PHALERAE POETAE AND THE PROPHET’S NEW WORDS IN THE ANTICL AUDI ANUS OF ALAN OF LILLE

L.E. Marshall

A u t o r i s m e n d i c o s t i l u m f a l e r a s q u e poete, N e m e a segnicie Clio [dejecta] s e n e s c a t ,

N e i a c e a t c a l a m u s s c a b r a r u b i g i n e torpens. Scribendi nouitate uetus iuuenescere carta Gaud e t , Ridet, et a n t i q u e s c u p i e n s e x i r e l a t e b r a s et i n t e n u i l a s c i u i t h a r u n d i n e m usa. t u u m p e r f u n d e p o e tam, germen

F o n t e tuo sic, Pheb e ,

V t c o m p l u t a tuo m e n s a r i d a flum i n e , Done t ,

et in f r u c t u s c o n c l u d a t g e r m i n i s u s u m . ^

Th e o p e n i n g of A l a n of L i l l e ' s e p i c Antielaud.ia.nus, t e r m e d Prologue i n B o s s u a t ' s e d i t i o n , a n d u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as the " v e r s e p r o l o g u e " to d i s t i n g u i s h it f r o m A l a n ' s p r o s e p r e f a c e , tion. is m o r e c o r r e c t l y a n i n v o c a ­

C u r i o u s l y e n o ugh, E.R. C u r t i u s m i s s e d this i n i t i a l a p p e a l to

A p o l l o a n d f l a t l y d e c l a r e d t h a t " A l a n s Antiolaudianus h a t a m A m f a n g k e i n e

i n v o e a t i o l i m i t i n g h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f A l a n ' s m u s e to the s u m m o n i n g o f a 2 d i v i n e r p o w e r in B o o k V. B u t the Antiolaudianus p o s s e s s e s two i n v o c a ­
tions — o n e to e a r t h l y A p o l l o , w h o s e a i d is s u f f i c i e n t f o r the f irst h a l f o f the epic, a n d o n e to the H e a v e n l y M u s e , G o d the C r e a t o r , w h o s e i n s p i r a t i o n a l e f f i c a c y is r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e p o e m as it p u r s u e s "Things u n a t t e m p t e d yet in prose or rhyme." L e s s s t r u c k w i t h the s e l f -

e x a l t i n g s o l e m n i t y o f a M i l t o n , a n d y e t e q u a l l y s t i r r e d b y the n e w n e s s a n d p r o m i s e of h i s task, A l a n i n the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y s o u g h t to s u r p a s s ancient poets without abandoning their giant's vantage-point: pagan

A p o l l o c o u l d c a r r y h i m to the v e r y b o u r n e o f H e a v e n w h e r e n e w i m a g e s appeared and a n e w language was spoken. T h e n a r r a t i v e o f t h e Antialau-

dianus —

Prudencia's rational and sapiential ascent from Nature's do­ also traces

m a i n to a n e c s t a t i c e x p e r i e n c e of " c e l e s t i a l t h e o p h a n y " —

the p o e t ' s j o u r n e y f r o m the s t y l e o f the a n c i e n t s to that o f the m o d e r n s , f r o m o l d f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h to n e w tropes. e a r l i e r work,
3

T h e Anticlaudianus, l i k e A l a n ' s

t h e De planctu Naturae, w h i c h h a s b e e n t e r m e d "a h a n d b o o k is a p r o s p e c t u s of p o e t i c theory, i n c o r p o r a t i n g

for the aspiring poet,"

m u c h contemporary thought about the nature of poetry, and at once p r eserv­ i n g the l e g a c y o f r e v e r e d auatores a n d d i s p e n s i n g it to the g r e a t e r i n ­ c r e a s e o f C h r i s t i a n art. W i t h p e r f e c t deco r u m , A l a n m i g h t i n v o k e A p o l l o Un­

for a c e r t a i n task a n d revoke his influence at the proper moment.

l i k e m a n y C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s b e f o r e him, A l a n d i d n o t d i s p a r a g e A p o l l o ' s s p r i n g for the s a k e o f J o r d a n ' s w a t e r s or u t t e r l y r e j e c t p a g a n f i c t i o n s for s a c r e d history:
4

b o t h A p o l l o ' s l y r e a n d the p r o p h e t ' s u t t e r a n c e ,

b o t h d e c o r a t i v e f i c t i o n a n d n u m i n o u s fact, a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n the

Anticlaudianus i n a n e l e g a n t p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h e i r s y m ­
pathetic b u t diverse spheres and their discontinuous though hierarchically linked f o r m s . T h e two i n v o c a t i o n s m a r k the o l d s e e d - p l o t a n d the n e w c r o p

o f t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y poetics. A l t h o u g h the Anticlaudianus w a s to b e c o m e a w i d e l y r e a d text, d i l i ­ gently commented upon and especially cherished by thirteenth-century w r i ­ ters o n p o e t i c a n d r h e t o r i c a l art, t h e p o e m i n i t i a l l y s e e m s to h a v e m e t w i t h a d verse comment. A l a n a l l u d e s to this h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m at the e n d of Apparently, the Anticlaudianus w a s

the p o e m and in his prose prologue.

v i e w e d i n s o m e q u a r t e r s as a w o r k i n w h i c h A l a n w a s a t t e m p t i n g to r i v a l the a n c i e n t s ( " a n t i q u o s . . . e q u a r e p o e t a s , " IX. 412, p. 197) b y d i s p l a y ­

ing the m o d e m s ' insolent preference for n a tive genius over venerable p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n (Prologus, pp. 5 5 - 56). A l a n ' s r e p l y to s u c h c r i t i c i s m he

b o t h r e f u t e s a n d a c k n o w l e d g e s the c h a r g e o f o v e r w e e n i n g m o d e r n i t y :

h a s n o t t r i e d to o u t d o the a n c i e n t s , b u t r a t h e r h e h a s f o l l o w e d a d m i r i n g ­ ly in their footsteps (IX. 413- 1 4 , p. 197); h e is a d w a r f p e r c h e d on a

giant's shoulders; o f m o d e m p o e try. to h i s p o e m —

the s p r i n g o f t h e a n c i e n t s f e e d s the g r e a t e r t o r r e n t W i t h fierce h u m i l i t y A l a n denies stature and grandeur

a m e r e t w i g o r reed, n o t a t o w e r i n g tree a p t to a t t r a c t He submits his work

t h e f u l l l i g h t n i n g f o r c e o f c r i t i c a l i r e a n d envy.

to the s y m p a t h e t i c r e a d e r f o r c o r r e c t i o n , p l e a d i n g the u n a v o i d a b i l i t y of e r r o r i n t h e p r o d u c t of a h u m a n a r t i s t ' s c l o u d e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . Y e t at

the s a m e t i m e A l a n d e s i r e s t h a t t h e r e a d e r p u t a s i d e the t e m p t a t i o n to f i n d f a u l t w i t h the p o e m a n d that h e b e d r a w n to it b y a d e l i g h t i n novi-

tas.

T h o u g h the p o e t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the Anticlaudianus as lowl y ,

flawed,

a n d l a c k i n g i n p u r p l e d e l o q u e n c e o r s t a r r y sententiae, h e n e v e r t h e l e s s w a n t s its n o v e l t y to b e a p p r e c i a t e d (Prologue, pp. 55-5 6 ) . ity, h e implies, Its m o d e r n ­

lies n o t i n its d i s r e g a r d of the a n c i e n t s b u t i n the

c o m p l e x i t y of its c o n c e p t i o n . Accordingly, humility in his p r o logue A l a n moves f r o m expressions of extreme

(which a r e a t the s a m e t i m e s c a t h i n g a t t a c k s o n the u n d u e e x ­ to s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h l e a v e n o d o u b t t h a t h e is p r o u d

c i t e m e n t o f crit i c s )

of h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , a n d t h a t p e r c e i v e d l a p s e s i n his w o r k a r i s e f r o m d e f i c i e n c i e s in the reader. Trivium, T h o s e w h o a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g the s t u d y o f the

t h o s e w h o a r e t a k i n g up t h e Q u a d r i v i u m , a n d t h o s e a b o u t to c o m ­

m e n c e t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d n o t p r e s u m e to c r i t i c i z e t h e Anticlaud­

ianus, b e c a u s e it w i l l p l e a s e p u e r i l e t a s t e w i t h the s w e e t n e s s o f its
l i t e r a l sense, i n s p i r e t h e m o r e a d v a n c e d w i t h its m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , and s h a r p e n t h e f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n t e l l e c t w i t h t h e s u b t l e t y of its a l l e g o r y . A l a n f o r b i d s the u n w o r t h y ( t h o s e w h o c a n f o l l o w o n l y s e n s e - i m a g e s a n d w h o h a v e n o a p p e t i t e for t r u t h b o m of r e a s o n ) to r e a d h i s book; h e w i l l n o t Further chal­

t h r o w p e a r l s b e f o r e s w i n e o r r e v e a l s e c r e t s to defi l e r s .

l e n g i n g the reader, A l a n c l a i m s that h i s w o r k n o t o n l y o p e r a t e s o n t h r e e l e v e l s b u t a l s o c o n t a i n s the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e s e v e n L i b e r a l A r t s a n d goes b e y o n d t h e m to a " t h e o p h a n i e c e l e s t i s e m b l e m a , " t h a t is, to a n " e m ­ b l e m " o r s h i n i n g i m a g e of D i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n . “ F o r this r e a s o n , o n l y * t h o s e w h o d a r e e l e v a t e t h e i r p o w e r s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g to t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s u p e r c e l e s t i a l f orms a r e q u a l i f i e d to t a k e o n the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the p oem; those content w it h sense-bound imagery or speculative fictions

m u s t n o t i m p o s e t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o n a w o r k t h e y are n o t e q u i p p e d to comprehend (Prologue , p. 56). A l a n ' s i d e a l reader, then, is o n e

s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y a t t r a c t e d to a n e w k i n d o f p o e m w h i c h is at o n c e p o l y semous, e r u d i t e , a n d v i s i o n a r y , a n d o n e w h i c h d e m a n d s the s t r e n u o u s a s ­ T h e r e a d e r m u st,

c e n t f r o m s e n s u a l i t y to t h e a p o t h e o s i s o f h u m a n reason. therefore, like the a uthor himself,

identify w i t h the poem's questing

h e r o i n e Prudencia, w h o s e journey, c o mmissioned by N ature a n d the Virtues, u p b o r n e b y t h e c h a r i o t o f the L i b e r a l A r t s a n d d i r e c t e d b y Reas o n , even­

t u a l l y t a k e s h e r to a w o r l d w h e r e N a t u r e ' s l a w s a n d a l l t h e e l o q u e n t w i s ­ d o m o f the a n c ients are confounded. A l a n , as h e says, l o v i n g l y f o l l o w s

the f o o t s t e p s o f t h e a n c i e n t s , y e t g o e s w i t h P r u d e n c i a b e y o n d them. T h e p r o s e p r o l o g u e , w i t h its p r o m i s e o f a n " e m b l e m " o f c e l e s t i a l t h e o p h a n y a n d its r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t r e a d e r s o f t h e p o e m d a r e to l i f t up ("audent attollere") f o rms, t h e i r m i n d s to a c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f s u p e r c e l e s t i a l

i n d i c a t e s t h a t A l a n is o f f e r i n g a c h a l l e n g e n o t j u s t to s e n s e -

b e c l o u d e d c r i t i c s b u t s p e c i f i c a l l y to a t h e o r y o f p o e t i c n a r r a t i v e e n u n ­ ciated b y Macro b i u s in the fifth century. I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e Som-

nium Scipionis, t h e s i x t h b o o k o f C i c e r o ' s De Republica, M a c r o b i u s h a d
j u s t i f i e d the p h i l o s o p h i c a l u s e o f narratio fabulosa, o r m yth, as a m e a n s o f c o n c e a l i n g t h e t r u t h s o f N a t u r e f r o m the v u l g a r . J u s t as N a t u r e h i d

h e r m y s t e r i e s "by enveloping herself in varie g a t e d garments," w r o t e M a c ­ r o b i u s , s o " s h e h a s a l s o d e s i r e d to h a v e h e r s e c r e t s h a n d l e d b y m o r e p r u ­ dent individuals through fabulous narratives." Though Macrobius rejected

f a b l e s t h a t s p u n i m m o d e s t f i c t i o n s r o u n d the gods, h e s a n c t i o n e d narratio

fabulosa w h e n i t d r a p e d " h o l y t r u t h s ” w i t h d e c o r o u s v e i l s o f alle g o r y .
B u t w h i l e h e a l l o w e d t h a t p h i l o s o p h y h a d n e e d of m y t h , h e d e n i e d t h a t f a b u l o u s n a r r a t i v e c o u l d e x t e n d its l e g i t i m a c y b e y o n d N a t u r e , o f the W o r l d Soul. W he n discourse dared ascend the r e a l m

("se a u d e t a t t o l l e r e " )

to the S u p r e m e G o d a n d M ind,

t h e p h i l o s o p h e r m u s t s h u n t h e u s e o f myth,

c o n t e n t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h similitudines a n d exerrrpla i n o r d e r to c o n v e y s o m e i n t u i t i o n o f t h e Good. B u t t h e r e c a n b e n o p o e t i c simulacrum o f God, w h o

is too f a r b e y o n d e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e to b e f i g u r e d in s p e c u l a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o n c o c t e d of i m a g e s d r a w n f r o m this w o r l d . ® A l a n ' s Antialaudianus is,

h o w e v e r , a p o e t i c n a r r a t i v e w h i c h b u r s t s the b a r r i e r s e r e c t e d b y this N e o p l a t o n i s t 's t h e o r y o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l fable: A l a n ironically echoes Macrobius' phrase, in the prose prologue

" a u d e t a t t o l l e r e , " to i n v i t e

t h e r e a d e r to a s c e n d w i t h P r u d e n c i a to a n " e m b l e m " o f D i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n ,

B u t a C h r i s t i a n poet. h o w e v e r . p r e e m i n e n t l y t h o s e o f l a w f u l p r o c r e a ­ tion. " " b u t the s e q u e n c e of o u r t h o u g h t h a s a l r e a d y s t r a y e d . N a t u r a ' s e c h o i n g of t h e k e y p h r a s e f r o m M a c r o b i u s . a n d y e t s e e h o w t h e y c o u l d b e a m e n d e d to a l l o w f o r f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e i n a c c e s s i b l e to the a n c i e n t s . In A l a n ' s e a r l i e r De planatu Naturae. M to c o n v e y t h e t r u t h s of N a t u r e i n the f a b u l o u s g u i s e of a d r e a m i n the Antialaudianus. h e s e e k s to e r e c t o n t h e i n f r a ­ s t r u c t u r e of m y t h a h i g h e r v i s i o n o w i n g its f i g u r e s to i n s p i r a t i o n m o r e . A l a n ’ q u o ting of Macrobius s b o t h i n the De planatu a n d in the p r o l o g u e to the Antialaudianus s h o w s that h e a c c e p t e d Macrobius' theory that myth was a legitimate v e h i c l e g B u t it a l s o s h o w s that h e for w h a t A l a n w o u l d c a l l n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y . . Natura precatur" (W 429. fort to u n d e r s t a n d this o u r m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s g r o w f a i n t . t i o n o f t r u t h s p e r t a i n i n g to the Soul. a n d m o r e p r e c i s e l y a C h r i s t i a n p o e t r e s p e c t f u l of M a c r o b i a n t e a c h i n g a n d i m b u e d w i t h C h a r t r i a n thought. . tractatum a n d i n the e f ­ too far. I n the c o u r s e of a p a r a b l e l i k e n i n g G o d to the r u l e r o f a c i t y w h e r e i n "God com m ands by the m a s t e r y of authority. m i g h t a c k n o w l e d g e t h e n e c e s s i t y of Macrobius' r e s t r i c t i o n s o n narratio fabulosa. w h i c h a d h e r e s s t r i c t l y to the r u l e s l a i d d o w n f o r narratio fabulosa. "audet attollere. c o u l d p l a c e this t h e o r y w i t h i n a l a r g e r f r a m e w o r k w h i c h p r o v i d e d i m a g e s a n d a l a n g u a g e f o r t r u t h s b e y o n d t h o s e o f the S o u l a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y b e ­ y o n d the k i n d of p o e t i c a r t i f i c e r e q u i r e d to c o n c e a l i n f e r i o r r e a l i t i e s .p o e t — cannot appropriate a s u b j e c t w h i c h s h e d o e s n o t c o m p r e h e n d a n d f o r w h i c h s h e l a c k s speech. b o l d l y e l e v a t i n g the d i s c u s s i o n [lit. " q u a e a u d e a t a t t o l l e r e " ] to t h e i n e f f a b l e m y s t e r y o f D i v i n i t y . W h i l e she m a y i n s t r u c t t h e d r e a m ­ er a b o u t t h e m y s t e r i e s o f h e r realm. she i n t e r j e c t s : the a n g e l a d m i n i s t e r s w i t h t h e m a n o b e y s w i t h the m y s t e r y o f r e g e n e r a t i o n ." indicates the f a b u l o u s p r e s e n t a ­ e x a c t l y t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of h e r k i n d of d i s c o u r s e . N a t u r a r e m i n d s the d r e a m e r of Macrobius' that s h e — t e a c h i n g t h a t the l a n g u a g e o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y is m y t h a n d A l a n ' s e m b o d i m e n t of a s p l e n d i d l y c o s t u m e d N a t u r e . s h e d a r e n o t e l e v a t e h e r s p e e c h to t r e a t o f m y s t e r y b e y o n d h e r k e n — t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n of m a n t h r o u g h Christ. equival­ e n t to the o r n a m e n t e d d i s c o u r s e o f p h i l o s o p h e r . In the De planatu. the m i n i s t r y o f acti o n . A l a n f a i t h f u l l y s e r v e s the d e m a n d s o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o ­ p h y a n d its p o e t i c M u s e — 431) — v i s ion. "Musa rogat . . .s o m e t h i n g n o f a b u l o u s n a r r a t i v e o u g h t to atte m p t .

