6 views

Uploaded by Marek Marex

- DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Electrical Science, Volume 4 of 4
- Science Direct286
- Rr210303 Electrical Engineering
- Análisis de Sistemas de Potencia_01
- transformador ml100e200
- Transformer Differential Protection ANSI Code 87 T
- Electrical
- daa
- Year1 Electromechanics
- EMD
- Core-less motor
- Protection Notes
- Physics II Problems (95).pdf
- Inductively Coupled Power Transfer
- trm-203-403
- 07898543
- DN_60535
- Coils
- PHENIX TECHNOLOGIES - High Voltage, High Current, High Power Test Systems and Components
- Short Circuit Current Calculation (Base KVA Method) _ Electrical Notes & Articles

You are on page 1of 14

Some more advanced design issues, not considered in previous chapter: n1 : n2 Inclusion of core loss + + i1(t) Selection of operating flux v1(t) v2(t) density to optimize total loss Multiple winding design: as in the coupled-inductor case, allocate the available window area among several windings A transformer design procedure How switching frequency affects transformer size

1

i2(t)

R1

R2 + vk(t) : nk Rk ik (t)

Transformer design: Basic constraints A step-by-step transformer design procedure Examples AC inductor design Summary

Basic Constraints

Core loss

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m

Typical value of for ferrite materials: 2.6 or 2.7 B is the peak value of the ac component of B(t), i.e., the peak ac flux density So increasing B causes core loss to increase rapidly This is the first constraint

Flux density

Constraint #2

Flux density B(t) is related to the applied winding voltage according to Faradays Law. Denote the voltseconds applied to the primary winding during the positive portion of v1(t) as 1:

t2

v1(t) area 1

t1

t2

1 =

t1

v1(t)dt

This causes the flux to change from its negative peak to its positive peak. From Faradays law, the peak value of the ac component of flux density is

To attain a given flux density, the primary turns should be chosen according to

B =

1 2n 1A c

4

n1 =

1 2BA c

Copper loss

Constraint #3

Allocate window area between windings in optimum manner, as described in previous section Total copper loss is then equal to

Pcu =

with

I tot =

j=1

nj n1 I j

Pcu =

2 I 2 1 tot 4K u

(MLT ) WA A2 c

1 B

4. Ptot = Pcu + Pfe

There is a value of B that minimizes the total power loss

Power loss

ss P Co re l o

Co ppe r lo ss P c

Ptot

fe

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m

Optimum B B

Pcu =

2 I 2 1 tot 4K u

(MLT ) WA A2 c

1 B

6

Given that

Then, at the B that minimizes Ptot, we can write

Note: optimum does not necessarily occur where Pfe = P cu . Rather, it occurs where

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m

dP fe = K fe (B) d(B)

1

Pcu =

2 I 2 1 tot 4K u

(MLT ) WA A2 c

1 B

Aclm

(MLT) (B) 3 WA A2 c

1 +2

B =

2 I 2 (MLT ) 1 tot 1 2K u W A A 3 l m K fe c

Total loss

Substitute optimum B into expressions for Pcu and P fe . The total loss is:

+2

Ptot = A c l m K fe

2 +2

2 I 2 (MLT ) 1 tot 4K u W A A 2 c

+2

2 +2

Rearrange as follows:

WA Ac

2( 1)/

2/ (MLT )l m

+2

+ 2

2 +2

+2

2 I 2 K fe 1 tot 4K u Ptot

2/

+ 2 /

Define

K gfe =

WA Ac

2( 1)/

2/ (MLT)l m

+2

2 +2

+2

K gfe

2 I 2 K fe 1 tot 4K u Ptot

2/

+ 2 /

Appendix D lists the values of Kgfe for common ferrite cores Kgfe is similar to the Kg geometrical constant used in Chapter 14: Kg is used when Bmax is specified Kgfe is used when B is to be chosen to minimize total loss

10

The following quantities are specified, using the units noted: Wire effective resistivity ( -cm) (A) Total rms winding current, ref to pri I tot Desired turns ratios n2/n1, n 3/n1, etc. Applied pri volt-sec (V-sec) 1 (W) Allowed total power dissipation Ptot Winding fill factor Ku Core loss exponent Core loss coefficient Kfe (W/cm 3T ) Other quantities and their dimensions: Core cross-sectional area Ac Core window area WA Mean length per turn MLT Magnetic path length le Wire areas Aw1, Peak ac f lux density B

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

11

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Procedure

1. Determine core size

2 I 2 K fe 1 tot 4K u Ptot

2/

K gfe

+ 2 /

10 8

Select a core from Appendix D that satisfies this inequality. It may be possible to reduce the core size by choosing a core material that has lower loss, i.e., lower Kfe.

