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Chapter 15 Transformer Design

Some more advanced design issues, not considered in previous chapter: n1 : n2 Inclusion of core loss + + i1(t) Selection of operating flux v1(t) v2(t) density to optimize total loss Multiple winding design: as in the coupled-inductor case, allocate the available window area among several windings A transformer design procedure How switching frequency affects transformer size
1

i2(t)

R1

R2 + vk(t) : nk Rk ik (t)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Chapter 15 Transformer Design

15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5

Transformer design: Basic constraints A step-by-step transformer design procedure Examples AC inductor design Summary

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.1 Transformer Design:


Basic Constraints
Core loss

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m
Typical value of for ferrite materials: 2.6 or 2.7 B is the peak value of the ac component of B(t), i.e., the peak ac flux density So increasing B causes core loss to increase rapidly This is the first constraint

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Flux density
Constraint #2
Flux density B(t) is related to the applied winding voltage according to Faradays Law. Denote the voltseconds applied to the primary winding during the positive portion of v1(t) as 1:
t2

v1(t) area 1

t1

t2

1 =
t1

v1(t)dt

This causes the flux to change from its negative peak to its positive peak. From Faradays law, the peak value of the ac component of flux density is

To attain a given flux density, the primary turns should be chosen according to

B =

1 2n 1A c
4

n1 =

1 2BA c

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Copper loss
Constraint #3
Allocate window area between windings in optimum manner, as described in previous section Total copper loss is then equal to

Pcu =

(MLT)n 2 I 2 1 tot WAK u

with

I tot =

j=1

nj n1 I j

Eliminate n1, using result of previous slide:

Pcu =

2 I 2 1 tot 4K u

(MLT ) WA A2 c

1 B

Note that copper loss decreases rapidly as B is increased

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Total power loss


4. Ptot = Pcu + Pfe
There is a value of B that minimizes the total power loss
Power loss
ss P Co re l o
Co ppe r lo ss P c
Ptot
fe

Ptot = Pfe + Pcu

P fe = K fe(B) A c l m
Optimum B B

Pcu =

2 I 2 1 tot 4K u

(MLT ) WA A2 c

1 B
6

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

5. Find optimum flux density B


Given that

Ptot = Pfe + Pcu


Then, at the B that minimizes Ptot, we can write

dP fe dPcu dPtot = + =0 d(B) d(B) d(B)


Note: optimum does not necessarily occur where Pfe = P cu . Rather, it occurs where

dP fe dPcu = d(B) d(B)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Take derivatives of core and copper loss


P fe = K fe(B) A c l m
dP fe = K fe (B) d(B)
1

Pcu =

2 I 2 1 tot 4K u

(MLT ) WA A2 c

1 B

Aclm

2 I 2 dPcu 1 tot =2 d(B) 4K u

(MLT) (B) 3 WA A2 c

Now, substitute into

dP fe dPcu = d(B) d(B)


1 +2

and solve for B:

B =

2 I 2 (MLT ) 1 tot 1 2K u W A A 3 l m K fe c

Optimum B for a given core and application

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Total loss
Substitute optimum B into expressions for Pcu and P fe . The total loss is:
+2

Ptot = A c l m K fe

2 +2

2 I 2 (MLT ) 1 tot 4K u W A A 2 c

+2

2 +2

Rearrange as follows:

WA Ac

2( 1)/

2/ (MLT )l m

+2

+ 2

2 +2

+2

2 I 2 K fe 1 tot 4K u Ptot

2/

+ 2 /

Left side: terms depend on core geometry

Right side: terms depend on specifications of the application

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design

The core geometrical constant Kgfe


Define

K gfe =

WA Ac

2( 1)/

2/ (MLT)l m

+2

2 +2

+2

Design procedure: select a core that satisfies

K gfe

2 I 2 K fe 1 tot 4K u Ptot

2/

+ 2 /

Appendix D lists the values of Kgfe for common ferrite cores Kgfe is similar to the Kg geometrical constant used in Chapter 14: Kg is used when Bmax is specified Kgfe is used when B is to be chosen to minimize total loss

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.2 Step-by-step transformer design procedure