W h e n A l a n a t f i r s t a s k s for t h e s t y l e of a n a u t h o r a n d the o r n a ­ m e n t s o f a poet ( " a u t o r i s . at the f a b u l o u s s t e l l a r m a r g i n . I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n the Antielaudianus. 1 3 1 . Licet enim quilibet tractatores . p u t t i n g a s i d e A p o l l o ' s l y r e so t h a t h e m a y a s s u m e the " n e w w o r d s " o f the prop h e t . w h e n l e c t e d M u s e . I n the e a r l i e r p o e m . P r u d e n c i a e n c o u n t e r s the poli regina. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Antialaudianus. a n d w h e n R e a s o n n o l o n g e r c a n g u i d e P r u d e n c i a in the c h a r i o t of the A r t s d r a w n b y the Sens e s . t h e Senses. I n m o v i n g f r o m the l i m i t a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o ­ p h y i n t h e De planotu to t h e e f f i c a c y of t h e o l o g y i n the Antialaudianus A l a n r i s e s f r o m d r e a m . . E a r t h l y A p o l l o w i l l g i v e w a y to terrestrial language w i l l be replaced b y the language N o l o n g e r the " a u t h o r " o f the poem. the s t y l e H e w i s h e s to s e r v e h i s n e g ­ Y e t i n B o o k V. R a ­ d u l p h u s g l o s s e s auetoris in this way: Auctoris ab authentim.3 0 5 .p o i n t in the n a r r a t i v e — real i t i e s b e y o n d Nature. o f H e a ven. a n d R e a s o n — to c l a r i f y in r e t r o s p e c t w h a t A l a n w a s a t t e m p t i n g i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the poem.v i s i o n to p r o p h e c y . for w h i c h the initial invocation also provides sure indications. N a t u r e c a n o n l y c o n d e m n .3 2 ) . A l a n h a l t s h i s n a r r a t i v e in o r d e r to i n ­ v o k e G o d ' s h e l p to s p e a k o f w h a t P r u d e n c i a w i l l n e x t conf r o n t . n o t a m end. Clio. a l t h o u g h in a m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d fashion. s t i l u m f a l e r a s q u e poet e " ) h e s i g n i f i e s h i s d e s i r e to w r i t e i n the m a n n e r r e c o m m e n d e d b y M a c r o b i u s a n d e x e m p l i ­ f i e d b y s u c h a u t h o r s a s C i c e r o a n d M a r t i a n u s C a p e l l a a n d b y h i m s e l f in the De planotu Naturae. R a d u l p h u s de L o n g o C a mpo. A l a n b e g s f o r the t r a d i ­ tional instruments of a writer embarking upon a major work — of an a u t h o r and the ornaments of a poet. w o u l d a t t a c h to t h e s e p h r a s e s . a n d i n the l a t e r p o e m e n a c t s t h e s e a s c e n t s w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e itself. a l o w l y i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e O n e G o d w h o s e i l l u m i n a t i n g p o w e r h e n o w requires (V. pp. T h e s e c o n d i n v o c a t i o n is o b v i o u s l y t h e a s c e n t to a n d it h e l p s at o n e w i t h the c r u c i a l t u r n i n g . . A l a n w i l l b e the p e n i t ­ s elf. v ice.divine. the Arts. 2 6 5 . the H e a v e n l y M use. a n d i n v o k e s P h o e b a n i n s p i r a t i o n . h u m a n i n t h e Antialaudianus N a t u r a s e e k s G o d ' s h e l p i n c r e a t i n g t h e s o u l of a n e w m a n who s u c c e s s f u l l y combats vice and inaugurates a g o l d e n age 9 o f l o v e a n d peac e . S u c h is the m e a n i n g t h a t h i s s o m e t i m e stud e n t . T h e o l o g y . N ow he w i l l a b a n d o n l e s s e r t h i n g s .

C i c e r o . o r c l a s s i c a l m y t h s g e n e r a l l y a n d the s t o r y o f O r p h e u s p r e e m i n e n t l y . Faleras m a y so the b e g l o s s e d as " m o d u m s c r i b e n d i i n t e g u m e n t a l e m . The a u t h o r of c o m m e n t a r i e s o n the f i r s t s i x b o o k s of the Aeneid a n d o n the De nuptiis Philologiae et . b y a n i m p o r t a n t c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m m e n t a t o r o n t h e Aeneid a n d t h e De nuptiis Philologiae et Meraurii. a n d o r n a m e n t s the w o r d s without. V i r g i l . integumentum d e s i g n a t e s f i g u r a t i v e w r i t i n g i n w h i c h a v e i l o f f i c t i o n c o n c e a l s truth. " " t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e of w r i t i n g . If the a u t h o r is a l s o a p o et. poetically. a t e c h n i c a l t e r m e m p l o y e d b y W i l l i a m o f Conc h e s . h e c o n c e a l s b e n e a t h a n d e n c l o s e s w i t h i n the e x t e r ­ (the p o e t i c " a u g m e n t a t i o n " ) something "authentic" nal surface of language a n d of s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . e n c l o s e s it w i t h i n . q u i s c i l i c e t sub e x t e r i o r i v e r b o r u m s u p e r f i c i e a l i q u i d o c c u l t a n t et c l a u d u n t m y s t i c u m et s p i r i t u a l i s i n t e l l i g e n t i a e et d e t a l i b u s h i c l o q u i t u r . " for. p a g a n (Aeneid. M a r t i a n u s C a p e l l a . n o r m a l l y o f a p h y s i c a l o r m o r a l n a t u r e . M 4 5 1 ) . i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e o f s p e e c h v e i l s s o m e t h i n g h i d d e n . o r B o e t h i u s . " j u s t as phalerae v e i l a n d o r n a m e n t a h o r s e . b e c a u s e h e r e the w o r d c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e s the c h o s e n m o d e o f a m o d e r n p oet. c o m m e n t s R a d u l p h u s . ^ For Radulphus. r e f e r to p h i l o s o p h i c a l m y t h The term may (Timaeus. Metamorpho­ p o e m s r e g a r d e d as r e p o s i t o r i e s o f h i d d e n k n o w l e d g e ses. Consolatio Philosophiae) . A l a n a d d s faleras poete. o n e w h o w r a p s t h e dulciorem nueleum veritatis i n a l i t e r a l aortex r e s o u n d i n g w i t h the f a l s e n o t e s of the p o e t i c l y r e (W 465. is o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t . the " a u t h o r " is a n " a u t h o r i t y " w h o " a u g m e n t s " h i s s u b j e c t t h a t is.dicantur auctores quidam tamen specialiter dicuntur auctores qui augent scilicet rem s e c undum poesim. De nuptiis Philologiae et Meraurii) . w h e r e a s it is u s u ­ a l l y i n v o k e d to e x p l a i n the l i t e r a r y m e t h o d of a u t h o r s s u c h as Plato. b y A b e l a r d ."'*·'*' The u s e o f t h e a d j e c t i v a l f o r m o f integumentum. O vid. h e w i l l p a y p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the k i n d o f l a n g u a g e e n c l o s i n g h i d d e n truth. Q u i d a m ab "authen- t i m " i d e s t ab a u c t o r i t a t e . a n d indeed by Alan himself. S u c h a n a u t h o r is thus a k i n to M a c r o b i u s ' p h i l o s o p h e r w h o c l o a k s " h o l y t r u t h s " in f i c t i o n a n d s i m i l a r to t h e k i n d of p o e t N a t u r a s p e a k s o f in the De planotu. T h a t is why. 12 In twelfth- and thirteenth-century commentaries o n literary and philos o p h i c a l works.

i n t o t w o species. " allegovia is s u i t a b l e for H o l y S c r i p t u r e . Christian. I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r d r a w i n g this d i s t i n c ­ the c o m m e n t a t o r c i t e s M a c r o b i u s to r e m i n d one that a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e d o e s n o t a l l o w involuerum i n e v e r y circumstance. vine: The c o u l d h a r d l y s h a r e th i s f a s t i d i o u s n e s s a b o u t the D i ­ t h e I n c a r n a t i o n p r o v i d e d a t r u e i m a g e of God. T h e c o m m e n t a t o r m o m e n t a r i l y seems to h a v e f o r g o t t e n that. I n an y case. " tion. n a m e d as B e rnard Silvester. h e go e s o n to d i s c u s s w h a t V i r g i l a n d P l a t o h a v e l e g i t i m a t e l y w r a p p e d in integumenta . ^ I t is c l e a r t h a t t h e c o m m e n t a t o r r e s p e c t s M a c r o b i u s ’ l i m i t a t i o n s o n the u s e o f narratio fabulosa. e n v e l o p s tr u t h w i t h an historical narrative. Integumentum is a l i t e r a r y w o r k c o n c e a l i n g its t r u e m e a n i n g u n ­ allegoria. t h e s e are the subjects — the a i r — th e S o u l a n d th e p o w e r s that d w e l l in the e t h e r a n d d e s i g n a t e d b y M a c r o b i u s as s u i t e d to f a b u l o u s t r e a t m e n t . o n l y a n integumentum u s e s fabulosa. t h e r e c o u l d b e n o simulacra of G o d a n d Nous b e c a u s e t h e s e h y p o s t a s e s w e r e so f a r b e y o n d n a t u r e t h a t it w o u l d b e i m p r o p e r to r e p r e s e n t them by me a n s of images deri v e d from corporeal existence. 13 v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d integumentum w i t h M a c r o b i u s ' narratio fabulosa: integumentum is " a k i n d of p i c t u r e s q u e w r i t i n g w h i c h e n v e l o p s i t s m e a n i n g w i t h a f a b u l o u s n a r r a t i v e . however. Accord­ i n g to M a c r o b i u s . the s a m e w r i t e r f u r t h e r r e f i n e s the c o n c e p t o f integumentum b y s u b d i v i d i n g f i g u r a t i v e w r i t i n g . w h o h a d b e e n c o n v e n i e n t l y . F o r h e says t h a t w h e n the s t y l e [of a n au t h o r ] d a r e s to e l e v a t e i t s e l f [se audet attollere ] to the S u p r e m e God. it is w r o n g to u s e fi c t i o n . so t h a t he might m o r e consistently have w r itten that a philosophical treatise does n o t a l l o w integumentum e v e r y w h e r e . a c c o r d i n g to h i s o w n d e f i n i t i o n s .Meraurii. a n d i n S c r i p t u r e . e x e m ­ d e r a narratio fabulosa. integumentum a n d alle- goria. b u t h e d o e s so w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g M a c ­ robius' r e a s o n f o r f o r b i d d i n g f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e s a b o u t God. a s in th e s t o r y o f O r pheus: p l i f i e d i n the s t o r y o f J a c o b ' s s t r u g g l e w i t h the A ngel. T h o u g h " b o t h h i s t o r y a n d fa b l e c o n t a i n a h i d d e n m y s t e r y . e v e n of the a c c e p t a b l e kind. b u t p e r h a p s e r r o n e o u s l y . w h i l e integu­ mentum b e l o n g s to p h i l o s o p h y . a n d f o r this r e a s o n it 14 is a l s o c a l l e d involuarum I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n the De nuptvzs. inOoluorum.

w r i t t e n c. d e t e r m i n e s w h a t s o r t of involucrum. Alan's student and loving interpreter. or simplis­ t i c . t h e t w e l f t h . " allegoria is " u e r i t a s i n u e r b i s h i s t o r i é p a l l i a t a . o r f r o m s o m e c o m m o n o r d e r i v a t i v e s o urce. " in D a n t e ' s t e r m i n o l o g y .b e w r i t e r w i s h i n g to a c h i e v e a v i v i d s tyle. " a l l e g o r y " h a s l o s t its s p e c i f i c d é n o t a 18 tion. " f o r w h i c h h e p r o v i d e s t h e e x 19 a m p l e o f a sa i n t ' s a p o t h e o s i s . the a u t h o r o f t h e De nuptiis c o m m e n ­ tary thus r e t a i n s the i d e a t h a t m y t h is a p p r o p r i a t e to n a t u r a l p h i l o s o ­ p h y w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g a n o t h e r f i g u r a t i v e m o d e a b l e to a s c e n d to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the D i v i n e . O n e m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t R a d u l p h u s ' m a s t e r . integumentum a n d allegoria.1 2 3 5 . ^ J e a n P é p i n h a s s e e n in t h e m e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e c a t e g o r i e s as D a n t e ' s " a l l e g o r y of the p o e t s " a n d " a l l e g o r y o f the t h e o l o g i a n s . b o r ­ r o w i n g f r o m it. m o r e o v e r . Inte­ gumentum. O n e m a y a l s o d o u b t that the c o m m e n t a t o r ' s terms a n d t h e i r a p p l i ­ c a t i o n w e r e w i t h o u t i n f l u e n c e if o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e i r s u r v i v a l i n J o h n of G a r l a n d ' s Poetria Parisiana. w h i c h c l o t h e s t h e h i g h e s t m y s t e r y i n the involuorwv o f h i s t o r y . h o w e v e r . T h e k i n d o f m y s t e r y . fr o m the kind In pr o ­ w h i c h o r n a m e n t s the s e c r e t s o f N a t u r e w i t h p r o t e c t i v e fiction. is " u e r i t a s in s p e c i e f a b u l e p a l l i a t a . a n d that h e m a y h a v e s e e n i n i t s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n integumentum a n d allegoria a m e a n s o f a d a p t ­ i n g M a c r o b i a n t e a c h i n g to l i t e r a r y f o r m s m o r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h m o d e r n . n a t u r a l o r d ivine.c e n t u r y a d a p t e r of M a c r o b i u s m u s t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e k i n d o f f i g u r a t i v e n a r r a t i v e . uninfluential. a n d ta ught. A l a n the " t i n y C a p e l l a . Radulphus. the c l a s s i f i ­ c a t i o n s o f S c i e n t i a f o u n d in the f i f t h f o l i o o f the C a m b r i d g e m a n u s c r i p t . allegoria.^ Accordingly. 1 2 2 0 .this i m a g e is b o t h t r u t h f u l l y f i g u r e d a n d m a d e m a n i f e s t in h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e . In that work. w i l l e n v e l o p it. v i d i n g this f o o t n o t e to M a c r o b i u s . as tools f o r the w o u l d . n o t as i n s t r u m e n t s f o r u n c o v e r i n g t h e arcana of t h e a n c i e n t s or of Scripture. i n t e g u m e n t a l o r a l l e g o r i c a l . John advises that a wri t e r m a y clarify a n obsc u r e n arrative by us i n g c e r t a i n types o f f i g u r a t i v e w r i t i n g . he e x p lains. " 21 w a s n o t u n a w a r e o f the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a r y . was f a m i l i a r as w e l l w i t h at l e a s t a pa r t o f the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a r y . A l t h o u g h the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a t o r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f figura h a v e l a t e l y b e e n d i s m i s s e d as i d i o s y n c r a t i c . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n s of the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a t o r m u s t h a v e b e e n k n o w n a n d t a u g h t in t h e s c h o o l s o f P a r i s .

