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IN OUR TIME - vocab close to events; moments direct; fits mood of young men faced with war - r15

- snapshots of unforgettable moments; unimpt when they occur, impt in retrospect - r17 - sparing with adjectives; style harsh and unadorned - r17 - primitive modern idiom; largely monosyllabic, mechanical and concrete - r18 - little analysis; emph on sights and sounds - r19 - 2hearted: no plot, no catast; man at one with nature; feeling for background - r20 - emph on fulth; lack of humor; cant laugh at himself or his chars - r21 - phrases brittle, mordant, lean, spare; visual; hardboiled - r22 - chars not stiff and lifeless; very much alive - r24 - chars seem plausible but are one-dimensional - r25 - no unnecessary word; in fact, sometimes nec words missing - r26 - arrangement of chapters designed to suggest disorder - r29 - search for conns betw chaps and stories futile - r30 - emph on WWI in chaps not random; it was THE experience of his generation - r52 - chaps cover 1914-1923 inclusive - r52 - short stories explore from a distance what the chaps show close-up; detachmnt & distance - r63 - reader undergoes detachment and involvement - r63 - thematic obsession with the cruelty of life - r76 - inconsistent chronology in the chaps - r76 - scenes of war in first 7 chaps, 9-14 focus on bullfights; 8 & 15 focus on crime - r77 - pervasive irony of the bk, signalled by all to give us peace in our time, O lord, bcp - r77 - chap 8 shows that violence and death absurdities of war present in am city - r78 - major func of chaps is to discover and articulate a code of manhood - r78 - in bullfight chaps, growing emph on familiarity - r78 - loss of values in chaps 1-8; search for a code in 9-14; ironic postscript; chron emph on NA - r79 - Ns maturation not only painful but painfully slow - r80 - marital troubles a theme - r80 - fatherhood another theme - r80 - nick in rels with parents, friends, wife, society, finally with self and nature - r81 - fishing as a search for something permanent - r81 - metaphysical quest: finding a way to exist; how to be; living and dying well - r81 - pattern of movement, flight, desertion - r82 - implication that deep, enduring rel betw men and women is impossible - r82 - interchapters also used by Steinbeck in Grapes and by Melville in MD - r83 - several incidental conns betw adjacent or closely placed chaps and stories - r83 - resembles colls of interrelated stories, like Joyces Dubliners, Winesburg - r84 - existential anguish, spiritual bankruptcy, fragmented lives, disillusion, despair - r85 - chaps in 3 groups: 9 on war, 6 on bullfighting, 2 on crime - r90 - war to crime to bullfighting to crime to war pattern is definite and balanced - r90 - bk begins and ends with NA; in betw, Nick, chars like him, or themes NA themes - r90 - 7 stories abt NA; 3 with chars like NA; 4 with themes similar to those in NA stories - r90 - from youth to maturity, from innocence to exp, from peace to war to peace, US, Eur, US - r91 - here are the world and the human condition with the masks off, illusions stripped away - r91 - bullfighting a world in which violence is ritualized, aestheticized, controlled - r91