The following quantities are specified, using the units noted: Wire effective resistivity ( -cm) (A) Total rms winding current, ref to pri I tot Desired turns ratios n2/n1, n 3/n1, etc. Applied pri volt-sec (V-sec) 1 (W) Allowed total power dissipation Ptot Winding fill factor Ku Core loss exponent Core loss coefficient Kfe (W/cm 3T ) Other quantities and their dimensions: Core cross-sectional area Ac Core window area WA Mean length per turn MLT Magnetic path length le Wire areas Aw1, Peak ac f lux density B
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(cm 2) (cm 2) (cm) (cm) (cm 2) (T)


Chapter 15: Transformer design

Procedure
1. Determine core size
2 I 2 K fe 1 tot 4K u Ptot
2/

K gfe

+ 2 /

10 8

Select a core from Appendix D that satisfies this inequality. It may be possible to reduce the core size by choosing a core material that has lower loss, i.e., lower Kfe.

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

2.

Evaluate peak ac flux density


1 +2

B = 10 8

2 I 2 (MLT ) 1 tot 1 2K u W A A 3 l m K fe c

At this point, one should check whether the saturation flux density is exceeded. If the core operates with a flux dc bias Bdc , then B + Bdc should be less than the saturation flux density Bsat. If the core will saturate, then there are two choices: Specify B using the Kg method of Chapter 14, or Choose a core material having greater core loss, then repeat steps 1 and 2

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

3. and 4.
Primary turns:

Evaluate turns

n1 =

1 10 4 2BA c

Choose secondary turns according to desired turns ratios:

n2 = n1 n3 = n1

n2 n1 n3 n1

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

5. and 6.
Fraction of window area assigned to each winding:

Choose wire sizes


Choose wire sizes according to:

n 1I 1 n 1I tot nI 2 = 2 2 n 1I tot 1 = k = n kI k n 1I tot

1K uWA n1 KW A w2 2 u A n2 A w1

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Check: computed transformer model


Predicted magnetizing inductance, referred to primary:

n1 : n 2 i1(t) iM (t) LM R1 R2 ik(t) i2(t)

n 2 A LM = 1 c lm
Peak magnetizing current:

i M, pk =

1 2L M

Predicted winding resistances:

n 1(MLT) A w1 n (MLT) R2 = 2 A w2 R1 =

: nk

Rk

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.4.1
Ig
4A

Example 1: Single-output isolated Cuk converter


+ vC1(t) vC2(t) + + v2(t) i1(t) n:1 i2(t) V
5V

I
20 A

Vg
25 V

v1(t) +

100 W D = 0.5 Ku = 0.5

fs = 200 kHz n=5 Allow Ptot = 0.25 W

Use a ferrite pot core, with Magnetics Inc. P material. Loss parameters at 200 kHz are Kfe = 24.7
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= 2.6
17

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Waveforms
v1(t) VC1 Area 1
D'Ts DTs

Applied primary voltseconds:


nVC2
1 = DTsVc1 = (0.5) (5 sec ) (25 V) = 62.5 Vsec

i1(t)

I/n

Applied primary rms current:


I1 =
Ig

I D n

+ D' I g

=4A

i2(t)

Applied secondary rms current:


I 2 = nI 1 = 20 A

nIg
18

Total rms winding current: I tot = I 1 + 1 I 2 = 8 A n


Chapter 15: Transformer design

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Choose core size


K gfe (1.72410 6)(62.510 6) 2(8) 2(24.7) 2/2.6 10 8 4 (0.5) (0.25) 4.6/2.6 = 0.00295

Pot core data of Appendix D lists 2213 pot core with Kgfe = 0.0049 Next smaller pot core is not large enough.

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate peak ac flux density


1/4.6

B = 10 8

(1.72410 6 )(62.510 6 ) 2(8) 2 (4.42) 1 2 (0.5) (0.297)(0.635) 3(3.15) (2.6)(24.7)

= 0.0858 Tesla

This is much less than the saturation flux density of approximately 0.35 T. Values of B in the vicinity of 0.1 T are typical for ferrite designs that operate at frequencies in the vicinity of 100 kHz.

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate turns
n 1 = 10 4 (62.510 6) 2(0.0858)(0.635) = 5.74 turns

n n 2 = n1 = 1.15 turns
In practice, we might select n1 = 5 and n2 = 1

This would lead to a slightly higher flux density and slightly higher loss.

