1/5 of the molar ﬂow rate of stream B.

21 mol O2/mol 0.985 .y mol O2/mol 20.0 H2O L/min W mol H2O/min Please work on ‘TEST YOURSELF’ questions in page 93) Page 3-24 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance .015 mol H2O/mol y mol O2/mol 0.Air Humidiﬁcation and Oxygenation Process Let Q = molar ﬂow rate of air of stream B Let W = molar ﬂow rate of liquid water of stream A Given : molar ﬂow rate of water in stream A = one ﬁfth of air molar ﬂow rate of stream B 0.79 mol N2/mol cm3 F mol/min 0.2Q mol O2/min Q mol air/min 0.

since material balances on both system components C6H6 and C7H8 are satisﬁed [1 kg in = (2 x 0.Flowchart Scaling and Basis of Calculation 1 kg C6H6 1 kg C7H8 2 kg 0.5 kg C6H6/kg 0.5 kg C7H8/kg The process is balanced.5) kg out in both cases] Masses (but not the mass fractions) of all streams could be multiplied by a common factor and the process remain balanced This procedure of multiplication is referred as scaling the ﬂowchart scaling up – ﬁnal stream quantities are larger than original quantities scaling down .if they are smaller © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-25 .

Flowchart Scaling and Basis of Calculation 1 kg C6H6 1 kg C7H8 Process 2 kg 0.5 lbm C6H6/lbm 0.5 lbm C7H8/lbm Material Balance 300 lbm/h C6H6 300 lbm/h C7H8 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Page 3-26 .5 kg C6H6/kg 0.5 kg C7H8/kg I am telling you this time only !!!! mass or mol fractions will not change with scaling multiply by 300 300 kg C6H6 300 kg C7H8 Process 600 kg 0.5 kg C7H8/kg kg kg/h replace kg with lbm Process 600 lbm/h 0.5 kg C6H6/kg 0.

It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous feed of 1250 lb-moles/h.60 mol A/mol 0.05 mol B/mol © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-27 . A ﬂowchart of the process is shown.40 mol B/mol Process 12.5 mol A 37. Scale the ﬂowchart accordingly.5 mol B 0.95 mol A/mol 0.Scale-up of a Separation Process Flowchart A 60-40 mixture (by moles) of A and B is separated into two fractions. 50 mol 100 mol 0.

Scale-up of a Separation Process Flowchart The scale factor is Top Product Stream: (50.60 lb-mole A/lb-mole 0.5) = 469 lb-moles/h 625 lb-moles/h 0.40 lb-mole B/lb-mole © copyright PCS-FKKKSA .5)(12.05 lb-mole B/lb-mole Process 156 lb-mole A/h 469 lb-mole B/h Material Balance Page 3-28 1250 lb-moles/h 0.0)(12.5) = 156 lb-moles/h (37.5) = 625 lb-moles/h Bottom product stream: (12.5)(12.95 lb-mole A/lb-mole 0.

it is usually most convenient to use this quantity as a basis of calculations all unknown variables are then determined to be consistent with this basis For rule of thumbs for process with no reaction : mass is normally use with liquid number of mol is use for gas If no stream amounts or ﬂow rates are known. assume one preferably with that of a stream with a known composition Page 3-29 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance . If a stream amount or ﬂow is given in a problem statement.BASIS The ﬁrst step is to choose an amount (mass or moles) or a mass or molar ﬂowrate of a stream as a basis of calculations The input ﬂowrate: 100 mol/h CO2 The production of 5 kg/h of product.

If ﬂow rates are not given. Compositions remain unchanged. assume one of input ﬂow rates. © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-30 .Material Balances Basis Flowchart scaling up/down Changing values of all amounts or ﬂow rates by proportional amount. Basis of calculation If ﬂow rates are given. use speciﬁed values and units.