w h o s e m e t r e s p r o c l a i m e d the a u t h o r a n i g h t i n g a l e b u t w h o s e prose b e s poke the parrot. G e o f f r e y w o u l d s e e m to r e c o g n i z e m o r e t h a n t h e i r c o m m o n eloquence. the T u l l i a n . b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t d i s t i n c t i o n i t d i s p l a y s i n its use of meta ph o ri c al expression. a n d o n e i n w h i c h A l a n " u s e d to the f u l l e s t e x t e n t the m e t a p h o r i c a l mode. T h e " p h a l e r i c " m o d e . Macrobius' c o m m e n t a r y o n the Sormiim Saipionis h a d t a u g h t w h a t sentenaie grauitas l a y c o n c e a l e d b e n e a t h the e n t i r e l y l e g i t i m a t e verborum florida exomaeio. o f the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii o f M a r t i a n u s Cape l l a . the T u l l i a n s t y l e w a s u s e d b y o l d e r w r i t e r s i n b o t h p r o s e a nd verse. i n fact. R a d u l p h u s e m p h a s i z e s the h i g h s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s k i n d of o r n a ­ mented discourse. no o t h e r b o o k o f t h e m o d e m s h a s b e e n f o u n d to e q u a l t h e Architrenius (by J o h n o f H a u v i l l e ) . In h i s g r o u p i n g o f the l e a d i n g t w e l f t h . is s i m i l a r to w h a t G e o f f r e y of V i n s a u f calls the "Tullian" style in h i s discussion of four styles used by m o d e m writers: the Isidorian. s i n c e then. A l l t h r e e a u t h o r s d e v o t e d o r n a m e n t to t h e s e r v i c e o f w h a t M a c r o b i u s h a d c a l l e d narratio fabulosa o r to w h a t c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s t e r m e d integwnentum.v e r s e form. a n d C h a r a c t e r i z e d b y sentenaie grauitas a n d verborum ftori- da e x o m a e i o . m etrical work. a n d i n m o d e r n w r i t e r s G e o f f r e y f inds t h a t t h e m i x t u r e of T u l l i a n b r i l l i a n c e o f m e t a p h o r (colores transumpaionis ) w i t h the c o l o u r s pleasing. G e o f f r e y f i n d s the Arahitren­ ius s u p e r i o r to the Cosmographia. glittering abundance. T u l l i a n s t y l e is n o t l i m i t e d to p r o s e w r i t i n g .c e n t u r y e x p o n e n t s of the T u l l i a n s t y l e .poetic aspirations. 23 B u t f o r G e o f f r e y the It is a b o v e a l l t y p i f i e d by the rich use of m e t a p h o r in works w h i c h h a v e a serious purpose. b o t h o f w h i c h u s e d the m i x e d p r o s e . G e o f f r e y c i t e s t h e De planatu Naturae o f A l a n o f Lill e . the G r e g o r i a n . A l t h o u g h t h e Architrenius is a w h o l l y G e o f f r e y c l a s s e s i t w i t h it s i l l u s t r i o u s p r e d e c e s s o r s . (colores verborum ) a n d c a d e n c e s o f t h e G r e g o r i a n s t y l e is e s p e c i a l l y 22 As a n e x a m p l e o f s u c h a b l e n d of r h e t o r i c a l a n d m e t r i c a l s t y l e s . t h e H i l a r i a n . b y w h i c h the p o e t c r e a t e s a s c i n t i l l a t i n g c a p a r i s o n f o r h i d d e n truth. a w o r k w r i t t e n i n prosimetrum. I n g l o s s i n g A l a n ' s faleras poete a s t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e u s e d b y p o e t s . satura. A l a n ' s De planctu a n d B e r n a r d S i l v e s t e r ' s Cosmographia." i n w h i c h a l l the t r a p p i n g s o f e l o q u e n c e a r e in G e o f f r e y g o e s o n to s a y that. a n d M a r t i a n u s C a p e l l a ' s De nuptiis .

" s t e l l a r " style: C i c e r o ' s w r i t i n g t y p i f i e d t h e g l o r i e s o f the C i c e r o c o u l d r e d e e m the p o v e r t y o f a w o r d b y the s p l e n d o u r o f h i s s t y l e a n d w i e l d l i g h t n i n g . I do n o t w i s h as b e f o r e to m a k e m y s u b j e c t c l e a r in pl ain. S h e c h o o s e s t h e g r a n d s t y l e o v e r t h e m i d d l e a n d l o w s t y l e s . a n d d e s i r i n g to w e a v e t o g e t h e r the t h r e a d s o f m y n a r r a ­ tive. twelfth century. A s m a s t e r o f the " p h a l e r i c " style. i n o r d e r to a v o i d the b r u t a l i t y that m o r e d i r e c t o r v u l g a r s p e e c h w o u l d b o r r o w f r o m the p r a c t i c e s s h e desc r i b e s . is a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f l i t e r a r y o r n a m e n t d e d i c a t e d to c o s m i c e x ­ t h e k i n d o f w r i t i n g C h a u c e r ' s e a g l e i n The House of Fame ploration. a n d c o l o u r s of r h e t o r i c . C i c e r o w a s a l s o a n a d e p t of narratio fabulosa. A l a n ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d phalerae e l s e w h e r e in h i s w r i t i n g s j u s t i f i e s Radulphus' g l o s s o n it as " t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e o f s p e e c h . N a t u r a p r e f a c e s h e r p o e t i c m y t h a b o u t V e n u s a n d A n t i g a m u s / 26 Antigenius w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s t y l e s h e w i l l u s e to t r e a t the distasteful subject of aberrant sexuality: M a k i n g m y b e g i n n i n g in a m o r e e l e v a t e d a n d m o r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d style. that work. I think. ^ Alan's association o f C i c e r o w i t h s t e l l a r o r n a m e n t is due. s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l a n g u a g e . as f o r G e o f f r e y . " I n the De planotu. a n d to c l o t h e t h e m w i t h the v a r i o u s c o l o u r s of e l e 27 g a n t dict i o n . 25 f i g u r e s o f p o e t r y . h i s l a n g u a g e w a s l i k e t h e p e a ­ c o c k ' s s p r e a d tail.b o l t s of o r n a m e n t . t h a t is. b u t r a t h e r to g i l d s h a m e f u l things w i t h the g olden ornaments [phaleris] o f c h a s t e d i s ­ course. p h i l o s o p h i c a l terms.c o i n e d c o m m o n speech. n o r to r e v e a l u n h o l y t h i n g s i n n e w l y . d r e n c h e d i n s t a r ­ light. " w i t h r e s p e c t b o t h to " l a n g a g e " a n d " m a t e r e . F o r Alan. I n the to a d o p t the T u l l i a n s t y l e w a s to a s s u m e n o t o n l y s t y ­ l i s t i c r e f u l g e n c y b u t a l s o f a b u l o u s subt l e t y .p r o v i d e d a n a d m i r a b l e e x a m p l e of the e x t e n t to w h i c h i n s t r u c t i o n in the Arts could b e embellished w i t h narrative fancy and precious locutions. h e m a d e s p e e c h s h i n e w i t h t h e s t a r s o f rhet o r i c . A n d b e c a u s e N a t u r a e m p l o y s the . p r i m a r i l y to the s t y ­ l i s t i c g r a n d e u r o f the Sormium Scipionis. " a n d as r e p l e t e w i t h s u b t l e t y o f s p e ech. g l o w i n g w i t h a s t r a l b e a u t y . w o u l d l a t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e as " h a r d .

the artful Muse of Martianus Capella. M 461). M 462). It is b e t t e r to c l o t h e t h e n a k e d n e s s o f t h e Arts. t h e phalevae verbovum b e l o n g i n g to this s t y l e a r e associated in his m i n d w i t h poetic fable having a serious philosophical purpose — i n th is case. " D e a r t e g r a m m a t i c a . p e r h a p s . e n c o u r a g i n g the d r e a m e r to a s k t h a t s h e m a i n t a i n h e r a u r e a t e flow: she m u s t discuss h u m a n vices. c a r e f u l to c h e c k h e r u s e o f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e w h e n it t h r e a t e n s to encroach upon mystery beyond her comprehension. If N a t u r a ' s d i s c o u r s e is s e l f . using a style " s p e c i o s s i m a r u m s p e c i e r u m i n t e r s t i c i i s d i s c o l o r i b u s . w h y n o t go a l l the w a y a n d m a k e f i c t i t i o u s f i g u r e s f o r t h e m as w e l l ? C o n q u e r e d b y h i s p l a y f u l Muse. N a t u r a is the T u l l i a n s t y l e . Nature's speech — f o r exam p l e . p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e o f poets. s t e l l a r . M 4 5 7 - A l w a y s s t r i v i n g f o r a n e l e v a t e d y e t c h a s t e m a n n e r (W 471. M a r t i a n u s c o n s e n t s to j o i n h e r 28 g ame. These splendid ornaments — species — a r e also. w h e t h e r she creates a p l atonesque m y t h about Venus. M a r t i a n u s m e ans. m e t a p h o r i c a l . illicit u nion w i t h Antigamus / Antigenius. In Book III o f the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mevcurii. M 4 56).c o n s c i o u s l y " p h a l e r i c . w i t h i n ­ t e r s p e r s e d a n d v a r i e g a t e d c o l o u r s of the m o s t s p l e n d i d o r n a m e n t s (W 484. M 455). "ut f i c t i t i o l o q u a r fabulous — g r and. i n g the d r e a m e r ' s r e q u e s t f o r a c o l o u r f u l style. s i n c e o n e g i v e s t h e m v o i c e s . " p h a l e r i c " s t y l e to t r e a t h e r p r o p e r s u b ­ ject matter.4 7 9 . one m a y con­ f o r A lan. o r i n a n e l a b o r ­ a t e s t r e t c h o f d o u b l e e n t e n d r e r e fers to s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i n t e r m s of s o u n d o r c o r r u p t f o r m s b e l o n g i n g to the T r i v i a l A r t s 459). " t h a t is. he urges. she habitually uses a h i g h l y c o l o u r e d . delivers a c l e v e r theatralis ovatio a b o u t C u p i d (W 475. t h e r e f o r e . a b r i l l i a n t p r a c t i t i o n e r of e v e n i n h e r s h o w i e r t o u r d e force. (W 4 7 5 . to e x p l a i n h o w n a t u r a l s e x u a l f e e l i n g h a s b e ­ A l t h o u g h N a t u r a is come culpably dissociated from lawful procreation. n o t o n l y the h i g h l y . b u t s h e a s s u r e s h i m t h a t s u c h o r n a m e n t a t i o n is i n order. " s h e o w e s h e r c h o s e n m o d e to Satu r a . s h e a l s o s a t i s f i e s his taste for fictions w h e n she personifies vices a n d names.o r n a m e n t s o f the g r a n d s t y l e in the r e l a t i n g o f a n i n s t r u c t i v e f a b l e about Venus' c l u d e that. false Obey­ e x t e r n a l i m a g e s c o n c e a l i n g the i n n e r t r u t h o f N a t u r a ' s d i s c o u r s e . B a c c h i l a t r i a as o n e o f t h e " d a u g h t e r s " o f I d o l a t r y : vocabulo" (W 485. and. B y phalevae. " t h e p o e t e x p r e s s e s m i s g i v i n g s a b o u t t h e phalevae S a t u r a is l a v i s h i n g o n his l i t t l e b ook.

b u t to s i m p l e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e w h o d i d n o t k n o w h o w to o r n a m e n t [phaler33 are] a n d c o l o u r w h a t t h e y h a d h e a r d . b u t i n p r e a c h i n g the m i d d l e s t y l e is r e q u i r e d . h e r e c a l l s St. St.c e n t u r y modus integumentalis. c o l o u r s . W r i t i n g of the l o w l y s h e p h e r d s ' r e s p o n s e to the a n g e l i c c h o i r ( " T r a n s e a m u s u s q u e a d B e t h l e e m . or natural p h i l o s o p h y . " h e d e c l a r e s that lectio theologioa. et v i d eamus hoc Ver- b u m q u o d f a c t u m est. T h o u g h i n h i s two m a j o r l i t e r a r y w o r k s A l a n r e q u e s t s a n d e x p l o i t s the i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e . not Macrobius. R e m i g i u s c o r r e c t l y takes t h e w o r d to m e a n " o m a m e n t a f a b u l o s a . a d m a g i s t r o s c l e r i c o r u m . Similarly. s i c u t D o m i n u s o s t e n d i t n o b i s " ) A m b r o s e h a d c o m m e n t ­ ed: " G o d d i d n o t t u r n to c o l l e g e s f i l l e d w i t h t r o o p s o f l e a r n e d men. n o r s h o u l d it b e p i t c h e d too l o w i n w o r d s c o n v e y i n g t h e b a r e 30 it s h o u l d 'hew to t h e g o l d e n m e a n ' . Ambrose. q u a m c o l o r u m stellas 31 assequendo. A l a n j u s t i f i e s h i s u s e o f the p l a i n o r m i d d l e s t y l e in t h a t w o r k b y a s s e r t i n g that h e d i d n o t w a n t to r i s k the k i n d o f f a l s e h o o d t h a t a m o r e " s t e l l a r " s t y l e m i g h t favo u r : "Malui enim v e r b o r u m utens planitie. b u t h u m b l e 32 s a y i n g s " ("nec d i c t i o n u m phal e r a s . C o m m e n t i n g o n phalerae i n this p a s s a g e . the " p h a l e r i c " s t y l e o f M a r t i a n u s C a p e l l a . " E l s e w h e r e . of s p e e c h " P r e a c h i n g . as R a d u l p hus r e c o g n i z e d i n h i s g l o s s o n A l a n ' s faleras poete." I n o n e of h i s o w n sermons. w h i c h h e f i n d s u n s u i t e d to C h r i s t i a n d i s ­ course. " h i s p a s t o r a l w r i t i n g s h e c o n s i s t e n t l y a d v i s e s c l e r i c s to e s c h e w d i f f i ­ c u l t a n d e m b e l l i s h e d l a n g u a g e . veritatis assequi limitem. s e d h u m i l e s s e n t e n t i a s " ) . s e d v e r i t a t i s ." does not d e s i r e " t h e f l o w e r s o f r h e t o r i c .coloured language deemed appropriate b y his M u s e but also the dress of f i c t i o n s h e d e v i s e s for h i s t reatise. a t the c o n c l u s ­ i o n o f the Liber poenitentialis. " t h o u g h h e a d d s t h a t it is a l s o u s e d for " t h e s u p e r f l u o u s o r n a m e n t a t i o n 29 M a r t i a n u s ' s p e c i a l u s e o f the w o r d phalerae m a k e s it the e q u i v a l e n t o f the t w e l f t h . in of l a n g u a g e . incurrere falsitatis errorem. m a y a s s u m e the a r t f u l s u b l i m i t i e s o f the g r a n d s t yle. w h i c h h e associates w i t h the "substantial b r e a d of allegory. " m u s t n o t g l i t t e r w i t h the o r n a m e n t s [phaleris verborum ] . "De P a s c h a . A m b r o s e h a d c o m ­ p a r e d J o b ' s m o d e o f k n o w l e d g e w i t h that o f P l a t o a n d C i c e r o : Job at­ t a i n e d i n s i g h t " n e c e l o q u e n t i a e p h a l e r a n d a e gratia. " Natura. w i t h the p u r p l e v e s t m e n t s o f r h e t o r i c a l minimum. W h e n A l a n d i s c r e d i t s phalerae verborum i n this way. n o r the o r n a m e n t s o f s p e e c h . " h e c o u n s e l s .