- 6 chaps deal with disorder, cruelty, violence, brutality, suffering, death; most of 1st half - r92 - bullfight chaps show need for courage, responsibility, determination, skill, grace - r93 - themes: prob of accepting world as it is and trying to live w meaning and value therein - r94 - N is forced to realize that his world and his place in it are neither comfortable or happy -r94 - paradoxically, Indians love for his wife and identification with her suff leads to his death - r94 - doctors cool professionalism and detachment bring baby into the world - r94 - battler teaches N that world is confused, treacherous, but not w/o love or compassion - r96 - Mr. & Mrs. Elliott seek escape in further romanticism, dissipation, perversion - r98 - My Old Man restates major theme of disillusionment; juxtd with peace in Big 2HR - r100 - in Big2H, N finds in fishing and manner of fishing at least beginnings of spiritual rewal - r101 - combines something of variety of anthology, something of the unity of a novel - r101 - Hems forte is not to describe what he saw but himself seeing it - r106 - like Es chars in WL, Hems chars in state of shock, sick to death, speechless, apathetic - r107 - NA, like Geo Willard in Winesburg, is more often observer than participant - r109 - unified, like Winesburg, by characteristic gestures, postures, emotional conditions - r110 - fear, escape, sexual maladjustment, sickness, violence - r117 - the book is a prose poem of terror, nothing more; no solutions offered - r118 - fruitless but polite marriages; understated agony of war; veneration for old but unbeaten - r120 - unified by underlying tone and mood somberness if not outright horror - r121 - Soldiers Home is central bec here Hem first expresses his ethic of virtue - r123 - 3 parts: education; disillusioned life; re-adjustment and re-education - r130 - Indian Camp introduces N to birth and death at same instant - r130 - first part: stark violence of war juxtd to less obv violence of Ns education - r132 - second part: chaps emph bullring; contrasts with lost world of expat - r132 - third part: last two chaps focus on death in glory, death in shame; juxtd w Ns new begs - r132 - factual, businesslike, apparently unfeeling tone, playing over horror and grotesque - r139 - emotional blanking of sensitive man to violence - r139 - Ind Camp Ind father feels guilt; hence injury; also feels useless, esp in face of whites - r144 - Ind Camp: universal male guilt and helplessness sharpened by foreign intervention - r144 - Doc & Wife: man more adeq in nature than w adults finds solace there w his son - r147 - Doc & Wife: doctor is in a trap he had helped only a little to set - r149 - Doc & wife: Ns presence at argument is only an inference; prob not present - r151 - Doc & wife: w nature and son, Doc finds at least temporary harmony - r153 - End of Something: homosexual subtext - r156 - End of Something: N no longer able to maintain masc superiority - r157 - End: Ns feelings complex, Ms simple - r157 - End: homosexual reading implausible; Bill simply foil for Nick - r167 - in Battler, dialogue takes on the rhythm of a sparring match - r180 - Soldiers Home: Krebs has been wrenched free from methodism of all kinds - r195 - Soldiers Home: interp of Krebs as failure rests on premise that hell never change - r199 - Soldiers Home: Krebs withdrawal one stage in renewal; NA also withdraws at end - r201 - Out of Season really abt abortion and wifes reluctance - r232 - My Old Man Butler may have been more than clean, making ending esp ironic - r252 - theres nothing in Big2HR outside Ns perceptions, despite being in 1st person - r257 - Big2HR abt coming back from war; allusions to war: burnt town, insects, corpses - r261 - Big2HR: Ns war past shows thru in a kind of palimpsest - r265

FAREWELL TO ARMS

- Fred orig had initials EH - T60 - F dodging gunshots indebted to Bierce - T62 - H decided on ending at last minute - T63 - F seems oddly immature; often called baby - T63 - neither F nor anyone around him seems sure who he is - T63 - F often selfish, esp in treatment of Catherine - T63 - yet F also a savvy insider familiar with foreign ways - T64 - F combines apparent intelligence with emotional immaturity - T64 - C not the doormat shes sometimes seen to be - T65 - themes: love and war - T66 - criticism that these themes not fully integrated - T67 - all the major pieces of action economically foreshadowed - T68 - abt love or war? - wm6 - loss of love, memory of loss - wm7 - shows trad gender roles - wm12 - trauma of war - wm19 - f grows thruout rel w/ c - wm30 - donaldson thinks f shows inordinate self-pity - wm31 - subject isnt love or war but f - wm31 - c a victim of the war; mourns fianc - wm32 - fergie prob not a lesbian but loyal friend to injured c - wm32 - grief, love, bravery, fear - wm33 - modernist lit to be suggestive, not didactic; indirect; emph on common people - wm52 - h tried to write like imagist in 20s - wm54 - describe an event so reader can make conns - wm54 - f prototype of 20c existential figure - wm75 - c depicted as brave - wm76 - puts explicit criticism of war into mouths of italian mechanics - wm77 - f the narrator has learned from his experience - wm87 - emph on spiritual - wm89 - struc of bk makes c and child impt; mourning primary - wm90 - hs chars dont fit expected gender pattern - wm91 - f may be emotionally stymied, but most critics want to see him as changed - wm99 - many segments of novel follow pattern of classic romance - wm100 - terse, sometimes monosyllabic diction - wm108 - dialogue keenly impt - wm109