12

2.

1 +2

B = 10 8

2 I 2 (MLT ) 1 tot 1 2K u W A A 3 l m K fe c

At this point, one should check whether the saturation flux density is exceeded. If the core operates with a flux dc bias Bdc , then B + Bdc should be less than the saturation flux density Bsat. If the core will saturate, then there are two choices: Specify B using the Kg method of Chapter 14, or Choose a core material having greater core loss, then repeat steps 1 and 2

13

3. and 4.

Primary turns:

Evaluate turns

n1 =

1 10 4 2BA c

n2 = n1 n3 = n1

n2 n1 n3 n1

14

5. and 6.

Fraction of window area assigned to each winding:

Choose wire sizes according to:

1K uWA n1 KW A w2 2 u A n2 A w1

15

Predicted magnetizing inductance, referred to primary:

n 2 A LM = 1 c lm

Peak magnetizing current:

i M, pk =

1 2L M

n 1(MLT) A w1 n (MLT) R2 = 2 A w2 R1 =

: nk

Rk

16

15.4.1

Ig

4A

+ vC1(t) vC2(t) + + v2(t) i1(t) n:1 i2(t) V

5V

I

20 A

Vg

25 V

v1(t) +

Use a ferrite pot core, with Magnetics Inc. P material. Loss parameters at 200 kHz are Kfe = 24.7

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

= 2.6

17

Waveforms

v1(t) VC1 Area 1

D'Ts DTs

nVC2

1 = DTsVc1 = (0.5) (5 sec ) (25 V) = 62.5 Vsec

i1(t)

I/n

I1 =

Ig

I D n

+ D' I g

=4A

i2(t)

I 2 = nI 1 = 20 A

nIg

18

Chapter 15: Transformer design

K gfe (1.72410 6)(62.510 6) 2(8) 2(24.7) 2/2.6 10 8 4 (0.5) (0.25) 4.6/2.6 = 0.00295

Pot core data of Appendix D lists 2213 pot core with Kgfe = 0.0049 Next smaller pot core is not large enough.

19

1/4.6

B = 10 8

= 0.0858 Tesla

This is much less than the saturation flux density of approximately 0.35 T. Values of B in the vicinity of 0.1 T are typical for ferrite designs that operate at frequencies in the vicinity of 100 kHz.

20

Evaluate turns

n 1 = 10 4 (62.510 6) 2(0.0858)(0.635) = 5.74 turns

n n 2 = n1 = 1.15 turns

In practice, we might select n1 = 5 and n2 = 1

This would lead to a slightly higher flux density and slightly higher loss.

21

Fraction of window area allocated to each winding:

1 = 2 =

Wire areas:

4A 8A

1 5

= 0.5 = 0.5

20 A 8A

(Since, in this example, the ratio of winding rms currents is equal to the turns ratio, equal areas are allocated to each winding) From wire table, Appendix D: AWG #16 AWG #9

22

Primary

5 turns #16 AWG

Secondary

1 turn #9 AWG

Some alternatives

Use foil windings Use Litz wire or parallel strands of wire

23

for this P-material Cuk converter example

4226 3622 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 25 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 200 kHz 250 kHz 400 kHz 500 kHz 1000 kHz

Bmax , Tesla

2616

Switching frequency

As switching frequency is increased from 25 kHz to 250 kHz, core size is dramatically reduced

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

24

As switching frequency is increased from 400 kHz to 1 MHz, core size increases

Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.3.2

Q1

Example 2

Multiple-Output Full-Bridge Buck Converter

D1 Q3 D3

T1 n1 : +

: n2 D5

I5V i2a(t)

100 A

+ 5V

Vg

160 V

i1(t) v (t) 1

D2 D4 : n2 : n3 D7 D6

15 A

Q2

Q4

+ 15 V

: n3 D8

i2b(t)

25

Use Magnetics, Inc. ferrite P material. Loss parameters at 75 kHz: Kfe = 7.6 W/T cm 3 = 2.6 Use E-E core shape Assume fill factor of Ku = 0.25 (reduced fill factor accounts for added insulation required in multiple-output off-line application)

Allow transformer total power loss of Ptot = 4 W (approximately 0.5% of total output power)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

26

D3

T1 n1 : +

: n2 D5

v1(t)

Vg

i2a(t)

Area 1 = Vg DTs 0 Vg 0

i1(t) v (t) 1

D4 : n2 : n3 D7 D6

i1(t)

n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

i2b(t)

0

i3a(t)

i2a(t)

n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

I5V 0.5I5V 0

D8 : n3

i2b(t)

i3a(t)