T r o u t .M. Such "phaleric" writers are like Natura. w h o i n t h i s w a y b e g a n a l e t t e r to a s c h o l a r u n s u r e o f a r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n : W r i t i n g to m y b e l o v e d . on e f o r t h e poet. " o n e m i g h t b e t t e r a r g u e . b u t r a t h e r g i v e h i m a f o r e ­ t a s t e o f p l a i n a n d s i m p l e truths. Indeed. .probandae. I h a v e n o t t a k e n p a i n s to w o r k u p f r o t h y t u r n s o f p h r a s e o r to p o l i s h o r n a t e l y w o r d e d [phalerati ser­ monise s e n t e n c e s . c o n d e m n s h i s o w n l i t e r a r y w o r k s b y t a k i n g s u c h a s t r i c t a p p r o a c h to T u l l i a n e l o q u e n c e . in e f f ect. unable despite their eloquence to s p e a k of a m y s t e r y t h e y c a n n o t grasp. I c a n n o t w r i t e to y o u g r a n d i l o q u e n t l y . a n d t h a t he. a n d n o t w i t h m e a t " (I Cor. w h o h a d c r i t i c i z e d A b e l a r d f o r u s i n g the t e r m involucrum b e 38 c a u s e o f its s u p p o s e d a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h E r i u g e n i a n " h e r e s y . a t l e a s t i f s u c h involuara w o u n d t h e i r w a y i n t o C h r i s t i a n d i s c o u r s e . " I n t h e Regulae Theo37 logiaaes A l a n w r i t e s t h a t a C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n s h o u l d a v o i d verborum involuara in o r d e r to b e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . 35 A l t h o u g h it c o u l d b e a r g u e d that A l a n ' s s t e r n v i e w o f phalerae verborum is a m a r k of C i s t e r c i a n i n f l u e n c e . h a v i n g g i v e n m y s e l f o v e r to the With s e r v i c e o f God. " t h a t A l a n h a s two styles: 36 t h e o t h e r for the p r e a c h e r . n o l o n g e r l a t e n t i n the s h a d o w y f i g u r e s o f t h e O l d 39 Testament. w i t h h i s c o n v i c t i o n that. I s h o u l d n o t t a k e up t h e m y s t e r i e s o f d i v i n e law. b u t t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t A m b r o s e a n d A l a n v i e w e d phalerae verborum a s t h e d e v i c e of t h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t s p e a k o p e n l y o f t r u t h r e ­ v e a l e d in the f u l l n e s s o f time. " w i t h J. A l a n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y . s a y i n g w i t h the apos t l e : "I h a v e f e d y o u w i t h m i l k .c e n t u r y p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e c o n c e p t of integumentvm w e r e e a g e r to d e m o n s t r a t e . T h i e r r y . This is in a c c o r d the g o s p e l c o u l d b e p r e a c h e d o p e n l y ." T h e e l o q u e n c e o f w i s e p a g a n s m a y i n d e e d s c r e e n truth. T h e i d e a that phalerae verborum a r e the d e v i c e s o f g e n t i l e w r i t e r s w h o c a n n o t p r o n o u n c e " v i d e a m u s h o c V e r b u m q u o d f a c t u m e s t " is a l s o r e ­ f l e c t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f a C i s t e r c i a n abbo t . l i k e W i l l i a m o f St. 3:2). s i n c e t h e a d v e n t o f Chri s t . as t w e l f t h . h u m b l y to the h u m b l e s t o f w i t n e s s e s . " Alan s e e m s t o h a v e r e g a r d e d involusra w i t h a j a u n d i c e d eye. s o m e o n e s t e e p e d i n the w r i t i n g s o f a p a gan.

B u t if t h e p r e a c h e r s h o u l d s t e e r c l e a r o f involucra a n d phalerae verborwn. h e m i g h t i n v e s t n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y w i t h a l l th e s p l e n d i d f a s h i o n s o f a n t i q u i t y . n o t o f r e v e a l e d truth. expres41 sive narrative. But Nat u r a does admit that a l y i n g p o e t i c cortex m a y c o n c e a l a s w e e t k e r n e l o f truth. who. in a style "paululum maturior" then resumes her mythic narrative Thus N a t u r a ' s art. her o w n myth about peccant Venus — but Venus." she condemns those poets wh o either shamelessly expose naked falsehoods or cloak falsehoods w i th verisimilitude. however. t h e y lie. w h i l e (W 475. N a t u r a o b l i g e s w i t h a " t h e a t r a l i s o r a t i o " o n the to p i c of Lo v e . a n d declares that fables attributing perverse s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r to the g o d s m u s t n o t b e c o u n t e n a n c e d . she c o n t r a s t s the " c h i l d i s h c r a d l e s o f p o e t r y " w i t h t h e m o r e r a t i o n a l discourse of philosophy. M 454). t h e poet. m u s t k e e p to h i s p r o p e r s p h e r e i n t he u s e o f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . is a f a b u l o u s sh e s a y s g o ddes s. a s u b j e c t p o e t s h a v e o b ­ liquely treated "sub integumentali involucro" (W 4 70-71. li k e Na t u r a . f o r the e m b e l l i s h m e n t of h u m a n i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e w a s fit. h e f o l l o w s l o v i n g l y i n t h e f o o t s t e p s of the The f r e e l y c h o o s i n g a s t y l e o l d e r w r i t e r s w e r e b o u n d to use. N a t u r a i n the Oe planctu d e f i n e s the l i m i t e d s c o p e a n d s e r i o u s n a t u r e o f the i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e . the d r e a m e r d i s r u p t s h e r w e i g h t y e l o q u e n c e to i n q u i r e a b o u t C upid. (This d e s p i t e of c ourse. dignant that the dreamer indiscriminately accepts "the shadowy figments o f p o e t s to w h i c h the a c t i v i t y of p o e t i c a r t h a s g i v e n i m a g i n a t i v e 40 shape. M 456). M 454). a n d so l o n g as the p o e t d i d n o t da r e to c l o t h e C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e i n f a b u l o u s o r n a m e n t s . Like Macrobius. m o r e o v e r . In s c o r n f u l d e f e r e n c e to h i s b o y i s h m e n t a l i t y . constructs a purely mythic n a r r a t i v e i n h e r s t o r y a b o u t V e n u s . h e r numen l o n g e x t i n g u i s h e d . a f t e r all. that w h e n p o e t s s p e a k of m a n y gods. In­ to d i s t i n g u i s h h e r f o r m of n a r r a t i v e f r o m l e s s c r e d i t a b l e kinds. To h e r c h a g r i n . I n d o i n g so. m a y l e g i t i m a t e l y i n d u l g e in s t e l l a r subtleties. k n o w l e d g e . . Natura herself. a n d that p o e t s m a y j o i n t o g e t h e r " h i s t o r i c a l " e v e n t s w i t h f a b u l o u s " j e s t s " in a n elegant structure. S h e is c a r e f u l . ancients. a n d t h a t s h e do e s n o t p e r m i t h e r f i g u r a t i v e d i s ­ c o u r s e to s t r a y far b e y o n d h e r o w n co n c e r n s . We have n ot e d that she dare not speak o f m a n ' s r e d e m p t i o n . b u t o n e w h i c h is " a d o r n e d w i t h the riches of thought" (W 471. ) Going beyond Macrobius. which combination may produce a more elegant.

h iding her principles from A l a n d e s c r i b e s N a t u r a l i t e r a l l y per integumentum. . M 480). w h i c h c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m N a t u r a ' s speech. i.e. M 476). G e n i u s c a n n o t p r o d u c e i m a g e s free f r o m the i n tervention of Falsehood. Fraus was . 42 o n e o f t h e c o m p a n i o n s o f t h e e l o q u e n t M e r c u r y i n the De nupt%zs. 1 95). Natura's poetic explanation and denunciation ("penes q u e m s t e l l a n - o f h u m a n v ice. and s h e r e t u r n s to h a u n t t h e n a t u r a l ingenium of the p o e t . M 445). d e s p i t e the c h a s t e a n d n o b l e u s e to w h i c h it c a n b e put. ( I X . w i t h Macrobius' t e a c h i n g that the p h i l o s o p h e r s h o u l d i m i t a t e N a t u r e ' s o w n N a t u r e h e r s e l f e x p l a i n s t h a t she has decorative and protective vesture. Genius. A l a n ' s v i e w o f the b o u n d a n d f i c t i v e n a t u r e o f the i n t e g u m e n t a l m o de. w h i c h is to c h i d e a n d c o n d e m n t h o s e w h o T h e De planotu r i n g s w i t h the m e l a n c h o l y b e a u t y of h a v e a b a n d o n e d reason. w a s n e v e r i n A l a n ' s e y e s a v e h i c l e f o r h i g h e r truth. 43 I n t h e Anticlaudianus.5 1 1 . N e v e r t h e l e s s . . A l t h o u g h h e is a s s i s t e d b y i n s c r u t a b l e Trut h . f i g u r i s " to p r e v e n t too . . T h e " p h a l e r i c " style. Geni u s . verbis" and "phaleris dictorum" p. veiled (palliare ) h e r c o u n t e n a n c e " p l e r i s . h e is d o g g e d as w e l l b y F a l s e h o o d . but a v i v i d a n d literally sophisticated means of conveying what was ac­ c e s s i b l e to h u m a n reas o n . in a c c o r d the vulgar. J u s t a s N a t u r a i n the Oe planotu a s s u m e s the i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e of spee c h . c r e a t e s a n e g a t i v e f o r c e i n the De planotu w h e r e b y N a t u r a a n d h e r alter ego.it c a n n o t a v o i d f l a s h y t u r n s o f p h r a s e a n d f a b u l o u s o r n a m e n t . robi u s ' so she r e p r e s e n t s in h e r p e r s o n M a c ­ image of a symbolically dressed Nature. d e ­ p i c t i n g t h e t r u t h s o f p h i l o s o p h y . . 334-35. a s t y l e r e c o g n i z i n g its i n a b i l i t y to v o i c e the c e r t a i n k n o w l e d g e t h a t m a n is n o t o n l y b o r n t h r o u g h N a t u r e to d i e b u t a l s o r e b o r n t h r o u g h C h r i s t to l i v e fore v e r . a n d Geni u s ' c o n ­ c l u d i n g " e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n " o f the v i c i o u s . h e r w e a p o n is h e r tongue. p r o p e r to n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y . w h o s u c c e e d s in m a r r i n g w h a t e v e r T r u t h h a s h e l p e d to s h a p e (W 519. M 476]). a l l e x p r e s s N a t u r a ' s p o w e r a n d a t the s a m e time c o n f i r m h e r w e a k n e s s : of her authority she cannot exceed the limit (W 510. If N a t u r a c a n n o t s p e a k of c e r t a i n t h i n g s a n d m u s t d e f e r to T h e o l o g y (W 455. H y m e n ' s e l o q u e n t e m b a s s y to G e n i u s ti s e l e c u t i o n i s a s t r a l u c e s c u n t " [W 510. F r a u s r e s u r ­ f a c e s a s a v i c i o u s t h r e a t to the n e w man. thick wit h "dulcibus . . a r e subtly undermined. h a s a s e r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p u r p o s e a n d u s e s phalerae n o t to d e c e i v e b u t to m a i n t a i n a k i n d of sumptuous verbal chastity.

M 4 3 7 ) . of a p i c t u r e r e p r e s e n t m a n on he r tunic. n o t a r t i f i c i a l .d w e l l i n g c r e a t u r e s . M 436-37). M 472). indistinguishable from By pres e n t i n g all h e r body. . M 439). fables. On h e r s h o e s t h e flowers. a r e u n f a m i l i a r and i m a g e l e s s (W 518-19. f i g u r a t a e " b y m e a n s of a " p i c turae . w e a r g a r m e n t s v i v i d l y b u t f a b u l o u s l y p i c ­ I n th e c h a n g i n g m a t e r i a l s of H y m e n ' s r o b e " p i c t u r a r u m f a b u l a e n u p t i a l e s s o m n i a b a n t e v e n t u s " (W 503. i m a g e r y of t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l mode. M 475). T e r r e s t r i a l an i m a l s . s p e l l e d o u t w i t h litterae (W 506. ." d i s p l a y s a " f a b u l a . ture b e a r s t h e r i c h e m b r o i d e r y of the T u l l i a n s t y l e a n d t h e f i c t i o n a l too. M 474). theatrical representations. Genius. M 438). p i c t u r a e " of w a t e r . M 452).s t y l e d integumen- tum is s y m b o l i c a l l y t o r n b y t h o s e n o t r e s p e c t f u l of h e r " p u d o r i s o r n a m e n t a " (W 467. a p p e a r o n h e r tunica. t h e y e x i s t o n l y allegorise (W 439. i n " q u a e d a m p i c t u r a e i n c a n t a t i o " (W 441. M flickering wi t h changing colours and momentary images O n l y T r u t h is set a p a r t a s o n e w h o s e c l o t h e s . Her pallium. "ut f a c e t a p i c t u r a e l o q u e b a n t u r m e n d a c i a " (W 433. t u r i n g their v a r i o u s po w e r s . . m a k i n g it a n e n v e l o p i n g s p o u s a l dream. D a p h n e . . . M 480). T h e s e figurae. M 473). (W 509. M 436). . .4 4 1 . M 433). " s e c u r i n g its e f f e c t s by m a g i c a l i l l u s i o n — istice picturationis suae praestigio" (W 508. w h o a r e s a i d to be " e l e g a n t e r . O t h e r stars a r e d e p i c t e d by m e a n s o f " c u r i a l i s s c r i p t u r a e p h a n t a s i a " (W 434. . a n d L a r g i t a s b o a s t s o n h e r d r e s s a n " i m a g i n a r i a p i c t u r a e p r o b a b i l i t a s . H y m e n a n d the V i r t u e s . e f f i g i e s " of a l i o n (the c o n s t e l l a t i o n Leo) blazes. 479). p h a n t a s m s . a l s o a p ­ p e a r in h e r c l o t h i n g as i m a g e s w h i c h A l a n v a r i o u s l y te r m s lies.e a s y a n a c c e s s to h e r m y s t e r i e s (W 454-55. o n e m a y f i n d h e r n a t u r e r e p r e s e n t e d in her d r e s s " f a b u l o s i s p i c t u r ­ ae c o m m e n t i s " ga r m e n t s . M 434). w e a r s c i n e m a t i c (W 517. i n c l u d i n g man. T h o u g h the b i r d s on he r r o b e of state s e e m to be t h e r e l i t e r a l l y (ad litteram) . "soph- Though Humility's b e a u t y is n a t u r a l . On her diadem the " e f f i g i a t a . N a t u r a ' s s e l f . L u c r e t i a . t h e m s e l v e s c a l l e d N a t u r a ' s pa l ­ Thus Na ­ lia a n d sidera. b l o s s o m t h e r e " a r t e s o p h i s t i c a " (W 444. a n d Pe n e l o p e . m a g i c a l il l u s i o n s . a n d t h o u g h h e r g a r m e n t s r e t a i n t h e i r o w n co lour. E v e n the p u r e w h i t e g o w n o f C h a s t i t y is c o l o u r e d w i t h i m a g e s d e p i c t i n g the s t o r i e s of H i p p o l y t u s . M 474). M 433) and "sculpturae tropica figura" (W 435. M 445). tropo" (W 43 9 . a n d in an W h e r e t h e insomnia " h i s t r i o n a l i s f o r m a e r e p r e s e n t a t i o " (W 443. N a t u r e ' s o t h e r self. Temper­ a n c e is c l o t h e d in g a r m e n t s b e a r i n g a n i n s t r u c t i v e piatura. g i v ­ i n g h e r s p e e c h the f a b u l o u s o r n a m e n t s of the " p h a l e r i c " style. a l l t r a c e d "sub c o m m e n t o p i c t u r a e " (W 505. "artificio subtili lasciviens. .