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Determine wire sizes


Fraction of window area allocated to each winding:

1 = 2 =
Wire areas:

4A 8A
1 5

= 0.5 = 0.5

20 A 8A

(Since, in this example, the ratio of winding rms currents is equal to the turns ratio, equal areas are allocated to each winding) From wire table, Appendix D: AWG #16 AWG #9

(0.5)(0.5)(0.297) A w1 = = 14.810 3 cm 2 (5) (0.5)(0.5)(0.297) A w2 = = 74.210 3 cm 2 (1)

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Wire sizes: discussion


Primary
5 turns #16 AWG

Secondary
1 turn #9 AWG

Very large conductors! One turn of #9 AWG is not a practical solution

Some alternatives
Use foil windings Use Litz wire or parallel strands of wire

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Effect of switching frequency on transformer size


for this P-material Cuk converter example
4226 3622 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 25 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 200 kHz 250 kHz 400 kHz 500 kHz 1000 kHz

Pot core size

Bmax , Tesla

2616 2213 1811 1811 2213

2616

Switching frequency

As switching frequency is increased from 25 kHz to 250 kHz, core size is dramatically reduced
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As switching frequency is increased from 400 kHz to 1 MHz, core size increases
Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.3.2
Q1

Example 2
Multiple-Output Full-Bridge Buck Converter
D1 Q3 D3

T1 n1 : +
: n2 D5

I5V i2a(t)
100 A

+ 5V

Vg
160 V

i1(t) v (t) 1
D2 D4 : n2 : n3 D7 D6

i2b(t) I15V i3a(t)


15 A

Q2

Q4

+ 15 V

Switching frequency Transformer frequency Turns ratio Optimize transformer at

150 kHz 75 kHz 110:5:15 D = 0.75


: n3 D8

i2b(t)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Other transformer design details


Use Magnetics, Inc. ferrite P material. Loss parameters at 75 kHz: Kfe = 7.6 W/T cm 3 = 2.6 Use E-E core shape Assume fill factor of Ku = 0.25 (reduced fill factor accounts for added insulation required in multiple-output off-line application)

Allow transformer total power loss of Ptot = 4 W (approximately 0.5% of total output power)

Use copper wire, with = 1.724106 -cm


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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied transformer waveforms


D3

T1 n1 : +
: n2 D5

v1(t)

Vg

i2a(t)

Area 1 = Vg DTs 0 Vg 0

i1(t) v (t) 1
D4 : n2 : n3 D7 D6

i1(t)

n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

i2b(t)
0

i3a(t)
i2a(t)

n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

I5V 0.5I5V 0

D8 : n3

i2b(t)

i3a(t)

I15V 0.5I15V 0
0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied primary volt-seconds


v1(t) Vg Area 1 = Vg DTs 0 Vg 0

1 = DTsVg = (0.75) (6.67 sec ) (160 V) = 800 Vsec

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied primary rms current


i1(t)
n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

0
n n2 I + 3I n 1 5V n 1 15V

n n I 1 = n 2 I 5V + n 3 I 15V 1 1

D = 5.7 A

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Applied rms current, secondary windings


i2a(t) I5V 0.5I5V 0 i3a(t) I15V 0.5I15V 0
0 DTs Ts Ts+DTs 2Ts

I 2 = I 5V 1 + D = 66.1 A
I 3 = 1 I 15V 1 + D = 9.9 A 2
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1 2

Chapter 15: Transformer design

Itot
RMS currents, summed over all windings and referred to primary

I tot =

all 5 windings

nj n2 n3 n1 I j = I 1 + 2 n1 I 2 + 2 n1 I 3

= 5.7 A + 5 66.1 A + 15 9.9 A 110 110 = 14.4 A

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Select core size


K gfe (1.72410 6)(80010 6) 2(14.4) 2(7.6) 2/2.6 10 8 4 (0.25) (4) 4.6/2.6 = 0.00937

From Appendix D

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate ac flux density B


1 +2

Eq. (15.20):