I15V 0.5I15V 0

0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts

27

v1(t) Vg Area 1 = Vg DTs 0 Vg 0

28

i1(t)

n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

0

n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

n n I 1 = n 2 I 5V + n 3 I 15V 1 1

D = 5.7 A

29

i2a(t) I5V 0.5I5V 0 i3a(t) I15V 0.5I15V 0

0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts

I 2 = I 5V 1 + D = 66.1 A

I 3 = 1 I 15V 1 + D = 9.9 A 2

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

30

1 2

Itot

RMS currents, summed over all windings and referred to primary

I tot =

all 5 windings

nj n2 n3 n1 I j = I 1 + 2 n1 I 2 + 2 n1 I 3

31

K gfe (1.72410 6)(80010 6) 2(14.4) 2(7.6) 2/2.6 10 8 4 (0.25) (4) 4.6/2.6 = 0.00937

From Appendix D

32

1 +2

Eq. (15.20):

8

Plug in values:

1/4.6

B = 10 8

= 0.23 Tesla

This is less than the saturation flux density of approximately 0.35 T

33

Evaluate turns

Choose n1 according to Eq. (15.21):

n1 =

1 10 4 2BA c

4

To obtain desired turns ratio of 110:5:15 we might round the actual turns to 22:1:3 Increased n1 would lead to Less core loss More copper loss Increased total loss

Choose secondary turns according to desired turns ratios:

n2 =

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

34

Loss calculation

with rounded turns

With n1 = 22, the flux density will be reduced to

B =

Pcu = (1.72410 6)(80010 6) 2(14.4) 2 (8.5) 1 10 8 4 (0.25) (1.1)(1.27) 2 (0.143) 2 = 5.4 W

Which exceeds design goal of 4 W by 50%. So use next larger core size: EE50.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

35

Repeat previous calculations for EE50 core size. Results: B = 0.14 T, n1 = 12, P tot = 2.3 W Again round n1 to 22. Then B = 0.08 T, Pcu = 3.89 W, P fe = 0.23 W, Ptot = 4.12 W Which is close enough to 4 W.

36

Window allocations Wire gauges

1K uWA (0.396)(0.25)(1.78) = = 8.010 3 cm 2 (22) n1 AWG #19 KW (0.209)(0.25)(1.78) A w2 = 2 u A = = 93.010 3 cm 2 (1) n2 A w3 = AWG #8 3K uWA (0.094)(0.25)(1.78) = = 13.910 3 cm 2 (3) n3 AWG #16

1 =

n 2I 2 = 5 66.1 = 0.209 n 1I tot 110 14.4

A w1 =

2 =

3 =

37

Process is iterative because of round-off of physical number of turns and, to a lesser extent, other quantities Effect of proximity loss

Not included in design process yet Requires additional iterations

After a design has been calculated, determine number of layers in each winding and then compute proximity loss Alter effective resistivity of wire to compensate: define

eff

= Pcu/Pdc where Pcu is the total copper loss (including proximity effects) and Pdc is the copper loss predicted by the dc resistance.

Apply transformer design procedure using this effective wire resistivity, and compute proximity loss in the resulting design. Further iterations may be necessary if the specifications are not met.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

38

i(t) + v(t)

v(t) Area

t

t1

t2

i(t)

Design a single-winding inductor, having an air gap, accounting for core loss

(note that the previous design procedure of this chapter did not employ an air gap, and inductance was not a specification)

39

Obtain specified inductance: Total loss is minimized when

L=

0 Acn2 lg

B =

2I 2 (MLT ) 1 2K u W A A 3 l m K fe c

1 +2

B =

2nA c

K gfe

2I 2K fe 2K u Ptot

2/

+ 2 /

Pcu =

n 2(MLT ) 2 I K uW A

40

- DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Electrical Science, Volume 4 of 4Uploaded byBob Vines
- Science Direct286Uploaded bymouchkilhada
- Rr210303 Electrical EngineeringUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Análisis de Sistemas de Potencia_01Uploaded bywilson ronald choque ticona
- transformador ml100e200Uploaded byJorge Vásquez Carreño
- Transformer Differential Protection ANSI Code 87 TUploaded byFarooq Khan
- ElectricalUploaded byravishpy
- daaUploaded byvenkyn88
- Year1 ElectromechanicsUploaded bycesare.alceste
- EMDUploaded byPrakash Arumugam
- Core-less motorUploaded bySaurabh Kumar
- Protection NotesUploaded byRAMJANNE12
- Physics II Problems (95).pdfUploaded byBOSS BOSS
- Inductively Coupled Power TransferUploaded byDisha Jain
- trm-203-403Uploaded byleanhhai1080
- 07898543Uploaded byMelissa Miller
- DN_60535Uploaded byjoelurtubia
- CoilsUploaded byArif Shah
- PHENIX TECHNOLOGIES - High Voltage, High Current, High Power Test Systems and ComponentsUploaded byEduardo Efrain Rubio
- Short Circuit Current Calculation (Base KVA Method) _ Electrical Notes & ArticlesUploaded bySrikanth Bhatt
- 678415Uploaded byehagar60
- 1LDE000122 en Data Sheeet EcoDry TransformersUploaded bySayed Nagy
- Selection and Design of Soft Magnetic Materials for Transformer Core ApplicationsUploaded byLionel Yde
- trafoUploaded byvimalrajan
- EEE110S Tutorial 7Uploaded bySam
- Presco technical.pdfUploaded byKhoiln
- SH6Uploaded bychaitanya
- trafo IIIUploaded bylaky_kg
- trUploaded byAhmed Saeed Ghonemy
- trUploaded byAhmed Saeed Ghonemy