- philosophical nihilism - wm109 - 45% ms unrevised; 30% very minor changes - wm110-111 - relentlessly somber; symbolism of mourning - wm113 - 39 alternative endings - wm114 - f essentially self-serving - wm118 - h never gives us interior understanding of c - wm119 - f escapes c becoming a bore or mother - fiedler - wm120 - female chars in h exist largely in rel to males - wm120 - fitz wanted h to get the war back into novel; criticized dull sections - wm121 - echo scenes: scenes repeated to ironic effect - wm124 - ironic use of seasons; cs death occurs in spring - wm124 - book showed h cd keep pace thru long book - wm130 - scene of fs near-death hs first attempt to use modified stream-of-consciousness - wm137 - fs behavior w/ c in childbirth is non-masc bec passive; he can only wait - wm141 - c achieves heroic stature that eludes h - wm141 - h problematizes gender, sexuality - wm142 - hs neg cap ability to remain in uncertainties - wm144 - c becomes code hero- wm157 - h embraces pleasure as the substance of love - wm158 -

FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS *- great thing to see a finer writer grow finer before your eyes - ch315 *- nobody can write as H can of a man and woman together, their completion and fulfillmentch315 - fwtbt as great an advance on fta as fta was on sar - ch316 - fta was moving but also sentimental - ch316 - gone now are the brittle surface and clever concision of early books - ch316 - as in fta, military blunder; hero meets women who swiftly, gladly gives herself - ch316 *- love-making is beautiful and frank - ch316 *- conversation carried over almost literally from spanish - ch318 - first attempt at a full-length novel, with real chars and built-up story - ch320 *- shows an imag for pol and soc phenomena such as hes hardly given before - ch320 *- whole picture of russians looks authentic - ch320 - quite a little too long - ch322 - seems to slow up toward end, when it should quicken - ch322 *- conventional romance - ch322 *- has the too-perfect felicity of a youthful erotic dream - ch323 *- skillfully rendered profanity and obscenity - ch324 - paints on a small canvas, yet manages to suggest much - ch325 - rj resembles other hem heroes in being resolutely resistant to illusion - ch325

*- writes beautifully and truly abt love - ch325 *- flounders around; uncertain of values and intentions; unable to come up to his theme - ch326 - not a novel at all but a series of short stories, some excellent - ch326 *- sentimental love scenes, too much talk, rambling narrative, dull interior monologues - ch326-27 *- pilar starts of well but becomes gaseous when expanded - ch327 - rj not objectively rendered; merely a mouthpiece for eh - ch327 - rj attempts to unite ehs usual nihilism with simple-minded pol idealism - ch327 *- peasants are so depoliticized hard to know where they stand - ch327 *- fails bec of its rejection of pol consciousness - ch328 *- communists apparently hope eh may return to the fold - ch331 - fwbt shows more varied notion of life than hes ever achieved before - ch331 - remarkable perception of sensory and emotional fact, but little intellectual vitality - ch333 *- anti-Stalinist, yet strangely non-political - ch334 - good fighting death but emph on ultimate meaninglessness - ch334 *- something suspect in the love story; dull convention: men dominate, wom innocent- ch335 *- as before, love reaches fulfillment almost immediately - ch336 - while undertaking to celebrate community, actually glorifies isolated individual - ch336 - emph on human dignity and worth, need for freedom, collective virtues - ch340 - relative unimpt of individ; emph on community - ch340 *- personalities threaten to become abstractions fault of all pol novels - ch340 *- minor chars the best; not so abstract - ch340 - severe compression of old work gives way to nearly complete relaxation - ch340 - pace is too leisurely; too much detail - ch340 - syntactical loosening up is almost excessive - ch340-41 *- progress from young lust to married tenderness; pathetic death, only this time man dies - ch342 - rj is prof, so can be more thoughtful, articulate - ch343 *- tho marred by central love affair, most adult and humane writing he has done - ch344 - hem hero doesnt ruminate abt past; lives in present; unreflective, non-sedentary - ch345 - one satisfying thing in lives of all the hem heroes is their technical efficiency - ch345 - only in this respect are they self-critical - ch345 - to someone whos reflective and distrusts instinct, hs heroes seem boring - ch346 - element of fake in hs atts; ultimately just guns, sex, booze, and sons of bitches - ch346 *- the love plot is charming and lyrical but fatal to the austerity of the narrative - ch347 *- great power of the dialogue, esp the spanish speech - ch348 - scene in which they try to provoke pablo is esp fine - ch348 - span war has restored hem to his seriousness as a writer - ch348 *- his depiction of spain, spaniards, span lang false and untruthful - ch351 *- much of the span conversation totally unrealistic, full of mistakes - ch352 *- some of the chars are credible, but others are artificial and out of place, esp Pilar & Pablo ch352 *- pilar and pablo d never have become leaders of such mountain people - ch353 - his descriptions of spain too much influenced by his knowledge of bull-fighting - ch355 *- spaniards wd not gang-rape a woman; unmanly - ch356 - the sc in which they goad pablo IS realistic - ch356 *- h never quite makes clear why these chars fight for the republic - ch357 *- love scenes unconvincing; span woman wdnt offer herself as maria does - ch357

