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Elevated Neutral to Earth and Metallic Object to Earth Voltage Assessment Update Historical EPRI Research, 2005 2009

09 Strategic Roadmap and Future Research


Doug Dorr EPRI Solutions Inc. Director Project Development ddorr@eprisolutions.com 407-968-3010 February 17th 2006

Presentation Summary

Brief overview of past EPRI Stray Voltage research A few examples induced voltages and harmonic NEV 2005-2009 EPRI Stray Voltage Strategic Roadmap 2005 Completed Work 2006 Effort Future Stray Voltage Work

2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Questions and Concerns Fielded by the EPRI Solutions Power Quality Hotline
Personnel safety concerns related to touch potentials Animal contact area concerns related to health and productivity impacts Residential water and gas pipe shocking concerns Harmonic frequency voltages imposed on industrial gas lines Power circuit resonance conditions creating elevated NEV levels Shocking concerns with boat docks Insulated metallic pipe corrosion concerns Impacts of power line carrier communications technologies and other transient generating devices on stray voltage magnitudes Impacts of new gas and water line installations in power line right of ways Induced voltages onto fences and light poles Swimming pools and outdoor water faucets Different opinions on measurement equipment specifications, measurement protocols and measurement durations

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EPRI Stray Voltage Research Roadmap


The prioritized research plan identified five areas of opportunity where supplemental or new research was needed: Test and measurement protocols Modeling and simulation guidelines Test equipment and mitigation methods Technology transfer Informational website Regulatory guidance (NEV and MOEV baselines and what voltage levels are not a concern)

2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRI Program 128 Base Research Project Objectives and Solutions


The EPRI project provides information services and targeted research related to elevated neutral to earth voltage and metallic object to earth voltage concerns 2005 Informational website, measurement protocols 2006 Develop distribution system modeling and simulation guidelines 2007 Testing on mitigation and measurement devices and perform survey of NEV levels on distribution systems 2008 09 Regulatory informational support, design best practices and other R&D as directed by the project sponsors
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Some Examples of Past EPRI Research


EPRI TR 114340 Stray Voltage Sensitivity Levels for Dairy, Swine and Poultry EPRI TR 113566 Identifying Diagnosing and Resolving Residential Shocking Concerns EPRI EL-3106 V1, V2, V3, V4 This report series addresses complex common corridor coupling problems for overhead electric power transmission lines and buried natural gas pipelines Modeling and simulation results on the impact of automated meter reading technologies at animal contact points Dozens of field investigations involving dairy farms, gas pipelines, swimming pools, hot tubs and other stray voltage sources The first of its kind distribution wide NEV assessment model

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Some Examples of Past EPRI Research


The first successful installation of distribution system harmonic filters to mitigate elevated NEV caused by harmonic resonance Client confidential research into pedestrian level Urban Stray Voltage concerns White papers and technical briefs on topics related to stray voltage Workshops and seminars Five Wire Distribution Demonstration Project in Upstate NY

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Example of Coupling to a Pipeline EL-3106

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Example Trending Correlation of Transmission Loading (yellow) to NEV (red)

600.0

500.0

400.0

300.0

200.0

1 00.0

0.0 8/ 29/ 02 0:00

8/ 30/ 02 0:00

8/ 31 02 0:00 /

9/ 1 02 0:00 /

9/ 2/ 02 0:00

9/ 3/ 02 0:00

9/ 4/ 02 0:00

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Example of Harmonic NEV Concerns


An EPRI member utility and EPRI Solutions have jointly undertaken a research effort that involves modeling and simulation of substations The primary objective was to better understand the means of reducing neutral-to-remote earth voltage (NEV) levels on the primary power distribution circuits The main considerations were to: Replicate measured field data Develop a way to assess NEV at any point on a distribution circuit Determine what effects, if any, parametric variations on the resistances, impedances and capacitances of the substations and their distribution circuits might have on the NEV levels
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60Hz Currents Cancel while Triplen Harmonic Currents Add in the Return Path(s)
Balanced Three Phase Circuit I A = I a sin(t ) I B = I b sin(t 120 ) I C = I c sin(t + 120 ) I N = I A + I B + IC = 0