A l a n exclaims that such "new" a n d "miraculous" pictorial s k i l l c a n m a k e w h a t is n o n . N a t u r a is also an artist. if i n a dream. a n d death.8 0 ) . U l y s s e s . power of poetic imagination. b e d o w n r i g h t f a i l u r e s . M 439). f i c t i o n a l s t y l e so that a n " i m a g i n a r i a p i c t u r à e p r o b a b i l i t a s " m a y b e g iven of her workings.r e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t s of Thersites. a n d h e r e t h e i n s p i r e d a u t h o r of the Timaeus is p r e f e r r e d to his logic-chopping disciple.e x i s t e n t o r f a l s e t a k e o n the a p p e a r a n c e o f truth. is m o r e c o m p e l l i n g than the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f l o g i c (I.61). t h a t is. p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s r e f l e c t s the n a t u r e a n d t e c h n i q u e of t h e p o e t i c n a r r a ­ tive in w h i c h they appear: the De planotu i t s e l f is a d r e a m . E n n i u s a n d P a c u v i u s Not only are the productions of N a t u r a and Genius t h e y a r e a l s o l i a b l e to To t h e s e f laws i n N a ­ (W 5 1 7 . M 4 7 9 . The garments of Genius reflect on e a r t h e n tablets N ature's mortal artistry. w h e r e h e r m i s ­ t a k e s a s w e l l as h e r a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in the m u r a l s o f h e r h ome. is p o r t r a y e d a s an a r t i s t . teachings g i v i n g N a t u r e ' s s e c r e t s the c o l o u r f u l h a b i l i m e n t s of I n d eed. a n d o f two l i t e r a r y duds. inscribing a succession of fading and n e w l y v i v i d images (W 444. as b e i n g s e n f o l d e d b y b r i g h t images.4 5 . 1 2 2 . H e r e p r a ising N a t ure's artwork w i t h a mixture of irony a n d genu­ ine admiration. 1 3 1 . I n the m u r a l a p p e a r A r i s t o t l e a n d P l a t o . d i s f i g u r e m e n t . pp. c l o t h i n g N a t u r e ' s l o r e in a d a z z l i n g l y f i g u r a t i v e . his right h a n d creating such admirable figures as H e l e n (a t y p e o f f e m i n i n e b e a u t y i n v i t i n g n a t u r a l h e t e r o s e x u a l p a s s i o n ) . the p i c t u r e s q u e a t t i r e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l fabulous artifice. P l ato. Cato. n o t a r g u m e n t a t i v e .v i s i o n . l i v e a n d pass away. fluid images u p o n a hide. a f a b u l o u s n a r r a t i v e . it t r i u m p h s o v e r t h e s o p h i s m s o f l o g i c e v e n t h o u g h b o t h a r t a n d l o g i c d e a l i n d e c e p t i o n (I. C a p a n e u s . or r a t h e r c l o t h e s . A l a n e m b o d i e s . I n t h i s w a y A l a n p a y s due h o m a g e to the . p. Hercules. T h o u g h P l a t o sompniat. depicting images of things that for a m o ment too. Tumus. 61).1 8 . t u r e ' s a r t A l a n r e v e r t s i n B o o k I o f the Antialaudianus .t h e c h a r a c t e r s in t h e De planotu. b o u n d u p as it is i n fict i o n .3 0 . W r a p p e d i n f a b u l o u s p i c t u r e s . M a c r o b i u s ' i n p o e t i c form. u g l y a n d v i c i o u s shapes. h i s c o s m i c visi o n . s a v e Truth. Sinon. a n d b e c a u s e the " p i c t u r i n g " a r t is c r e a t i v e . s h o w s as the m y s t e r i e s o f h e a v e n a n d earth. u t t e r i n g p o e t i c fables. 6 0 .1 3 4 . T h e l e f t h a n d o f G e n i u s d r a w s the s m u d g e d a n d h a l f . Cicero. d o o m e d to m u t a b i l i t y . e t c h i n g Genius. Paris. a n d A r i s t o t l e .

a n d H i p p o l y t u s ("tro- a n d t o g e t h e r t h e y c o m p r i s e the " m e t a p h o r s a n d d r e a m s of t r u t h " p o s e t s o m p n i a u e r i . c o n s c i o u s of the q u a l i f i e d a c h i e v e m e n t s o f the a n c i e n t s a n d d i s d a i n f u l o f s o m e c o n ­ t e m p o r a r y u s e s of a n t i q u e themes. " N a t u r e ' s t h e g o l d e n lies o f p o e t r y . 61). I n h i s d e s i r e to p r e v e n t t h e a g i n g o f h i s d i s p i r i t e d . m e r e sapientia c r u m b l e s . T u l l i u s is s p e e c h l e s s . rhet o r i c . P t o l e m y r i d e s in the c h a r i o t o f Reason. U l y s s e s . Aristotle and Ptolemy languish the V i r g i n M ary. t h e d i v i n e r a r t i s t r y of God. w i l l b e s h o w n to b e c o m p l e t e l y e v a n e s c e n t w h e n P r u d e n c i a e n c o u n t e r s the m a r v e l s of H e a ven. p. p. a n d poet r y . c a n n o t c o n s t r u e the Depressed by her failures an d k n o w i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s o f h e r p a s t s u c c e s s e s . 1 3 5 -43. a n d r e a s o n a r e w o r d l e s s . edge of heaven). b e r e f t "In hac Verbi copula / Stupet omnis (V. 137). l i m i t e d to t h e d r e a m . V i r g i l ' s M u s e is dumb. w h o " f o r g e s c h a r a c t e r b y r e a s o n . recent m i s takes of N a t u r e — E v e n b e f o r e one sees the more t h e tyr a n n i c a l . the v i c i o u s . 152. T u r n u s . a n d t h o s e w h o 44 sing antiquity vulgarly and tediously — one senses that even Natura's s u c c e s s e s a r e to b e p e r c e i v e d as limited: myth. a n d " V i r g i l ' s M u s e g i l d s m a n y a l i e a n d w e a v e s f r o m f a l s e h o o d a c l o a k in the i m a g e of t r u t h " (I. Titus. A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the Antialaudianus. A l a n e m p h a s i z e s the novitas of h i s e n t e r p r i s e . of a u t h o r i t y logic. N a t u r a m u s t s e e k G o d ' s h e l p to c r e a t e a n e w a n d b e t t e r man. a n d to S u c h " m e t a p h o r s a n d d r e a m s of t r u t h . s c i e n c e . a ll is b e y o n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of N a t u r e . g r a m m a r of D i v i n i t y o r c o m p r e h e n d its tropes. o f the p o e t s . o n l y to the to t h e m e r e l y r h e t o r i c a l e n r i c h m e n t of l a n g u a g e . h u m a n . 61). N a t u r e . p. as it w i l l l e a d P r u d e n c i a . d e s i r e s to c r e a t e a n e w a n d b e t t e r p o e m a c k n o w l e d g i n g . r a t i o n a l . forming a pantheon a n d w i s e m e n o f a n t i q u i t y . of a l l w h o h a v e r e p r e ­ s e n t e d t h e n o b i l i t y of h u m a n a c h i e v e m e n t u n d e r the o l d d i s p e n s a t i o n . 4 7 8 -79. Similarly. a n d u p h e l d by.O t h e r i d e a l p o r t r a i t s m a y b e s e e n o n the m u r a l s . b efore (V. logic. C i c e r o s p l e n d i d l y a d o r n s speech. " I. h e r o e s . I n the s a m e w a y the p oet. Seneca. 367-72. p. to t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s of logic. e m b l e m s of h u m a n a c h i e v e m e n t i n p h i l o s o p h y . " is there. P h e n o m e n a t h e r e c a n n o t b e a c c o u n t e d for b y n a t u r a l r e a s o n is p o w e r l e s s . 1 3 4 ) . f i c t i o n a l illustres — W i t h the s a p i e n t a n d e l o q u e n t a n c i e n t s a r e f o u n d — H e r c u l e s . n a t u r a l . r h e t o r i c .w o r l d o f to the b o u n d s of h u m a n r e a s o n ( w hose c h a r i o t c o u l d t a k e S e n eca. r é g u l a " w r o t e A l a n in h i s f a m o u s " R i t h m u s d e I n c a r n a t i o n e D o m i n i " : the r u l e s of the Arts.

th e antiquae latebrae w h e r e t r u t h w a s w r a p p e d p e r f o r c e T h e n e w n e s s o f t h e Anticlaudianus w i l l a rise. A l a n ' s poem. or at l e a s t p r o c l a i m s the f r o m t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e s u i t e d to N a t u r e ' s r e a l m to a k i n d o f s y m b o l i c d i s c o u r s e c a p a b l e o f r e f l e c t i n g c e l e s t i a l t h e o p h any. "moved o f this a n c i e n t materia h a s b e e n w a n t i n g . perhaps. w h o r e v i v e s P r u d e n c i a f r o m h e r e c s t a t i c c o l l a p s e b e f o r e the V i r ­ g i n a n d w h o g i v e s P r u d e n c i a t h e m i r r o r i n w h i c h the u n b e a r a b l e s p l e n d o u r o f G o d ' s k i n g d o m is a d a p t e d to h e r s i g h t . n e c e s s i t y to mo v e . e m b o d i e s s o m e k i n d of c o g n i t i v e a d v a n c e . o r th e p o e m i tself." however. a d v a n c i n g l i k e th e w o r l d " i n t o t h e l i g h t o f r e v e l a t i o n . " ^ 8 T h e poem. h o w e v e r . . F o r th i s r e ason. T h e s e c o n d i n v o c a t i o n r e v e a l s this d e s i r e fo r " n e w w o r d s . the f o u r a r t i f i c e r s N a t u r e . f o r w a r d i n t o th e l i g h t o f r e v e l a t i o n .Mu s e . e x e c u t i n g h i s d e s i g n u n t i l now. " w h e r e p r e s u m a b l y it h a s l a i n c o i l e d w i t h o u t a v o i c e ( " P r o l o g u s . c o m p o s e d s o m e t e n to t w e n t y y e a r s e a r l i e r . Though Alan h e r e s p e a k s f i g u r a t i v e l y o f the r e n e w a l of h i s p o e t i c e n e r g i e s . t h e r e is the a d d e d s u g g e s t i o n th a t h e is a l l u d i n g to the b i r t h o f a n e w p o e m o u t o f o l d forms. in c o n c e a l i n g integumenta.o f f s k i n s o f o l d p o e m s l i k e the D e planatu Radulphus' g l o s s o n vetus carta e x p l a i n s the is " o l d " a n d its a n t i q u e m o d e l s . p. " the o l d p a r c h m e n t . " a n d A l a n is n o w a b l e to d e a l w i t h 47 materia h i t h e r t o u n t r e a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e carta. " a n d t h o u g h the f a b l e o f P r u d e n c i a ' s q u e s t f o r the so u l of the n e w m a n is k e p t up a f t e r the i n v o c a t i o n o f the H e a v e n l y Muse. t h e carta r e j o i c e s i n i t s e m e r g e n c e f r o m " a n t i q u a s . l a t e b r a s . Faith. w h i c h the p o e t b e c o m e p r o p h e t n o w r e q u i r e s . " a n d t h e n e w figurae. " 11. it m a n i f e s t s k n o w l e d g e i n a c c e s s i b l e in a n t i q u i t y . 4-6. nature of Alan's originality. r e g a i n s i t s y o u t h i n t h e " n e w n e s s " o f w r i t i n g . . o u t of th e c a s t . It mo v e s . T h e " v e t u s . w i t h o u t . " is s a i d to r e j o i c e "in the n e w n e s s of w r i t i n g . God. Vice. c a r t a . . o r poem. . h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n ­ v o l v e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h i m a g e s that c o u l d b e s a i d to s i g n i f y the " n e w w o r d s . h a s e x i s t e d s i n c e t h e ti m e o f the Fall. t h e r e f o r e . i s clearly of a different 4 . a n d w i t h n e w w o r d s is a b l e to e x p r e s s s u c h k n o w l e d g e .m a t t e r . h e m a y h a v e I n m i n d th e l a p s e o f t i m e s i n c e th e w r i t i n g o f the 46 De planatu Naturae. Fo r t u n e . Per­ h a p s h e is i n d i c a t i n g as w e l l th a t h e h a s t h o u g h t o f w r i t i n g the Anti- alaudianus f o r s o m e time. b e c a u s e it s s u b j e c t . k n o w l e d g e "The world. a n d t h e i r w o r k s . 57).

s h e w e a r s t h e t h e o p h a n i e s of The garments y i e l d a p i c t u r e s e t out e n t i r e l y in a l l u s i v e f i g u r e s . s h o n e c l e a r a n d b r i g h t . te s t i m o n y . Here the living through whom p i c t u r e g i v e s n e w l i f e to the t e a c h e r s o f old. w h i c h d i s p o r t s i t s e l f i n the ("Prologus. argument.2 5 . H e r e is d e p i c t e d A b r a h a m i n a s c e n e w h e r e N a t u r e m u s t y i e l d to F a i t h as t h e v e r y " f a t h e r o f o u r f a i t h " p r e p a r e s to s a c r i f i c e h i s o w n son. 143). tery N a t u r e c annot comprehend. joyous SS Peter. . " u n n a t u r a l " e v e n t p r e f i g u r e s . for O n t h e c o n t r a r y . a n d m a r t y r d o m . " . had playfully displayed deceptively "real" images though the Arts p e r s o n i f i e d h a d w o r n garments w h e r e the "ridens lascivia" of pictures "ludit" (III. o r Scripture. land's phrase. 123). 131). a n d w h i c h i n f o r m is d r a w n to r e p r e s e n t a b ook." Pru­ " s l e n d e r r e e d " o f the p o e t w h o b e g i n s the Antiolaudianus 1. s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . 412. and no "wantonness" (VI. n o t a n 'Integumentum . p. s t r e n g ­ Here are no artful t h e n f a i t h a n d c o n t i n u e the l i f e o f the Church. t h e g o w n o f F a i t h is a n dllegovLa. 226. o r p h a n t a s m s . ( lasoivia ) is e v i d e n t i n h e r d r e s s T h e p o e t i c M use. honestas. 1 2 4 . fables. a m y s ­ By example. a n d t h o u g h the p o e t ' s M u s e h a d n a m e d the s t a r s " u e r i sub y m a g i n e l u d e n s " a t the f u r t h e s t r e a c h e s o f the u n i v e r s e g a i n e d b y R e a s o n (V. 101). o f cour s e . a n d V i n c e n t . p. 28. Clearly In John of Gar­ F a i t h is " u e r i t a s i n u e r b i s h y s t o r i e p a l l i a t a . p l a y s n o p a r t in e m b e l l i s h i n g the c l o t h i n g o f F a i t h : d e n c i a 's m e e t i n g w i t h T h e o l o g y h a s m a r k e d t h e p o i n t u p to w h i c h " i n fragili lusit mea pagina versu" (V. H e r g a r m e n t is e m b r o i d e r ­ ed w i t h "scrip t u r e . P aul. 60). 57)." the truthfulness of w r i t t e n words. p.o r d e r f r o m N a t u r a a n d is d r e s s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . o u r faith. Though Natura's mural (I. n u m i n o u s h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s . L a w r e n c e . p. p. p. miracle. F a i t h is n o t o u t f i t t e d b y a p o e t ' s h i s t r i o n i c lies. lies. a n d i m a g e s o f t h o s e w h o s e l i v e s t e s t i f y to D i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n . . The the sacrifice of Christ. sacred history: [Her] s p l e n d i d d r e s s i n d i c a t e s the a u t h o r i t y o f M i n d . h e r e a r e S c r i p t u r a l figurae.6. 64-65. o r i m a g e s o f t h o s e l i m i t e d to n a t u r a l p h i l o ­ sophy. M i n d i t s e l f is m a d e v i s i b l e i n h e r c l o t h i n g . r a d i a t i n g g l o r y w i t h its t i t l e s o f h o n o u r .

F a i t h a n t i c i ­ p a t e s h e r a n d R e a s o n a t l e n g t h o b e y s the i n s t r u c t i o n o f F a i t h a n d f o l l o w s h e r as s h e t e a c h e s t h e a r t i c l e s o f faith. Reason e n g r a f t s t h e s e d i v i n e s y m b o l s of flesh. A l a n c a l l s this thesis — rational state of m a n — t h e e n d o f B o o k V: m a n is e n a b l e d to c o n t e m p l a t e the t h i n g s o f h e a ven. 114. too. a l a n g u a g e a b l e to v o i c e the i n e f f a b l e a n d h e n c e s u p e r i o r to the l a n g u a g e o f n a t u r a l philosophy. s c a r c e l y a b l e to s t a m m e r . it l o s e s t h e p o w e r o f s p e e c h a n d l o n g s to s o u n d s g r o w dumb. it p r o c l a i m s N a t u r e ' s i n a b i l ­ f o r m (V. as it w e r e . is a m e d i u m f o r d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n . w h e r e b y 54 S u c h is P r u d e n - B u t if the l i g h t o f h u m a n r e a s o n goes o u t b e f o r e the F a i t h is s u m m o n e d to p r o v i d e a m i r r o r for m y s t e r y o f the I n c a r n a t i o n . p. and disputes about the meaning of words are laid a s i d e . b y w h i c h m e a n s h u m a n v i s i o n is r a i s e d b e y o n d N a t u r e a n d f a b u l o u s device. i t y to c o m p r e h e n d the w o r k i n g s o f God. l i k e F a ith. Theology. w h i c h A l a n h a s j u s t e v o k e d i n h i s h y m n to the V i r g i n at i n M a r y ' s w o m b the S o n of G o d " p u t o n t h e g a r m e n t 53 o f s a l v a t i o n a n d c l o t h e d h i m s e l f i n o u r f l e sh.F a i t h is f i r s t d e s c r i b e d . b o u n d l e s s . the D i v i n e a n d to p r e s e n t h i s t o r i c a l i m a g e s of D i v i n e t h e o p h a n i e s . A l t h o u g h T h e o l o g y is n o t c l o t h e d s h e e x h i b i t s . rather. 26). and. F a i t h ' s S c r i p t u r a l p i c t u r e s h o w s h o w N a t u r e is c o n f o u n d e d b y A b r a h a m ' s h i s t o r i c a c t o f faith. T h e o l o g y ' s m o d e o f e x p r e s s i o n e x p o s e s t h e a p h a s i a o f N a ­ ture f a c e d w i t h the s e c r e t s o f God. w i t h t h e allegoriae o f F a ith. p. " t h e s e d i v i n e s y m b o l s o f f l e s h . 113. as a n t e r i o r to Reason: F o r R e a s o n d o e s n o t c o m e b e f o r e Faith. w e a r s a g o w n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the honestas o f its L i k e F a i t h ' s robe. undergoes an apotheosis. The startling phrase. w r i t i n g o n the m i n d 52 w h a t s h e d e p i c t s w i t h the pen. 126). . an ecstasy. m o r e o v e r . g i v i n g d e f i n i t e s h a p e to w h a t is i n e f f a b l e . a n d t h e norm a l .1 8 . " a l l u d e s to the I n c a r n a t i o n . t h e p i c t u r e o n T h e o l o g y ’ d r e s s r e v e a l s the s e c r e t s o f G o d a n d the d i ­ s v i n e M i n d . Theology. T h e c l a r i t y of T h e o l o g y ' s p i c t u r e s h o w s " h o w the i n f e r i o r l a n g u a g e of N a t u r e is u t t e r l y a t a l o s s w h e n it t ries to e x p r e s s t h i n g s d i v ine: r e v e r t to its o l d m e a n i n g . cia's experience. a n d invisible (V. as if r e f u t i n g M a c r o b i u s ." T h i s is the t e a c h i n g R e a s o n m u s t a c c e p t f r o m Fait h .