*- the speech he gives the spaniards sounds pompous and artificial - ch358 *- quality of dignity shd flow from directness, not hollow, artificial solemnity - ch358 *- strange phrases and strange psychology run riot - ch358 *- rabbit is a spanish word for the female genitals - ch359 *- uses sexual verb inappropriately, unrealistically - ch359 - talk of more complex and delicate values not substantiated by novel - ch362 - stylized prose and stylized dialect, over hundreds of pages, are extraord boring - ch367 - hem shd restrict himself to short stories; limited emotional range - ch367

THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA - praised for its simple prose, richly evocative symbolism, and affirmative message - t130 *- later censured for sentimentality, affected prose, boys hero worship of protag like Hem - t130 - one theme: luck and the laws of chance - t131 - baseball, fishing parallel life - t131 - theme: redemptive value of suffering; sometimes read as Xtian allegory - t132 *- Sans humility a Xtian virtue - t132 - theme: a man can be destroyed but not defeated - t132 - OMs name, trait, behavior suggests links to Xtianity - Lit Encyc - also pagan elements; helps render story universal *- OM also resembles H in some respects *- Ss humility is an unusual quality in a Hem hero - Walhorn -* struggle with nature; courage, endurance; test of strength - masterplots - life as struggle; special prowess of Hem heroes - use of homeric epithets for sea - Morgan and Losado - homeric heroes constantly address opponents - resembles odysseus in being an old man *- short sentences; minimum of fig lang - robt gale in masterplots - parable - crit surv of long fic *- distant from nihilism and hedonism of sun - affirms solidarity, love, humility - burhans - errors in descriptive detail; h has gone soft - weeks - soft-, fuzzy tone - weeks - S X-like hero in touch with his true nature; Manolin stands for his lost youth - baker - struggle, deprivation, triumph - baker - implies hems personal struggle with thoughts of suicide - davis - compression and depth - davis - S serves as father figure for male readers - hofling

- reconciliation to the meaning and nature of age - cooperman - S more believable than earlier Hem heroes; reconciles us to our human condition - hovery - emph on love betw males rather than betw men and women - hovey - exciting story; tight action; struggle cant be won but can be met with dignity- young - first and third of three sections are of equal length; symmetry - grebstein - shore to sea to shore; together/alone/together; darkness/light/darkness - grebstein - faith, hope, love, endurance, humility; practical xtianity - flora - do what must be done and go far out - taylor - fighter-athlete takes place of the ideal X - wittkowski - celebrates sacred interdependence of man and nature - victory in defeat - S accepts tribulations and hardships w/out being submissive or surrendering - personal dignity, luck, machismo emphd in cuban culture *- an indeliberate selfparody - bloom - too long rather that exquisitely curtailed, as Hem believed - bloom *- tiresomely repetitive; S too clearly an idealization of H himself - bloom *- sentimentality floods the novel - bloom - manolin like a disciple and son - baker - pattern of bracing and relaxtion, in novel, life, and reading experience - baker *- sharply contrasts with pessimism of earlier novels; shows what men can do - gurko - harmony of natural universe that takes account of violence, death - gurko - a hero dares more than other men - gurko - S the only major char in H who isnt permanently wounded or disillusioned - gurko - when great trial comes, one must be alone - gurko - certain thinness of characterization and situation - schwartz - significance of 3, 7, and 40 in bible and in novel - waldmeir - life as a solitary struggle - dagostino - passive community depends on potent redeemer - bickford - power of the act is in the act itself, not its ability to inspire others - bickford - celebrates rare men whose talents spring from natural superiority - bickford - even the title seems an affectation of simplicity - young *- manolins boyish worship of S/Hem is hard to take; suggests Hs self-worship - young - inflation, bombast - rosenfield - 40 days: fasting; 3 days - passion/resurrection - wilson - like X, old man achieves triumph in apparent defeat - wilson - most (tourists) dont grasp significance, but disciple (manolin) does - wilson - mythic parallels, quasi-biblical diction, stark homeric courage, yet the victory is brief - justus - simple, touch style helps keep the inherently sentimental story from excess - justus - no other of his books is more consciously composed - justus - theme: possibility of creating meaning thru courage in meaningless world - mimms - manolin probably an adult, espec since he carries so much rope - sylvester - S possesses grace under pressure - ch408 - great beauty over possible pits of bathos - ch410 - sometimes the pure lucidity is muddled by Hs hulking personality - ch410