Balanced Circuit with Single Phase Loads I 3rdA = I 3rda sin(3t ) I 3rdB = I 3rdb sin 3(t 120 )

I 3rdC = I 3rdc sin 3(t + 120 )

[ [

] ]

I 3rdN = I 3rdA + I 3rdB + I 3rdC = 3 * I 3rda sin(3t )

From: L. Conrad et. al., Electric Shock and Elevated EMF Levels Due to Triplen Harmonics IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Volume 11, No. 2, April 1996
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Modeling and Simulation Overall Objective


The system model and the dynamic simulations
Allows for simulation and analysis of NEV levels and neutral currents along the distribution system under several types of utility, system conditions, or grounding. Enables a better way to understand how different electrical parameters impact the level of NEV and currents at points of interest during different utility load conditions (summer as well as winter)

The results of this modeling effort enable a better understanding of the methods that can be used to reduce NEV levels at customer connection points The results will allow for accurate estimates of the NEV levels that can be expected during both winter and summer conditions and provide a way to compare solutions form both a cost and a relative improvement perspective

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Modeling and Simulation What parameters were varied or evaluated in the models?
Neutral conductors Sizing and parallel configuration Neutral conductor impedance is a parameter that impacts the percentage of return currents that flow into the earth at N/G bonding points Grounding Resistance of the substation grid The resistance of the ground grid is in parallel with every other pole ground on the power system and in series with the current path through the earth back to the transformer XO bushing Resistance of the circuit pole grounds Every N/G bond on the power system has a measurable NEV with respect to remote earth as well as an equivalent resistance in parallel with the cable, telco and customer grounds
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Modeling and Simulation What parameters were varied or evaluated in the models?
Capacitor Banks Grounded versus ungrounded grounded cap banks may increase the amount of NEV a parallel resonance condition is present Circuit Loading Winter loading vs summer loading During peak loading conditions, more current will typically yield higher NEV levels even if the earth resistance does not change (V = R x I) Harmonic filter configurations Single circuit versus multi-circuit filters Harmonic filters are a new method of dealing with NEV when triplen harmonic currents are present
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Modeling and Simulation What parameters were not varied or evaluated in the models?
Distribution circuit voltage levels Lower voltage circuits have higher currents and NEV levels Load Balance Opportunities Balanced 60Hz currents cancel on the neutral Corroded (high impedance neutral connections) Future connection issues may impact NEV levels Individual residence impacts NEV was evaluated at the pole down ground Voltages induced onto metallic pipelines Gas and water lines can contribute to stray voltage Infinite combinations of harmonic filters (36 factorial)
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Substation Ground Grid Variation Example


Base Case Versus Substation Grid Variation Circuit 82 Branch 2
(Summer and Winter)
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9.8 9.1 Winter Base Condition Summer Base Condition Winter Sub Grid Variation Summer Sub Grid Variation

8 NEV (RMS Volts)

6.4 6.0

4 2.7 2.6 2 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.3 0.8 0.5 0


160 ft (Substation Riser) 1135 ft (Spiral and Driscoll) 1405 ft (Spiral and Azalea) 3340 ft (16th and Burnt Tavern) 4500 ft (16th and South Lake JC7) 5500 ft (20th and South Lake BT5910)

0.8 0.5

1.1 0.7

1 mile from sub

Location
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25% Reduction in Pole Ground Resistance


Base Case Versus Ground Rods Variation Circuit 82 Branch 2
(Summer and Winter)
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10

9.8 8.8

8 NEV (RMS Volts)

Winter Base Condition Summer Base Condition Winter Ground Rods Var Summer Ground Rods Var

6.4 6 5.8

2.7 2 2.1 1.8 1.4 2.0 1.4 1.3 0.8 0.5 0


160 ft (Substation Riser) 1135 ft (Spiral and Driscoll) 1405 ft (Spiral and Azalea) 3340 ft (16th and Burnt Tavern) 4500 ft (16th and South Lake JC7) 5500 ft (20th and South Lake BT5910) 1 mile from sub

