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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

Created on Thursday, January 15, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

This NCCI gives information concerning the calculation of the buckling length for columns, to be used for the buckling verification (slenderness approach). Simple aids (e.g. diagrams, tables) are presented.

Contents

  • 1. Basis

2

  • 2. Columns in building frames

2

Page 1

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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  • 1. Basis

NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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The buckling length L cr of a compression member is the length of an otherwise similar member with “pinned ends” (ends restrained against lateral movement but free to rotate in the plane of buckling) which has the same elastic critical buckling load.

In the absence of more accurate information, the theoretical buckling length for elastic critical buckling may conservatively be adopted.

An equivalent buckling length may be used to relate the critical load of a member subject to non-uniform loading to that of an otherwise similar member subject to uniform loading.

An equivalent buckling length may also be used to relate the critical load of a non-uniform member to that of a uniform member under similar conditions of loading and restraint.

  • 2. Columns in building frames

The buckling length L cr of a column in a non-sway mode may be obtained from Figure 2.1.

Pinned Fixed Fixed Pinned
Pinned
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned

Figure 2.1

Buckling length ratio L cr / L for a column in a non-sway mode

Page 2

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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The buckling length L cr of a column in a sway mode may be obtained from Figure 2.2.

Pinned Fixed Fixed Pinned
Pinned
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned

Figure 2.2

Buckling length ratio L cr / L for a column in a sway mode

The following empirical expressions may be used as conservative approximations instead of reading values from Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2:

  • a) non-sway mode (Figure 2.1)

    • L cr

= 0,5
L

+ 0,14 η + η

()

(

+ 0,055 η + η

1

2

 

1

2

  • L cr

1

0, 2

(

η η

1

2

+

)

=

  • L )

1

0,8

(

η η

1

2

+

  • b) sway mode (Figure 2.2)

− 0,12 η η 1 2 + 0,6 η η 1 2
− 0,12
η η
1
2
+ 0,6
η η
1
2

)

2

(2.1)

(2.2)

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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For the theoretical models shown in Figure 2.3 the distribution factors η 1 and η 2 are obtained from:

η

1

=

K

c

K

c

+

K

11

+

K

12

η

2

=

K

c

K

c

+

K

21

+

K

22

where

K c

and

K ij

is the column stiffness coefficient I/L

is the effective beam stiffness coefficient

(2.3)

(2.4)

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(a) Non-sway mode

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(b) Sway mode

Figure 2.3

Distribution factors for columns

These models may be adapted to the design of continuous column, by assuming that each length of column is loaded to the same value ratio (N/N cr ). In the general case where (N/N cr ) varies, this leads to a conservative value of L cr /L for the most critical length of column.

For each length of a continuous column the assumption made above may be introduced by using the model shown in Figure 2.4 and obtaining the distribution factors η 1 and η 2 from:

η

1

=

K

c

+

K

1

K

c

+

K

1

+

K

11

+

K

12

η

2

=

K

c

+

K

2

K

c

+

K

2

+

K

21

+

K

22

where

K 1 and K 2 are the stiffness coefficients for the adjacent lengths of column.

(2.5)

(2.6)

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Figure 2.4

Distribution factors for continuous column

Where the beams are not subject to significant axial forces, their effective stiffness

coefficients may be determined by reference to Table 2.1, provided that they remain elastic

under the design moments.

Table 2.1

Effective stiffness coefficient for a beam

Conditions of rotational restraint at far end of beam

Effective beam stiffness coefficient K (provided that beam remains elastic)

   

I

Fixed at far end

1,0

L

 

I

Pinned at far end

0,75

L

Rotation as at near end

 

I

(double curvature)

1,5

L

Rotation equal and opposite to that at near end

I

(single curvature)

0,5

L

 

General case

⎜ ⎜ ⎝

1

+

0,5

θ

b

θ

a

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ I

L

Rotation θ a at near end and θ b at far end

 

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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For building frames with concrete floor slabs, provided that the frame is of regular layout and

the loading is uniform, it is normally sufficiently accurate to assume that the effective

stiffness coefficients of the beams are as shown in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2

Effective stiffness coefficient for a beam in a building frame with concrete floor slabs

Loading conditions for the beam

Non-sway mode

Sway mode

   

I

 

I

Beams directly supporting concrete floor slabs

1,0

L

1,0

L

 

I

I

Other beams with direct loads

0,75

1,0

L

 

L

 

I

I

Beams with end moments only

0,5

L

1,5

L

Where, for the same load case, the design moment in any of the beams exceeds W el f y /γ M0 , as a

conservative assumption the beam may be assumed to be pinned at the point or points

concerned.

Where a beam has semi-rigid joints, its effective stiffness coefficient should be reduced

accordingly.

Where the beams are subject to significant axial forces, their effective stiffness coefficients

should be adjusted accordingly. Stability functions may be used. As a simple alternative, the

increased stiffness coefficient due to axial tension may be neglected and the effects of axial

compression (when N/N E > 0,1) may be allowed for by multiplying the second moment of

area of the beams I by the factor

1

0, 4

N N ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

E

Where

N =

E

π

2

EI

2

L

or by using the conservative approximations given in Table 2.3.

Page 6

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NCCI: Buckling lengths of columns: rigorous approach

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Table 2.3

Approximate formulae for reduced beam stiffness coefficients due to axial compression

Conditions of rotational restraint at far end of beam

Effective beam stiffness coefficient K (provided that beam remains elastic)

   

I

⎜ ⎜

N N ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

N

Fixed

1,0

 

1

 

0, 4

   

L

I

E

Pinned

0,75

⎜ ⎜

1

1,0 N

0, 2

N

⎟ ⎟

1,5

I

L

⎜ ⎜

1

E

⎟ ⎟

Rotation as at near end (double curvature)

L

N

E

0,5

I

⎜ ⎜

1

N

⎟ ⎟

Rotation equal and opposite to that at near end (single curvature)

L

1,0 N

E

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RESOURCE TITLE

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Reference(s)

EN 1993-1-1

 

ORIGINAL DOCUMENT

   

Name

Company

Date

Created by

Matthias Oppe

RWTH

06.06.05

Technical content checked by

Christian Müller

RWTH

10.06.05

Editorial content checked by

D

C Iles

SCI

15/7/05

Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners:

     
  • 1. G W Owens

UK

SCI

30/6/05

France

  • 2. A bureau

CTICM

30/6/05

Sweden

  • 3. A Olsson

SBI

30/6/05

  • 4. Germany

C

Müller

RWTH

30/6/05

Spain

  • 5. J Chica

 

Labein

30/6/05

Resource approved by Technical Coordinator

G W Owens

SCI

08/6/06

TRANSLATED DOCUMENT

This Translation made and checked by:

   

Translated resource approved by:

     
       

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