75 kg C6H6 /kg © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-31 . The process flowchart might be drawn and labeled as shown: Total Mass Balance 3 kg/min + 1 kg/min = Q Q = 4 kg/min Benzene Balance 3 kg C6H6/min = 4 kg/min ( x C6H6/kg) x = 0.Balancing a Process 3 kg C6H6/min PROCESS 1 kg C7H8/min Q kg/min x kg C6H6 /kg 1 – x kg C7H8/kg Problem Suppose that 3 kg/min of Benzene and 1 kg/min of Toluene are mixed.

Problem Bookkeeping A procedure to discover that all the required information is available to solve speciﬁed problem. Procedure Drawing ﬂowchart Identifying variables Identifying equations Degree of freedom analysis #df = Number of Unknowns – Number of independent equations A problem is solvable if the value of #df = 0 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-32 .

Degrees of Freedom #df = (number of species) .(number of independent equations) Case 1 (exactly determined – exactly speciﬁed) If #df = 0. There are a lot of solutions. Process is underspeciﬁed by #df equation Case 3 (over determined – over speciﬁed) If #df < 0. No solution for this system. Process is over speciﬁed by #df equation © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance #df = 0 #df = 1 #df = -1 Page 3-33 . Solution is unique Process is exactly speciﬁed Case 2 (underdetermined – underspeciﬁed) If #df > 0.

… Stoichiometric Relations If reaction takes place in process.x1. of species (N) = No. Stream 2 ﬂowrate is 0.…) e. of independent equations for nonreactive process An energy balance One unknown ( T..g.Available Relations for Bookkeeping Material balances No.5 of stream 3 ﬂowrate Physical properties and laws Thermodynamic relations and physical properties data e. Q. the stoichiometric equation for the reaction 2H2 + O2 2H2O Page 3-34 © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance . PV = nRT Physical constraints For Mass Fraction x1 = 0.9 then x2 = 1 .. or m) Process speciﬁcation Requirement (based on economics.g.

2. Do the problem bookkeeping. 8.Outline of a Procedure for Material Balance Calculations 1. Draw a ﬂow chart. Solve equations. 3. 9. Convert volume ﬂow rates to mass or molar ﬂow rates. Label unknown stream variables on the chart. Translate given information to equations. 6. Choose as a basis of calculation an amount or ﬂow rate of one of the process streams. Scale up/down © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-35 . Write material balance equations. 10. 5. and ﬁll in all given values. 7. 4. Convert mixed mass and molar ﬂow rates to mass or molar ﬂow rates.

An overhead stream 95 wt% B is produced. Contains “8 % of the B in the feed”).g. Solution (1) Basis: Given Feed rate (2) Draw ﬂowchart and label it (3) Label unknown stream variables on the chart. Determine the overhead ﬂow rate and the mass ﬂow rates of benzene and toluene in the bottom stream. The feed rate is 2000 kg/h. © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-36 . Write the relationship between known and unknown variable (e.Material Balances on a Distillation Column A mixture containing 45% benzene (B) and (55%) toluene (T) by mass is fed to a distillation column. and 8% of the benzene fed to the column leaves in the bottom stream.

95 kg B/kg 0.45 kg B/kg 0.05 kg T/kg contains 8% of the B in the feed wB kg B/kg wT kg T/kg (4) Do the problem book keeping. .How many independent equations? .55 kg T/kg . the problem can in principal be solved © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-37 2000 kg/h 0.Balances on a Distillation Column D kg/h 0.How many unknowns? .If the numbers are equal.

Problem Bookkeeping In General. wB and wT. Process speciﬁcations. Mass balance equations . Example: Two of the unknown variables may be the mass and volume of a stream material. up to N material balances may be written (N = number of independent species involved in the process) Energy balance. Physical Properties and law. Sum of mole fraction = 1.D.2 Other relation – relative quantity of benzene in the bottom ﬂow rate © copyright PCS-FKKKSA Material Balance Page 3-38 . Needs 3 independent equations.0 For Distillation problem. in which tabulated speciﬁc gravity (for liquid and solid) or a gas law may provide relationship between variables. Mass Balances – for non reactive process. Unknowns . Physical constraints.

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