a n d w h o w i t h a n e y e m a d e m o r e p u r e g a z e u p o n t h e s e c r e t s of p h i l o s o p h y . f u r t h e r m o r e . a n d T h e s e h e terms paradoxae ( b e c a u s e of T h e o l o g y ' s " i m m u t a b l e n e c e s s i t y " a n d " g l o r i o u s s u b t l e t y " ) . beings under divine authority. l e d o n b y the p u r e r m i n d . 112. w h e r e A l a n w i s h e s to p r e s e n t a n emblema o f c e l e s t i a l t h e o p h a n y as w e l l a s the p r i n c i p l e s of t h e s e v e n A r ts. v i r g i n s . ( b e c a u s e o f the a u t h o r i t y I n t h e Antiolaudianus. a s c e n d to the i n e f f a b l e . 126]). At . T h e s e t h e o l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s are. enigmatic. n o t w h o l l y c o n f o r m a b l e to s t r i c t logic. enthymemata ( b e c a u s e t h e s e s i g n i f y t h i n g s h i d d e n w i t h ­ i n the m i n d ) . a n d l e a d s h e r f i n a l l y b e f o r e the V i r g i n M a r y . aenigmata ( b e c a u s e o f its o b s c u r i t y ) . t h eories. propositions. embtemata ( b e c a u s e o f " t h e i n n e r r a d i a n c e of i t s m e a n i n g " ) . the a p p e a r a n c e o f T h e o l o g y a t t h e o u t e r l i m i t o f the Arts' m a r k s the a d v e n t o f a h i g h e r s y s t e m o f k n o w l e d g e ." "qua circa spirituales creaturas attendi- S u b c e l e s t i a l t h e o l o g y is " h y p o t h e t i c a l " b e c a u s e i t d e a l s w i t h T h u s T h e o l o g y s h o w s P r u d e n c i a t h e a n g els. P r u d e n c i a r e l i n q u i s h e s the r a t i o n a l s t a t e o f thesis w h i c h p r o d u c e s n a t ­ ural philosophy "quae circa terrena versatur. fit to b e s t u d i e d o n l y b y the f e w "who. so has Theology. W h i l e in a certain sense Alan's theological p r o p o s i ­ (Minerva and authoritative.1 3 . o u t of w h i c h is b o r n " h y p o t h e t i c a l " o r " s u b c e l e s t i a l " theo l o g y . tur. r a d i a n t l y e m b l e m a t i c . w h i c h w o r k s to t h e c o n f u s i o n o f a l l h u m a n s y s t e m s of knowledge. w h o is c l o t h e d in t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s . a r b i t r a r y . a n d d o c t o r s as w e l l a s p h e n o m e n a u n a c c o u n t e d f o r b y n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y .The s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f this m e d i u m m a y b e e l u c i d a t e d b y c o n s i d e r ­ ing A l a n ' s p r o p o s a l in the p r e f a c e to the Theologieae regulae that. a n d m y s t e r i o u s n a t u r e of T h e o l o g y . j u s t as e a c h o f t h e A r t s h a s its p r o p e r s e t o f rules. m a x i m s . t ions i m i t a t e a n d e x t e n d the r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e A r t s as w e l l as G o d h a s a h a n d i n s t i t c h i n g T h e o l o g y ' s piotura [V. I n c o n f r o n t i n g T h e o l o g i a . m a r t y r s . p." Her voyage from earth t h r o u g h the p l a n e t a r y s p h e r e s to the r e g i o n of t h e f i x e d s t a r s w a s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p e d i t i o n i n P t o l e m y ' s c h a r i o t o f Reas o n . B u t n o w she a c h i e v e s the l e v e l o f intellectus. so the g a r m e n t of T h e o l o g y f o r m u l a t e s h e r s p e c i a l k n o w l e d g e in a d e s i g n w h i c h is i n d e e d p a r a d o x i c a l . a n d hebdomades o r " p r e r o g a t i v e s " of T h e o l o g y ) . t h e y a l s o s i g n i f y the i r r e g u l a r . achievement J u s t as the c o s t u m e s o f the A r t s p i c t u r e t h e i r r e g u l a r i z e d lore.

i n the symbola o f the S a c r a m e n t s and Creed. " the W o r d m a d e P r u d e n c i a d i s c o v e r s the l a n g u a g e o f D i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n . a n d s i l v e r g a r m e n t s m a y a l s o s i g n i f y the u n i o n o f d i v i n e a n d h u m a n natures in Christ. t r a d i t i o n ­ a l l y u n d e r s t o o d as the V i r g i n M a r y o r m o r e p r o p e r l y a s t h e Church. the e c s t a s y . If t h e n T h e o l o g y is t r u l y a n a u t h o r i t a ­ Her gold t i v e a n d a p o c a l y p t i c f i g u r e d e m a n d i n g the p r o p h e t i c t o n g u e . Alan intends such an association. d i v i n e t r o p e s a n d figures. called intelligentia. s y m b o l i c a l l y e q u i p p e d w i t h c o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e A r t s a n d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l a n d a s s i s t a n c e o f R e a s o n . g o d l i k e man. It is n o w o n d e r that the p o e t d e s i r e s the " n e w w o r d s of the p r o p h e t " i n o r d e r to w i t n e s s this t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f lang u a g e . a n d in the s y m b o l i c gift o f the d i v i n e s oul. o f P r u d e n c i a is p o s s i b l e . T h e o l o g y b e a r s a r e s e m b l a n c e to t h e mulier in the Apocalypse o f St. C r o w n e d w i t h a d i a d e m of t w e l v e j e w e l s a n d w e a r i n g g a r m e n t s s h i n ­ i n g w i t h l u n a r s i l v e r a n d s o l a r gold. then. ^ To e n c o u n t e r T h e o l o g y o n e a s c e n d s to e m b l e m s o f the I n c a r n a t e God. apotheosis. D e s p i t e A l a n ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the l a n g u a g e o f t h e o l o g y . flesh. is f r o m n a t u r a l p h i l o ­ from s o p h y t h r o u g h s u b c e l e s t i a l t h e o l o g y to s u p e r c e l e s t i a l theo l o g y : the f a b u l o u s " m e t a p h o r s a n d d r e a m s o f t r u t h " t h r o u g h the t r u t h f u l p r o ­ p o s i t i o n s o f T h e o l o g y to t r u t h i n c a r n a t e in h i s t o r i c a l figurae. B e c a u s e . she . J o h n 13:1. b e c a u s e o f t h e hypothesis o f God. Prudencia's ascent. b y m e a n s o f a t r ope a n d b y the e x p r e s s i o n o f a f i g u r e . w h o h u m b l e d h i m s e l f b y d e s c e n d ­ i n g to the s t a t e o f h u m a n thesis a n d e v e n to the hypothesis of o u r m i s ­ e r y i n h i s g u i l t l e s s s u f f e r i n g o n the C r o s s . Prudencia m a y t r a n s c e n d N a t u r e ' s domain. Theology's dress can give a definite picture of Divinity. as T h e o l o g y ' s g o w n r e v e a l s . 62 a n d t h u s to l a n g u a g e a n d i m ages i n c a r n a t i n g the i n e f f a b l e . h e d i d n o t s c o r n the d iscipline o r the speech of n a tural philosophy. .^ B e c a u s e G o d r e v e a l s h i m s e l f i n t h e g a r m e n t of o u r The humanity. P r u d e n c i a e v e n t u a l l y s e e s G o d a n d r e c e i v e s f r o m h i m the a n o i n t e d s o u l o f t h e n e w ." L e d b y F a i t h to the i n n e r p r e c i n c t s of G o d ' s k i n g d o m .this p o i n t P r u d e n c i a ' s e c s t a s y m a r k s a n e w l e v e l o f a w a r e n e s s . . G o d " c o n c e i v e s e v e r y 59 t h i n g . f r o m w h i c h i s s u e s " s u p e r c e l e s t i a l " o r " a p o t h e t i c " t h e o l o g y w h e r e b y m a n is e n a b l e d to g a z e u p o n t h e T r i n i t y a n d h i m s e l f to b e c o m e 58 "deified. i n the e m b l e m s o f T h e o l o g y a n d i n the h i s t o r i c a n d d o g m a t i c s y m ­ b o l s o f Faith. t h e puella poli. to u s e A l a n ' s t e r m i n o ­ l o g y . but.

the v i c a r o f God. Although her am­ b i g u o u s s t a t u r e m a k e s h e r a k i n to B o e t h i u s ' P h i l o s o p h i a . is to d e a l w i t h G o d the M a k e r : is a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p if A l a n i n i t i a l l y the a u t h o r m u s t t r e a t of Na t u r e as artificer "for through the things that w e r e c r e a t e d visible. j u s t as A p o l l o is a m e d i a t o r f o r naturalia. m u s t h e a r k e n f i r s t to A p o l l o . and through knowledge of creatures a s ­ c e n t is m a d e to k n o w l e d g e of the C r e a t o r . a s s i m i l a t i n g the p o e t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f the a n c i e n t s b e f o r e d a r i n g to s u m m o n m o r e O l y m p i a n a s s i s t a n c e . a p o e t i c f i g u r e f o r h u m a n k n o w l e d g e d e r i v e d f r o m a m e d i t a t i o n 64 u p o n t h i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d . N a t u r e is. 6 6 ). invisible things are understood. w h o m R a d u l - th e r e f o r e .*"7 . A l a n s o l i c i t o u s l y a c k n o w l e d g e s h i s M use. T h e p o e t ' s s a p i e n t i a l j o u r n e y t h r o u g h this u n d e r w o r l d a n d t h e n c e to h e a v e n l y m y s t e r i e s m i r r o r s P r u d e n c i a ' s quest. " She is. W 469. P r u d e n c i a d i f ­ f e r s f r o m P h i l o s o p h i a i n t h a t s h e is a n e n e r g e t i c c a r d i n a l v i r t u e r a t h e r t h a n a s y n t h e t i c f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g the f u r t h e s t r e a c h o f h u m a n w i s d o m . Certain­ ly. is w e l l s u i t e d to t h e s p a n n i n g o f h u m a n A r t s a n d to the q u a n t u m l e a p f r o m k n o w l e d g e d i r e c t e d b y r e a s o n to i n s i g h t s r e v e a l e d b y t h e o l o g y . a n d n o w s h e r e t u r n s to e a r t h a n d to the limitations of human restraints (I. The author. phus n a m e s " d o c t r i n a " or. p. he is a l s o p a y i n g t r i ­ b u t e to t h e d i v i n e o r d e r i n g o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d a n d o f t h e h u m a n i n ­ telligence w h ic h mirrors. a n d it is t h r o u g h a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e r p r i n c i p l e s that o n e b e g i n s to g l i m p s e the h i g h e r a r t i s t r y o f God. " d o c t r i n a m q u a e r e n s " a n d w h o m 63 o t h e r g l o s s a t o r s u n d e r s t a n d as " s a p i e n t i a " o r " m e d i t a c i o r e r u m . perceives. a n d thus the c h o i c e to p r e s e n t n a t u r a l p h i l o s o ­ phy in the p oetic i n t egumental mode. a l s o c a l l e d P h r o n e s i s a n d S o p hia. T h e i n v o c a t i o n o f A p o l l o . b e c a u s e s h e e m b o d i e s a c t i v i t y o f the i n ­ t e l l e c t . a f t e r all. then. m o r e p r e c i s e l y . M 453). s u p e m a l l y d e l e g a t e d as " c o i n e r " o f i m a g e s {De planotu. The figure of Prudencia. A t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Antialaudianus. then. a n d e x p r e s s e s s u c h o r der. In respect­ ing t h e s t y l e a n d c o n t e n t o f a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h y . N o w she s t r i k e s h e a v e n w i t h h e r h e a d . a p o e t w o u l d b e o v e r b o l d if h e w e r e to j e t t i s o n the c o n s i d e r a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e a n c i e n t s a n d t r u s t to u n t u t o r e d ingenium i n the n a r r a t i o n of a n e p i c j o u r n e y c o m m e n c i n g i n the u n d e r w o r l d of t e r r e s t r i a l crea t i o n .attains the suburbs of Heaven. ^ s i g n i f i e d i n the p o e m b y h e r v a r i a b l e stat u r e . Clio. 298-3 0 2 .

Prudencia's garment is torn in some places.sh e is c a p a b l e of o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the s p h e r e of N a t u r e b u t is a l s o a b l e to b e i n f u s e d w i t h gr a c e . but t o m w i t h a difference. p h y s i c a l l y b e a u t i f u l and. 65). P r u d e n c i a is c o n t r a s t e d w i t h h e r s i s t e r R eason: I n the Antialaudianus. t h e vedemp- tio speaialis of h u m a n m i s e r y (W 490. Prudencia. robe: th e y l i v e a n d d i e i n t e s t i ­ L i k e the d r e s s e s o f B o e t h i u s ' P h i l o s o p h y an d Alan's Natura. a n d l i k e N a t u r a ' s it d i s ­ p l a y s a piotura of the species o f t h i n g s in a d r e a m l i k e p a n o r a m a . c r i b e d as h o l d i n g o u t h e r a r m s as if to e m b r a c e w h o m e v e r s h e m e e t s 29 2 . then. It is t h e luaifer singulavis o f h u m a n ni g h t . Prudencia's dress (I. M 465). 68 Prudencia's abil­ it y to m a k e t h e j o u r n e y f r o m the r e a l m o f n a t u r e to the s p h e r e o f g r a c e is r a p t u r o u s l y c o m m e n d e d b y N a t u r a in the D e planatu'. p. des­ (I. mission. p. the te a r s r e p r e s e n t . t h e r e sh e u s e s pvudentia a s a s y n o n y m for sapientia a n d p r a i s e s it as th e p o w e r w h i c h c a n d e i f y man. w o v e n o f f i n e t h r e a d . n o t s e e m to p o s s e s s the s a m e e n e r g y a n d s w e e t n e s s as P r u d e n c i a . The naturalia h e r e d e p i c t e d a r e l i k e t h e i m a g e s N a t u r a e n g r a v e s o n e a r t h e n t a b l e t s a n d l i k e t h e i m a g e s o n Ge n i u s ' m o n y to n a t u r a l m u t a b i l i t y . p.1 4 7 . d e s p i t e h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . c h a n g e d i n m o d e b u t n o t i n e s s e n c e . w h i l e P r u d e n c i a is d e ­ p i c t e d as a y o u n g w o m a n . M 433). l i k e P h i l o s o p h y ' s gown. l i k e N a t u r a i n the De planatu. A l a n b e l i e v e d w i t h Cicero. does R e a s o n is a m a t r o n who. W 432. 75-77). naturalia b e c o m e gratuita. 3 0 3 -315. c a m e u n d e r the j u r i s d i c t i o n of N a t u r e . p r o m i s i n g h i d d e n d e l i g h t s (I. T h e V i r t u e s . r e s p e c t i v e l y . s h e h a s t h e c o r r e c t s p i r i t f o r the e n d e a v o u r as w e l l as t h e r e ­ quisite natural philosophy (II. 9 5 . 2 96-97. b u t h e a r g u e d f u r t h e r t h a t t h e s e s a m e n a t u r a l p o w e r s c o u l d b e i n f o r m e d b y oaritas so that. b u t h e r e P r u d e n c i a is s a i d to u n ­ c l a s p t h e g o w n i n o r d e r to te a r it h e r s e l f : . pp. w a r r i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e c t s a n d h e r e s i e s a n d t h e u n n a t u r a l b e h a v i o u r o f ma n .9 3 . is t h a t m o t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t t h a t n o t o n l y e n c o m p a s s e s naturalia b u t a l s o i m p e l s h u m a n i t y t o w a r d s d i v i nity. 6 6 ) is e m b l e m a t i c of h e r ties It is w i t h N a t u r e a n d P h i l o s o p h y a n d o f h e r m o t i o n t o w a r d s the di v i n e . In praising the fitness of Prud e n c i a for the proposed Reason emphasizes her sister's unflagging courage and intelli­ gence. 65. I n the Oe oonsolatione a n d in th e D e planatu.