- Photodiode/Phototransistor Application CircuitUploaded byMarco Reis
- Design AmplifierUploaded bybokking5
- 5990 3356EN Practical RF Amplifier DesignUploaded byMarek Marex
- 5988 5845EN WLAN Driver AmplifierUploaded byMarek Marex
- Design of a Discrete BJT Operational AmplifierUploaded byjonesy5000
- Design With Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits 3E (Sergio Franco)Uploaded bykamran_4507704
- 5091 4931E Low Cost Surface Mount Power LimitersUploaded byMarek Marex
- 6648791Uploaded bySupansa Munwaja
- Opamp CircuitUploaded bylinuxlism
- End-to-End_Design_and_Simulation_of_Handset_Modules_02-27-2012.pdfUploaded byMarek Marex
- RF/IFs and Audio AmplifiersUploaded byshakira_xi
- Pd24 05 Amp TecUploaded byMarek Marex
- OPT101Uploaded byMarek Marex
- Full TextUploaded byMarek Marex
- dn399fUploaded byMarek Marex
- cs1008Uploaded byMarek Marex
- Chapter10_OpAmpCircuitsUploaded bySubhajit Bej
- App Brief 104Uploaded byapi-3697683
- AmplifiersUploaded byMarek Marex
- 00951aUploaded byMarek Marex
- 821Uploaded byMarek Marex
- 10.1.1.86.8228Uploaded byMarek Marex
- snoa515Uploaded byMarek Marex
- snla140aUploaded byMarek Marex
- A Designers Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers 3rd EdUploaded byCL Maninho
- Operational Amplifiers-2ed ,John wiley and sons-Arpad BarnaUploaded byGautam Borgohain
- Designing With Operational AmplifiersUploaded bySorin R.
- Operational AmplifiersUploaded byRbqhac

- 120609-110005-Elements of Electrical EngineeringUploaded byRajendra Kumar
- Duplex ReactorUploaded byLRHENG
- app2Uploaded byHamid Bassour
- Power Factor CorrectionUploaded byAntonio Zambrano
- Cap. 30Uploaded byGuilherme Brasil
- Linkswitch TN Design An37Uploaded bydgujarathi
- AN-8208Uploaded byalsan2002
- A New Stereophonic Amplifier (Norman CrowhurstUploaded byjazbo8
- JEE SolutionUploaded byMd Shajith
- nttf question bankUploaded bymithunprayag
- Stability Analysis of More Electric Aircraft Power System with 18‐Pulse ATRU Feeding Constant Power LoadsUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Notes Chapter 6Uploaded byyusoff_aishah
- Free Energy DeviceUploaded byMerc Destro
- EDN Design Ideas 2006Uploaded bychag1956
- Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor a Survey Www.daneshpajooh.irUploaded bya1690074
- General Class License Study GuideUploaded byJacob LaGrand
- Compact Quad-mode Bandpass Filter Using Modified Coaxial Cavity Resonator With Improved Q-factorUploaded byDo Son
- Dalessandro_2.pdfUploaded byjjgaldos
- III Sem SyllbusUploaded byS B Raj
- per unit.pdfUploaded bynana
- 4_Transformers_VERA.pdfUploaded bythyago_hc
- Krovel Phd ThesisUploaded byLuis Azabache Anhuaman
- Basic AC TheoryUploaded byEric Roman
- Skin Effect and Dielectric Loss Models of Power Cables 04784562Uploaded byGilberto Mejía
- 4634 Lectures LabsUploaded byНикола Иванов
- Chapter 2 - Inductors, Capacitors and Alternating Current CircuitsUploaded bySahrul Fahmi
- Circuit TheoryUploaded byfourone1985
- Ac Theory Module09Uploaded bysrinivas
- The Forbidden Equation: i = qcUploaded byJN
- EET303-MAGNETOSTATICS 1213Uploaded byEng Yahya Sh Mussa