2I 2 (MLT) 1 1 tot Bmax = 10 2K u WAA 3l m K fe c


8

Plug in values:
1/4.6

B = 10 8

(1.72410 6 )(80010 6 ) 2(14.4) 2 (8.5) 1 2(0.25) (1.1)(1.27) 3(7.7) (2.6)(7.6)

= 0.23 Tesla
This is less than the saturation flux density of approximately 0.35 T

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Evaluate turns
Choose n1 according to Eq. (15.21):

n1 =

1 10 4 2BA c
4

Rounding the number of turns


To obtain desired turns ratio of 110:5:15 we might round the actual turns to 22:1:3 Increased n1 would lead to Less core loss More copper loss Increased total loss

(80010 6) n 1 = 10 2(0.23)(1.27) = 13.7 turns


Choose secondary turns according to desired turns ratios:

n2 =

5 n = 0.62 turns 110 1

15 n = 1.87 turns n3 = 110 1


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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Loss calculation
with rounded turns
With n1 = 22, the flux density will be reduced to

B =

(80010 6 ) 10 4 = 0.143 Tesla 2(22)(1.27)

The resulting losses will be

Pfe = (7.6)(0.143) 2.6(1.27)(7.7) = 0.47 W


Pcu = (1.72410 6)(80010 6) 2(14.4) 2 (8.5) 1 10 8 4 (0.25) (1.1)(1.27) 2 (0.143) 2 = 5.4 W

Ptot = Pfe + Pcu = 5.9 W


Which exceeds design goal of 4 W by 50%. So use next larger core size: EE50.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Calculations with EE50


Repeat previous calculations for EE50 core size. Results: B = 0.14 T, n1 = 12, P tot = 2.3 W Again round n1 to 22. Then B = 0.08 T, Pcu = 3.89 W, P fe = 0.23 W, Ptot = 4.12 W Which is close enough to 4 W.

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Wire sizes for EE50 design


Window allocations Wire gauges
1K uWA (0.396)(0.25)(1.78) = = 8.010 3 cm 2 (22) n1 AWG #19 KW (0.209)(0.25)(1.78) A w2 = 2 u A = = 93.010 3 cm 2 (1) n2 A w3 = AWG #8 3K uWA (0.094)(0.25)(1.78) = = 13.910 3 cm 2 (3) n3 AWG #16

1 =

I1 = 5.7 = 0.396 I tot 14.4


n 2I 2 = 5 66.1 = 0.209 n 1I tot 110 14.4

A w1 =

2 =

3 =

n 3I 3 = 15 9.9 = 0.094 n 1I tot 110 14.4

Might actually use foil or Litz wire for secondary windings

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Discussion: Transformer design


Process is iterative because of round-off of physical number of turns and, to a lesser extent, other quantities Effect of proximity loss
Not included in design process yet Requires additional iterations

Can modify procedure as follows:


After a design has been calculated, determine number of layers in each winding and then compute proximity loss Alter effective resistivity of wire to compensate: define
eff

= Pcu/Pdc where Pcu is the total copper loss (including proximity effects) and Pdc is the copper loss predicted by the dc resistance.

Apply transformer design procedure using this effective wire resistivity, and compute proximity loss in the resulting design. Further iterations may be necessary if the specifications are not met.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
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Chapter 15: Transformer design

15.4 AC Inductor Design


i(t) + v(t)
v(t) Area

Window area WA Core mean length per turn (MLT )

Core Core area Ac Air gap lg

n turns Wire resistivity Fill factor Ku


t

t1

t2

i(t)

Design a single-winding inductor, having an air gap, accounting for core loss
(note that the previous design procedure of this chapter did not employ an air gap, and inductance was not a specification)

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Chapter 15: Transformer design

Outline of key equations


Obtain specified inductance: Total loss is minimized when

L=

0 Acn2 lg

B =

Relationship between applied volt-seconds and peak ac flux density:

2I 2 (MLT ) 1 2K u W A A 3 l m K fe c

1 +2

Must select core that satisfies

B =

2nA c

K gfe

2I 2K fe 2K u Ptot

2/

+ 2 /

Copper loss (using dc resistance):

Pcu =

n 2(MLT ) 2 I K uW A
40

See Section 15.4.2 for step-by-step design equations

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 15: Transformer design