the f i n e c l o a k o f p o e t i c T h e poet. n o t fabu l o u s . t i o n of F o r t u n a ’ d w e l l i n g is w h o l l y f a b u l o u s i n m ode. lyre. 2 7 1 -72. If A l a n i n t h e De planotu Naturae a n d t h e Anticlaudianus d e m o n ­ s t r a t e s t h e u s e s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s of n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d o f the i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e u s e d b y p o e t s p r o t e c t i v e l y to e m b e l l i s h t h e s e c r e t s of Nature. h e r e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e V i r g i n . for d i v i n e tropes. is a l s o s u c h a n i n t e g u m e n t . 131). d o e s h e a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e . " p i c t u r e s . B u t if A l a n i n this w a y s h o w s h o w the C h r i s t i a n p o e t m i g h t s t o p l y i n g with the ancients — decorous and instructive though the lies m a y b e — a n d a s s u m e a m o d e o f s y m b o l i s m e q u a l to t h e t a s k of r e f l e c t i n g c e l e s t i a l t h e o p h a n y . b u t o n e w h i c h she is a b o u t to rend. w i l l r e j e c t the d r e a m . h i s t o r i c a l figurae r e v e a l i n g a p o w e r b e y o n d f o r m u l a t i o n b y e a r t h l y d i s c i p l i n e s . too. t h e n P r u d e n c l a ' s robe. p. God. p h i l o s o p h y to p r e s e n t the f i n e r d r e s s o f t h e o l o g y a n d faith. i n the Anticlaudianus. b u t A l a n ' s n a r r a t i v e the n a r r a t i v e ? . o r S c r i p t u r a l . t h e g a r m e n t a p p e a r s to d e p l o r e a n d b e w a i l 69 t h e r e p r o a c h e s i n f l i c t e d o n it. the d e s c r i p ­ a n d N o y s a r e n o n e the l e s s e m b e d d e d i n a f i c t i o n a l m a t r i x . E v e n i n h i s r e f e r e n c e s to G o d the H e a v e n ­ The fable a n d H e a v e n at this p o i n t h e e m p l o y s " i n t e g u m e n t a l " e p i t h e t s : ly M u s e is " M u s a I o u i . b r i g h t w i t h d r e a m .i m a g e s o f m u t a b l e life. a b o u t to r i p it a p a r t in various places.i m a g e r y o f A p o l l o n i a n i n s p i r a t i o n t h e n seve r s . " w h e t h e r t h e y b e the p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e a n ­ a l o g o u s to b u t t r a n s c e n d i n g t hose o f t h e A r t s . h i s w o r k weav e s . " H e a v e n is O l y m p u s of P r u d e n c i a ' s q u e s t c o n t i n u e s : (V.S h e u n f a s t e n s t h e robe i n p i e c e s . c l a i m t h a t integumentum b e c o m e s allegoria a f t e r A l a n r e l i n q u i s h e s A p o l l o ' s t h e n h o w w o u l d o n e a c c o u n t for t h e p a t e n t l y u n h i s t o r i c a l cortex of F a i t h m a y b e d r e s s e d per allegoriam. s a n d the e n s u i n g I f o n e w e r e to psychomachia is e q u a l l y e n c l o s e d b y p o e t i c i n v e n t i o n . If N a t u r a ' s f a b u l o u s l y v i v i d d ress m a y b e u n d e r s t o o d as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l integumentum. w h a t k i n d of Certainly symbolic writing might best present supra-natural mystery? i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c l o t h i n g of T h e o l o g y a n d F a i t h h e i n d i c a t e s that s u c h e s s e n c e s a r e to be e n v e l o p e d w i t h t r u t h f u l . h e h i m s e l f d o e s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y a l t e r the f i c t i t i o u s n a t u r e of h i s n a r r a t i v e a f t e r a n n o u n c i n g that h e w i l l p u t a s i d e A p o l l o ' s l y r e a n d s p e a k the n e w w o r d s o f the prophet.

in Heaven. it r e m a i n e d f o r D a n t e to g r a s p f u l l y the i m p l i c a t i o n s t e a ching: the a u t h o r o f a o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l e x t e n s i o n of M a c r o b i u s ' sacred epic m us t use historical allegories analogous t o ^ and continu72 ous w i t h t h o s e o f S c r i p t u r e .c o n t i n u e s to l o o k v e r y m u c h l i k e a n i n t e g u m e n t . the a l l e g o r y of the t h e o l o g i a n s a n d n o t 73 o f t h e p oets.^ H e a s s o c i a t e s historia w i t h ratio. D e s p i t e h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f th e h i s t o r i c a l figurae o f Faith. if h e is to f i n d p r o p e r f i g u r e s fo r t h e u n i m a g i n a b l e . tropologia w i t h . a n d i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m the t r u t h it r e veals. if it is n o t q u i t e a fiction. ^ Historia is b i t t e r it is t h i n whey. a n d l e a s t " a d v a n c e d " l e v e l o f me a n i n g . E x c e p t f o r th e d e s c r i p t i o n of F a i t h ' s g a r m e n t s in the Antialaudianus. s i g n i f y ­ i n g b y this me a n s . Dante is b o l d e n o u g h to i n v o k e A p o l l o to h e l p h i m d e s c r i b e P a r a d i s e . l e a s t p a l a t a b l e . " t h e n it is n o l o n g e r the lying en velope for truth but an imaginatively particular and existential r e v e l a t i o n o f truth. b u t i n p r a c t i c e it does n o t w h o l l y r e a l i z e t h a t theory. h a s b e e n c a l l e d a 74 f i c t i o n p u r p o r t i n g no t to b e one: it is a s u p r e m e l y p o e t i c f o r m of allegoria b l e n d i n g m y t h a n d h i s t o r y i n s u c h a w a y t h a t the b a s i c a l l y f i c t i t i o u s m o d e o f t h e p o e m c a n b e s e e n i n a n e w light. A l a n o f L i l l e w a s u n a b l e to d e v e l o p the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these figurae f o r the C h r i s t i a n poet. i n a p o e m w h o s e m o v e m e n t is m o d e l l e d to s o m e e x t e n t o n th a t of the Antialaudianus b u t w h o s e m o d e is r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d . T h e Antiolaudianus m a y b e s a i d to p r e s e n t a t h e o r y o f m o d e s . R e a s o n Virgil. p e r h a p s . that the p o e t ' s l y r e n e e d n o t b e d i s c a r d e d It c a n b e t u n e d to a h i g h e r p i t c h a n d r e s o n a t e w i t h n o f a l s e i f the p o e t ' s f i c t i o n i m a g i n a t i v e l y s u b s u m e s the n u m i n o u s p a t t e r n s o f C h r i s t i a n typology. h i s w r i t i n g s do n o t s t r e s s the i n t i m a c y o f historia w i t h allegoria. Theology Beatrice. a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s o f the m o d e r n i t y o f h i s w o r k . T h o u g h A l a n . B u t t h e Divine Comedy. i n t e n d e d to r a i s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l v e r s e to a p i t c h n o t d a r e d b y the a n c i e n t s . l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e . i n fact. o r i n ­ deed b y Boethius. The transformation o f " t h e a l l e g o r y of t h e p o e t s " in t o " t h e a l l e g o r y of the t h e o l o g i a n s " is n o t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a c h i e v e d u n t i l P r u d e n c i a b e c o m e s Da n t e . A l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t reats the l i t e r a l a n d h i s ­ t o r i c a l s e n s e o f S c r i p t u r e as t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . notes. o f f e r i n g l i t t l e sustinence. If f i c t i o n i m i t a t e s " t h e a l l e g o r y o f the t h e o l o g i a n s . myrrh. g i v i n g the s o u l n o d e l e c t a t i o n .

intelleotus. . f i r m l y a l l i e s r e v e l a t i o n w i t h time. C u r i o u s l y . A l a n e l s e w h e r e s u g g e s t s that historia ha s n o p o w e r to lift the s o u l b e y o n d t r a n s i t o r y things. . a n d a l t h o u g h P r u d e n c i a is r e v i v e d b y F a i t h w e a r ­ in g the d r e s s of s a c r e d h i s t o r y . w h i c h a l o n e c o n t e m p l a t e s th i n g s d i v i n e . calamus noua m e l l a propinans. 131). . n e c p u d e a t i n v a s e luteo mel l it u m p oculum invenire. the s t y l e 80 of the two w o r k s is m a n i f e s t l y d i f f e r e n t . o v e r t k i n d o f t h e o l o g i c a l epic. aid in Paradise. p l a c e . be the a u t h o r b u t t h e p e n o f h i s song. (V. / . 79 meo mel m v e n i r i . I m p a t i e n t to d i s c o v e r the sensus mystiaus. h e a t t a c k s the J e w s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a t t a c h m e n t to the l e t t e r of F r e q u e n t l y h e r e m i n d s u s o f h o w the l e t t e r k i l l s 78 a n d h o w the s p i r i t g i v e s life. l u c t e u m uas. . a n e c s t a s y w h i c h m a r k s a p a s s a g e f r o m ratio to intelleotus at the v e r y least. 27 6 . h o w e v e r .7 7 . m i g h t b e t r a n s c e n d e d b y a new. h e h a s l i t t l e r e v e r e n c e f o r historia. ing. S o l e t . In the Antialaudianus A l a n m a y h a v e b e e n a t t e m p t ­ to u s e a st y l e le s s g r a n d . u n f a i r t h o u g h that . . still calling upon Apollo's the O l d T e s t a m e n t . as w e l l . Da n t e . event. C. s t y l e b y cl a i m i n g : N o n d e d i g n e t u r r o s a m in s p i n e t o q u a e r e r e . the " m e t a p h o r s a n d d r e a m s of t r u t h " d e v i s e d b y the a n c i e n t s a n d e x h i b i t e d i n h i s o w n De planatu Naturae. th e po e t w h o r e j e c t s A p o l ­ lo ' s m u s i c f o r the n e w w o r d s of the p r o p h e t s h o w s l i t t l e of the p r o p h e t ' s gr a s p o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s t o r y . p.S. . to d e m o n s t r a t e h o w Th e Antialaudianus w a s s u r e l y me a n t . a n d anagoge w i t h intelligentia. m o r e p r o b a b l y a p a s s a g e f r o m intelleo­ tus to intelligentia. h e c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s p r o p o s e d n e w p l a i n n e s s o f s t y l e u s i n g i m a g e s i d e n t i c a l to t h o s e h e a p p l i e d to the s t y l e o f h i s Liber poenitentialis. L e w i s ' c o n t e m p t for the " m o n o t o n o u s r h e t o r i c " o f th e Antialaudianus. ^ A l t h o u g h P r u d e n c i a in th e Antialaudianus e x p e r i e n c e s e c s t a s y b e f o r e the virgin. l e s s " p h a l e r i c " t h a n t h a t o f his prologue mod e s t l y disclaims stylistic and senten­ W h e n in B o o k V h e d e c l a r e s th a t h e s h a l l n o l o n g e r the De planatu: tious r e f u l g e n c y . in f r a g i l i c a l a H e w i l l b e the " S p i n a r o s a m g e s t a n s . n e c t a r e m a n a n s " I n the Liber poenitentialis h e j u s t i f i e s h i s u n a d o r n e d But d e s p i t e the i d e n t i t y o f p u r p o s e r e v e a l e d i n these i mages.

W i t h the m i r r o r . g i v e t h e m s a t i s f a c t o r y i n c a r n a t i o n . B u t a l t h o u g h the Antialaudianus s u g g e s t s t r u e r media f o r f i g u r i n g t h e o p h a n y . He would n e e d to b e g i n w i t h B e a t r i c e . University of Guelph . k n e w c o u l d n o t p r o p e r l y c o n v e y C h r i s ­ tian doctrine. L e w i s . a s t h e o l o g i a n .S. i n the end. M 482). I t c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t Alan. s h e m a y m e e t G o d a l m o s t f a c e to face: this imaginccria visio t a k e s o n e f u r t h e r t h a n the d r e a m l i k e a p p a r i t i o n s o f the De planatu. t h e e l o q u e n t p o e t of the I n c a r n a t i o n . a l s o felt C h r i s t i a n s c o u l d do without. I n the e q u a l l y f a b u l o u s b u t l o f t i e r Antialaudianus w e a r e g i v e n a n imaginaria visio o f c e l e s t i a l t h e o p h a n y . j u s t as P r u d e n c i a is g i v e n a m i r r o r b y F a i t h to r e f l e c t t h e o t h e r w i s e i n s u p p o r t a b l e b r i g h t n e s s o f Divi n i t y . b u t s u c h d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n is s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d to w h a t n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y m i g h t e n c o m p a s s .c o n t e m p t m i g h t be. k n e w h o w the C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r m i g h t f i n d i m a g e s f o r d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n . B u t as t h e o l o g i a n h e k n e w a l s o that m e n c a n n o t s e e G o d w e see God n o t "reciprocally" but by means of an 81 a s the a n g e l s do: " y m a g i n a r i a v i s i o . n e v e r t h e l e s s w a s n o t p r o m p t e d b y the u n i v e r s a l d o c ­ t o r ' s p l a i n . h o w e v e r . as p oet. p e l l u c i d style. I n t h e f a b u l o u s De planatu Naturae. as t h e b e a u t y o f A t a l a n t a is p e r c e i v e d i n that o f h e r d a u g h t e r P a r t e n o p e . h e c o u l d not. W h i l e Alan. w a s c a u g h t u p i n a m o d e of w r i t i n g w h i c h he. b o t h it a n d the De planatu m a y b e t e r m e d f a b u l o u s imaginariae visiones. P r u d e n c i a l a c k s r e c i p r o c a l vision. " b y w h i c h o n e t h i n g is c o m p r e h e n d e d i n a n o t h e r . w h i c h A l a n s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l l s an imaginaria visio (W 522. A l t h o u g h s h e e n t e r s a n g e l i c realms. w e m a y b e e x p e c t e d to p e r c e i v e the p o w e r o f G o d i n h i s v i c a r N a t u r e . a t o t h e r t i m e s s o u n d i n g r a t h e r l i k e C. His n e a r "rankling personal hatred" of A l a n w a s p r o v o k e d b y t h o s e v e r y phalerae verborum w h i c h A lan.

b ook. own. C u r t i u s h a s c o l l e c t e d e x a m p l e s of the topos " K o n t r a s t i e r u n g d e r h e i d n i s c h e n u n d d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n D i c h t u n g " in " D i e M u s e n i n M i t t e l a l t e r . b e c a u s e o f its d i g n i t y (Radul­ p h u s de L o n g o Campo. These studies form the b asis for h i s c h a p t e r o n " T h e M u s e s " i n European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages.R. " a n d t h a t emblema is t h e r e f o r e the aurea régula o f t h e o l o g y . 57 [ r e a d ­ i n g dejecta. Commen­ tary on the Dream o f Saipio. " as it does the l a t e r m e a n ­ i n g " s y m b o l i c i m a g e . PL 2 1 0 . 2 . C r a c o w . 1-9. . T e x t e s P h i l o s o ­ p h i q u e s d u M o y e n Age. A l a n ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d emblema s u g g e s t s n o t so m u c h its o r i g i n a l m e a n i n g " i n l a i d w o r k " o r " r a i s e d o r n a m e n t . W a r s a w . R. 4 8 7 ] . . 131-32. a n d p a g e n u m b e r s w i l l s b e p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r q u o t a t i o n s f r o m o r r e f e r e n c e s to the poem. w i t h M i g n e . 1. T r a s k (New Y o r k 1953) 228-46. so c a l l e d " p r o p t e r i n t e r n u m i n t e l l i g e n tiae splendorem .26). " Zeitsohrift fur Romanische Philologie 59 (1939) 1 2 9 . " Zeitsohrift fur Romanische Philolo­ A l a n ' s i n v o c a t i o n o f G o d is i n B o o k V. . M a c r o b i u s . 11. R e c o r d s of . line. 1 (Paris 1955). [Wroclaw. The Genius Figure in Antiquity and the Middle Ages (New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n 1975) 114. pp. A l l r e f e r e n c e s to t h e Anti­ claudianus a r e to B o s s u a t ’ e d i t i o n . 7 . Anticlaudianus.2 1 . p. R a d u l p h u s de L o n g o C a m p o n o t e s that emblema p r o p e r l y s i g n i f i e s frustrum auri. J a c o b W i l l i s ( L e i p z i g 1970). a n d A m o n g s t the s p e c i a l r u l e s o f t h e o l o g y . 4 E. J a n S u l o w s k i . W i l l i a m H a r r i s Stahl. Z r o d i a do D z i e j o w N a u k i i T e c k n i k i .NOTES ^ A l a i n d e L i l l e . tr. pp.S t u d i e n X V I I I . ed. 5-8. X I I I G d a n s k 1972] 22.2. 622). ed. " P r o l o g u e . gie 63 (1943) 260. 2 7 8 . tr. 11.8 8 a n d i n "M i t t e lalter-Studien XVIII. ed. " b e c a u s e the e m b l e m c o n t a i n s a n inner s i g n i f i c a n c e p e r c e i v e d b y k e e n n e s s o f insight. A l a n of L i l l e i n c l u d e s emblemata. B o s s u a t . In Anticlaudianum Alani cormentum. quia puriore mentis comprehenduntur" (PL 210. Ambrosii Theodosii Macrobii Commentarii in Sormium Scipionis.3 0 5 . " 11. W i l l a r d R. 2 3 ." 258-67. 2 E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f p a s s a g e s f r o m the Anticlaudianus a r e m y " M i t t e l a l t e r . 1 . l i t e r a l l y "a l i t t l e p i e c e o f g o l d . 3 J a n e C h a n c e N i t z s c h e .