- Biblical lang always tending toward proverbial rhythm - ch411 - 3/4 rise, 1/4 fall - ch412 *- old man catching fish / great artist mastering subject - ch412 - when Ss emotions are dealt with, H slips into assertion and self-consciousness - ch415 - S is too generalized - ch415 - Ss story among saddest in Hs work but among the least painful - ch419

EVANS RESPONSES - archetypal chars and events: old man, young boy, facing nature, bad luck, etc. - simple, straightforward phrasing; less mannered than in some previous books - emph on genuine affection and kindness; not the shallow emotions of SAR - emph on simple, archetypal skills fishing rather than anything highly technical - basic human reactions: mockery, sadness - 11 - maturation, initiation into manhood, coping with misfortune, dealing with loneliness - emph on simple dialogue - 11-12 - emph on humility that doesnt compromise true pride - 14 - suggests slightly foreign way of speaking - words quoted, refs to baseball teams - 18; 24 - strange but also familiar - proverbial wisdom: first you borrow, then you beg - 19 - mutual concern: old man cares for boy, boy cares for old man - 22 - continuity betw generations - 22 - memories are permanent - 23 - strength, tricks, resolution all nec - 25 - archetypal experiences e.g., the diffs betw the ways the old and the young sleep - what he no longer dreams of; nice review of archetypal life - isolation: on the sea, on the shore; has no children; has substitute child - emph on masculine role - 28 - mans rels with nature living and non-living - 32 - sea as feminine - 33 - rel betw luck and preparation - 36 - compassion and empathy for nature (e.g. turtles) - 40 - pantheistic but also xtian - 53 - the fish is also old - 53 - compassion but also determination and hard-headedness - 60 - speaks to body as if separate from mind - 66 - has the appeal of an adventure story; has the appeal of suspense; sympathetic central char - religious sense plus moral sense; promises to pray and make pilgrimage - 71 - paradoxical, even a touch of humor: prays to virgin for death of fish - 72 - past proofs of manhood insufficient; constant need to re-prove - 73 - nice irony and juxt - 110 - A MAN CAN BE DESTROYED BUT NOT DEFEATED - 114 - CRUCIFIXION REF - 118 - occasional profanity - 121

- nice shift in describing shark - 123 - ironically, he and the dead fish now allies against sharks - 127 - nice example of qualifications: wind is our friend sometimes - 132 - arms out, palms up - 134

CLEAN, WELL-LIGHTED PLACE - caf represents hope, pathetic though it may be - a haven of order in a meaningless world - temporary respite from chaos; place of temporary dignity - meaning can be created only thru an awareness of its absence - objective POV; short declarative sentences; rep of key words; clipped dialogue - universality of the chars - good conduct and solidarity - emotional and philosophical austerity and bleakness amounting to profound and true tragedy - stoic endurance only poorly covers an underlying self-indulgent masochism; simplistic - quited endured pain; suffering is common - uses form of prayer but denies its contents - understated, laconic - nihilistic low point; moment of profound despair - less abt nada than abt various responses to it - old waiter offers the most heroic response bec hes aware - existential nothingness - old waiter torn between intellectual nihilism and religious idealism - older waiter continues to act, feel, create even in the face of nada; story thus affirmative - plot: nothing; characterization: nothing; meaning: nothing; names: none - literal and metaphorical lateness - neither old man is a passive victim - order, discipline, dignity needed to hold nothingness at bay - light as a means of distracting oneself from darkness - respect for individuals who find dignity in the face of nothingness - self-control; grace under pressure - monosyllabic words; Anglo-Saxon diction; short sentences; simple syntax