0.8 0.5

1.1 0.7

Location
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Filter Schematic and Physical Photograph


Design consists of 3 capacitors connected in wye with a neutral reactor tuned to, or near, the 3rd harmonic

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Parametric Variations on One Circuit


Summer Variation Circuit 82: Circuit Going toward 16th and Burnt Tavern (Branch 2)
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20.38 UnGnd. Cap Variations UNGnd. Cap & filter at JC2248BK (83) & at JC228BKR44 (81) & at JC195BKT146 (82) & JC3211BK (80) Base Case Gnd. Cap Variations

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15 NEV

12
10.49

9.82

6
4.06

34.07

2.75

2.99

1.96 2.23 1.99 1.27 1405 ft (Spiral and Azalea)

1.34 0.99 0.82 0.94 3340 ft (16th and Burnt Tavern)

0.84 0.84 0.82 0.82

1.72

1.02 1.07 1.06 1.06 5500 ft (20th and South Lake BT5910)

0
160 ft (Substation Riser) 1135 ft (Spiral and Driscoll)

4500 ft (16th and South Lake JC7)

1 mile from sub

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Modeling Issues Identified and Resolved


Individual Circuit Modeling Versus Combined Circuit Modeling Neutral Interconnects Capacitor variations Filter variations Neutral variations Substation ground variations Representing Ground Rods (Utility Ground, Aggregate grounds to reflect CATV, Telephone, and Residential Dwelling grounds) along the Distribution Circuits Representing Substation Ground Resistance Linear and Non-Linear Load Representation Capturing distributed effects of capacitors, filters, etc. using a reduced distribution model versus a combined distribution model Matching Phase and Neutral currents to Measured Values at different points on the main line Difference between measurement times at lateral connections
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Generic NEV (and MOEV) Evaluation Priorities


Adequate call handling and response procedures Safe and accurate measurement protocols Adequate instrumentation and personnel training Consistent documentation for reporting and analysis Understanding of all the possible causes A procedure for peeling the onion start with all possibilities and systematically narrowing down the list Preventive maintenance and spot monitoring Design guidelines

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NEV Mitigation Priorities


Individual Customer Bonding/Grounding/Isolation Load Balancing (10 percent? 5 percent?) Neutral Impedance Assessment Harmonic Resonance Assessment Ungrounded Capacitors Tuned Harmonic Filters Neutral Impedance Reduction Grounding Assessment Earth Resistivity? Average Ground Rod Resistance Aggregate Services and Customer Ground Resistance Substation Ground Grid Resistance
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EPRI 2005 Base Project 128.003


Assessment of Metallic Object and Elevated Neutral-to-Earth Voltages in Distribution Systems Objectives:
Refine existing measurement protocols and get consensus on consistent repeatable investigation and assessment methodologies for the ranges of concerns including Pipelines, Swimming pools, Distribution system NEV concern points and Street level metallic objects Enhance the the case study database developed in the 2004 EPRI Elevated NEV TC project to include additional areas of interest such as telephone interference, gas and water pipeline induced voltages, rail lines and non-canceling harmonic currents Host NEV and MOEV website

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Technical Update Report is Available

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Technical Update Report is Available

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Section 1

Details the EPRI Stray Voltage Multi-Year Plan Describes the need for a comprehensive measurement protocol document to cover all areas of interest (Residential, Animal Contact, Urban Stray Voltage) Provides definitions that will be useful to the IEEE working group on stray voltage in their efforts (NEV, MOEV, Stray Voltage etc
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Section 2

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Measurement Section Focuses on the Consensus Recommended Practice

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Measurement Section Details the Equipment and Other Considerations used in the Assessment
Use of trending versus snapshot for time of days and source correlations Harmonics and the importance of understanding the spectral content of the NEV Pen Lights Hand Held Meters Data Loggers Multi Channel Recorders

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Section 3

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Section 3

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Section 4

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Section 4

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Section 5

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Section 5

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Section 6

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Section 6

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Section 7

Chapter Concept: Develop a simple means of checking your equipment and documenting its accuracy before doing any for the record testing

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128.003 Deliverable: Stray Voltage Website


On-Line since July 2005 http://strayvoltage.epri-peac.com

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IEEE Working Group Update


The Stray Voltage working group (WG) is a newly formed group under the distribution subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Committee. Website URL - http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/straywg The working group PAR (project authorization request) has been submitted and should be approved in the first quarter of 2006. The scope of the PAR is to develop an IEEE guide related to stray voltage that will potentially cover; definitions, measurement protocols and equipment, mitigation techniques, as well as proposed levels of nonconcern The WG met in January and finalized the PAR and reviewed a set of definitions supplied by a task force under the working group The WG is sponsoring a panel session at the May 21-24 T&D show in Dallas. Title: Stray VoltageCauses, Impacts and Mitigation PN27 Wednesday, May 24, 10:00 am-12:00 pm The next meeting of the WG will be at the IEEE PES Summer Power meeting in Montreal in June 2006 (meeting date and time TBD. For more information contact secretary: russ.ehrlich@.conectiv.com

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EPRI Stray Voltage Research Roadmap


The prioritized research plan identified five areas of opportunity where supplemental or new research was needed: Test and measurement protocols Modeling and simulation guidelines Test equipment and mitigation methods Technology transfer Informational website Regulatory guidance (NEV and MOEV baselines and what voltage levels are not a concern)

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2006-2009 Preliminary Research Recommendations


This project continues to provide information services and research results related to elevated neutral to earth voltage and metallic object to earth voltage concerns 2006 Develop distribution system modeling and simulation guidelines 2007 Testing on mitigation and measurement devices and perform survey of NEV levels on distribution systems 2007 09 Regulatory informational support and other R&D as directed by the project sponsors

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2006 Assessment of Elevated Neutral-to-Earth Voltages in Distribution Systems


Project Objectives and Solutions Develop best practices for Modeling and Simulation. Initiate industry association dialog to assist with emerging design practices for bonding and grounding. Support IEEE activities to develop proposed regulatory guidelines for establishing levels of concern for elevated neutral and metallic object to earth measured values Continue to add support material to update the NEV and Urban Stray Voltage Website Increase the number and range of examples in the case study database developed in 2004 and 2005 to include additional areas of interest such as telephone interference, gas and water pipeline induced voltages, rail lines and non-canceling harmonic currents

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2006 Modeling and Simulation Approach


A main goal in 2006 is to implement lessons learned from modeling and simulation studies to enable more efficient ways to model NEV across distribution systems Representation of aggregate ground resistance values Understanding of how ground currents and the corresponding NEV can be calculated in the circuit models Understanding how physical placement of neutral conductors can influence NEV levels This information will be the basis of modeling guidelines to potentially provide design objectives for new transmission segments, new substations and mitigation options for existing substations

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Questions this Project Should Resolve

Can simplified circuit models be used to accurately assess NEV levels across many miles of distribution circuits How do you accurately represent pole grounds rod in parallel with the telephone, cable, and customer service ground rods When the ground rods are paralleled, how do you determine the actual NEV value for a given pole ground? What potential impacts do distributed capacitor banks and grounding of those banks have on NEV levels How do you represent harmonic loads from customers What field measurements are required to confirm model results What equipment and protocols are required to insure field data is taken accurately What level of accuracy in terms of matching model results to field results is considered acceptable? How do you represent substation ground grid resistance in the model
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Conclusions

The EPRI Research Plan is aligned with the stray voltage roadmap described on the website at: http://strayvoltage.epri-peac.com The initiatives surrounding the Elevated Neutral to Earth and Metallic Object to Earth Impacts and Controls project are intended to supplement not repeat any previous or ongoing efforts The information repository on the website and the informational hotline are intended to bring support and technical expertise to personnel investigating elevated voltage concerns
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