P L 210. g 210 of M i g n e ' s Patrologia latina w i l l a l s o T r a n s l a t i o n s of p a s s a g e s f r o m the De planctu are m y own. A f d e e l i n g L e t t e r k u n d e D e e l 74. " ed. M a r i e . U n i v e r s i t é de 12 [ M o n t r é a l Public a t i o n s de l'institut d'Etudes Médiévales. I g i v e at l e n g t h in " T h e I d e n t i t y of the 'New Man' For reasons w h i c h in the Anticlaudianus that the of A l a n o f L i l l e .c e n t u r y honnête homme liber die Verknüpfung des Poetischen mit dem Theologischen bei Alanus de Insulis. 9 A l t h o u g h s o m e m e d i e v a l c o m m e n t a r i e s o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n s of the Anticlaudianus i d e n t i f y t h e novus homo w i t h C h r i s t . X L V I I I (New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n 1952) ^ " A l a n i L i b e r d e P l a n c t u N a t u r a e . T h e c o l u m n n u m b e r s f r o m Vol. M . r e c e n t s t u d e n t s of t h e p o e m a r e i n c l i n e d to v i e w h i m e i t h e r as a t i m e l e s s i d e a l m i r r o r i n g C h r i s t b u t u n r e a l i z a b l e i n this life (R. ad c u j u s rei inAll future refer­ t el l igentiam nostrae mentis languescunt suspiria. 84-7. in The Anglo- Latin Satirical Poets and Epigrammatists of the Twelfth Century. " Annuale Medievale 8 [1957] ( b e c a u s e too c o u r t l y (J. L U [Paris 1965] 35). M e d e d e e l i n g e n d e r K o n i n k l i j k e A k a d e m i e v a n W e t e n s c h a p p e n . p a g e n u m ­ b e r s w i l l b e e n c l o s e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a n d i n s e r t e d a f t e r p a s s a g e s cited. I w o u l d argue. R a y n a u d de L a ge.l i k e a n d a r i s t o c r a t i c ) . h e a p p e a r s to be. the d i v i n e l y c o n s e c r a t e d P h i l i p II .H. S erie B. ed. but l e s s C h r i s t . " A l a n of L i l l e ' s Anticlaudianus: A s c e n s u s M e n t i s in D e u m . 6 [ A m s t e r d a m 1932] 69-70. m o d e l of a t w e l f t h . T h o m a s W r i g h t .R e n ë Jung. be s u p p l i e d . E t u d e s d e p h i l o s o p h i e m é d i é v a l e . rpt.Civilization. Romanica Helvetica 92 [Bern 1 971] 77-80). rather. divinus homo is n e i t h e r C h r i s t n o r a n i d e a l f i g u r e m o r e o r less r e f l e c t ­ ing Him. h o w e v e r . arcanum tractatum audeat [audet: [quae: "Jam nimis nostrae Migne] ad ineffa b i l e m deitatis M i g n e ] a t t o l l e r e . avec une introduction sur sa vie et ses oeuvres.444: ratioc i n a t i o n i s series evagatur. Alain de Lille: Montréal. d ' A l v e r n y p o i n t s o u t that A l a n a p p e a r s to h a v e b e e n o n e of the f i r s t to u s e the t e r m " n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y " to d e s i g n a t e k n o w l e d g e a c c e s s i b l e to h u m a n r e a s o n (Alain de Lille: Textes inédits. W i e s b a d e n 1964) 453.T h é r è s e d ' A l v e r n y . H u i z i n g a . G u y Poète du XIIe siècle. Green. Etudes sur le poème allégorique en France au moyen âge. 1951] 99. M a r c . II (L o n d o n 1872.-T. No. 10-11) o r a s the e q u a l l y ideal. S o u r c e s a n d Studies. " Viator 1 0 (1979)." e n c e s to t h e De planctu Naturae w i l l be to W r i g h t ' s e d i t i o n .

in "Lectio Philo- sophorum" : Recherches sur l ’ Ecole de Chartres [ A m s t e r d a m 197 3] 1 2 7 ." 3. " AHDLMA 2 0 (1954) 31-81. Explorations into the Uses o f Myth in Medieval (B erlin a n d N e w Y o r k 1971) 314-39.A u g u s t u s of F r a n c e .1 0 0 (rpt. I X ( L e i d e n 1974) 13-67. "Le cosmos symbolique "Involuarum: 75-79. 14-15: narratione veri t a t i s involvens intellectum. " I n t e g u m e n t u m est g e n u s d e m o s t r a t i o n i s [sic] sub f a b u l o s a unde eti am dicitur involucrum. 11. p. 2r). 12 fol. In Antialaudianum Alani commentum. M. appar­ c l a u d i t i n t e r i u s et o r n a t v e r b a e x t e r i u s . Neb. n. Symbol. a n d L o n d o n 1977) ^ ix-xi. Zeichen. V onwards. . . ( B r i t i s h M u s e u m . ed. MS. 12-15: " sicut e n i m p h a l e r a e v ê l a n t e q u u m et sic i n t e g u m e n t a l i s m o d u s l o q u e n d i a l i q u i d m i s t i c u m v e l a t et Another glossator. 36-37. Myth and Science in the Twelfth Century: P e t e r D ronke. Bild. " V e r h u l l u n g ( ' i n t e g u m e n t u m ' ) als l i t e r a r i s c h e D a r s t e l - Hennig Brinkmann. Ibid. d ' A l v e r n y . Integumentum a n d its s o m e t i m e s y n o n y m involuarum h a v e b e e n the M. C h e n u . l u n g s f o r m i m M i t t e l a l t e r . The Commentary on the First Six Books o f the Aeneid . Add. . p. Edouard " L ' U s a g e de la n o t i o n à'integumentum à t r a v e r s l e s g l o s e s de G u i l l a u m e de C o n c h e s .T . J u l i a n W a r d J o n e s a n d E l i z a b e t h F r a n c e s J o n e s (Lincoln. 11. pp. See Stock. ed. B r i a n Stock. A l b e r t Z i m m e r m a n n A Study of Bernard Silvester ( P r i n c e t o n 1972) 49-55. p. Le su b j e c t of m a n y r e c e n t studies: d u X I l m e s i è c l e . . M i t t e l l a t e i n i s c h e S t u d i e n u n d T exte. i n g the m i l l e n n i u m . M y t h e s e l o n l e s t h é o l o g i e n s m é d i é v a u x " AHDLMA 22 (1956) Je a u n e a u . a l s o u n d e r s t o o d phaleras a s t h e " m o d u m l o q u e n d i i n t e g u m e n t a l e m q u e m h a b e n t p o e t e . " e n t l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f R a d u l p h u s . 67. n o r is the c o m i n g ag e of g o l d out of time.-D. " d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the p o e t ' s s p e c i a l m o d e f r o m that of a u t h o r s in g e n e r a l 24567 [13th c e n t u r y ] . . The Commentary on the First Six Books o f the Aeneid of Virgil Commonly Attributed to B e m a r d u s Silvestris.9 2 ) . then. i n g of the poem. 11. ^ ^ ornant. e n v i s i o n e d in the p o e m as a Carolus redivivus h e r a l d ­ A l a n ' s a t t e m p t i n g of the p r o p h e t i c m o d e f r o m B o o k the c r e a t i o n In m y r e a d ­ is b o u n d u p w i t h the s u b j e c t of h i s ep i c — of a n e w m a n t h r o u g h w h o m Go d m a n i f e s t s h i m s e l f in hi s t o r y . " AHDLMA 24 (1958) 3 5 . the n e w m a n is n o t e n t i r e l y a b s t r a c t . 67." in Der Begriff der Repraesentatio im Mittel- alter: Stellvertretung. 7-11. Fabula: 13 Platonism. 42.

1 rb. 18." Winthrop Wetherbee. c h a r a c t e r i z e s " B e r n a r d ' s " d e f i n i t i o n of the r e l a ­ t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n integumentum a n d allegoria a s " s o m e w h a t s i m p l i s t i c a l l y l u c i d . a n d t r a d i t i o n of the Parisiana Poetria are d i s c u s s e d o n pp. N o n t a m e n u bique. 18 19 Dante et la tradition de l ’ allégorie ( M o n t r é a l 1970) 6 6 . 74). P e t e r D r o n k e c l a i m s that "the t e r m s in [i. "id est. teste Macrobio.. in Platonism and Poetry in the Twelfth Century: The Literary Influence o f the School of Chartres ( P r i n c e t o n 1972) 113. . . Τάγαθόν ] s i m u l a c r u m " (In Sorrmium Scip- ionis. p. admittit ph i l o s o p h i c u s . 20 In Anticlaudianum Alani commentum. L a w l e r .T h e J o n e s ' e d i t i o n o f the C o m m e n t a r y is b a s e d o n t h r e e m a n u s c r i p t s of t h e work. C u m e n i m a d summum. " 16 W i l l i a m of C o n c h e s c o m m e n t e d o n M a c r o b i u s ' s t a t e m e n t " i d e o et n u l l u m ei [i. " in D r o n k e . 119-20. 2. o f the Good. s o urces. the Oe nuptiis c o m m e n t a t o r ] f o r m u l a t e s h i s s u b d i v ­ which Bernard i s i o n a n d d i s t i n c t i o n a r e u n u s u a l . " an d d e n i e s th a t " B e r n a r d " i m p l i e s a n y l i m i t a t i o n in the s c o p e of integumentum. 5 (1964) 856-57. 3r d series. 7. ed. cit. a n d tr. The Parisiana Poetria of John of Garland.e. Y a l e S t u d i e s in En g l i s h . 11. The Commentary on the . t r a n s l a t e d i s : " N a m et i b i h i s t o r i a et hic f a b u l a m i s t e r i u m h a b e n t o c c u l A l l e g o r i a q u i d a m d i u i n e pa g i n e . This p a s s a g e is e d i t e d b y Stock. n u l l a m i m a g i n e m a n t e ( " S e l e c t i o n s f r o m W i l l i a m of C o n c h e s ' s c o m m e n t a r y on ^ I n Fabula. " Studi Th e L a t i n of t h e p a r t s I h a v e medievali.xs/i.5 v a ) a r e p r i n t e d a s A p p e n d i x C i n J o n e s a n d Jones. " N o t e sur 1 'Ecole d e C h a r t r e s .e.. p. 5 r a . pp. U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y . 1 . Mm. . inquit. u e l li c i t a . w i t h m i n o r c h a n g e s f r o m the t r a n s ­ cription by Edouard Jeauneau. C a m b r i d g e . d e u m s t i l u s se a u d e t a t t o l l e r e . eds. a n d h i s u s a g e d o e s n o t a p p e a r to ha v e gained w i d e r a c c eptance. 38. T r a u g o t t 1 8 2 (New H a v e n 1974) 104. fol. 44. ^ MS. integumentum uero philosoinuolucrum tractatus phice competit.16. p. I. 9-10): incarnationem" M a c r o b i u s . x x i i . tum .. r a t h e r t h a n o n the s i n g l e o n e u s e d b y W i l h e l m R i e d e l in h i s e d i t i o n . n e f a s est f a b ulosa. T h e date. Fabula. pp. a d m i t t e r e . ed. 39-40. Commentum B e m a r d i Silvestris super sex libros Eneidos Virgilii (Griefswald 1 9 2 4 ) . The clas s i­ f i c a t i o n s o f S c i e n t i a i n the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a r y (fol.

707 i s p r i n t e d b y 328-29. " P h i l o s o p h i a s i q u i d e m r e m o v e t i g n o r a n t i a m et i n f o r ­ (p. and t h u s t h e d i m i n u t i v e a u t h o r ' s d e b t to Martianus was slyly recognized.First Six Books o f the Aeneid. 329: "et h o c m o d o s c r i b e n d i m a x i m e v s u s est A l a n u s De in q u i - P l a n c t u Natu r e . in m e t r i c o p h i l o m e n a . howe v e r . 13-1 9 ) . John ed. cit. 11. but G eoffrey. cf. The P a r i s i a n a P o e t r i a of John o f Garland.1 3 3 . 21-2 3 ) . Aeneid c o m m e n t a r y . m e t r i c u m p o e m a et p r o s a i c u m " 18-1 9 ) a n d t h e De nuptiis com m e n t a r y : i n m e t r o o r a t i o n e m g r a v e m et i l l u s t r e m " " P o e s i s v e r o est s c i e n t i a c l a u d e n s (ibid. a n d meahania as p a r t s of S c i e n t i a . 21 T h e De planatu Naturae w a s the w o r k of " A l a n i m i n i m i C a p e l l a e " a c c o r d i n g to s o m e m a n u s c r i p t s . 44. I n d e est q u o d l i b r o A r c h i - trenii propter tropicarum locucionum c e l e b r e m p r e c e l l e n c i a m n u l l u s liber m o d e r n o r u m s i m i l i s i n u e n i t u r . see M . L a u d M isc. d ' A l v e r n y . -T. etoquentia. p. R a d u l p h u s r e p l a c e s sapientia c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h philosophia·. Textes inédits. b u s t o c i u s e l o q u e n c i e f l o r i d i o r est o r n a t u s .g. " P o e s i s v e r o est p o e t a r u m s c i e n t i a (ed. 132). 23 Ibid.. 5ra) " S a p i e n t i a e n i m f u g a t i g n o r a n t i a m . b u t R a d u l p h u s u s e s the f u l l e r e x p o s i t i o n g i v e n in the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a r y . 1. " . p. W h i l e the De nuptiis c o m m e n t a t o r l i s t s sapientia. h a b e n s d u a s p a r t e s . 22 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e four s t y l e s i s t o b e f o u n d in t h e l o n g e r v e r s i o n of the Doaumentum de modo et arte dictandi et versificandi. is u n r e l i a b l e . m a x i m e e n i m ibi t r o p i c i s l o c u c i o n i b u s v s u s est. w h i l e n o t i n g that the T u l l i a n s t y l e is n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h metre. of G a r l a n d says t h a t the T u l l i a n s t y l e is u s e d b y vates " w h e n t h e y w r i t e in prose. 11. De nuptiis formans agni­ mât contrarium scilicet agnitionem" c o m m e n t a r y (fol. 11. q u a m u i s B e r n a r d u s S i l v e s t e r in p r o s a i c o dicatur psitacus. 33. t i o n e m " [J o n e s a n d J o n e s i n c o r r e c t l y h a v e " f o r m a s a g n i t i o n e m " ] . p. 39. p. l o c a t e s its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r a v i t y a n d c o l o u r i n v e r s e a s w e l l a s prose. of Poesis c o m b i n e s t h o s e f r o m the two c o m m e n t a r i e s : His defini t i o n " P o e s i s i g i t u r est s c i e n t i a c l a u d e n s in m e t r o v e l p r o s a o r a t i o n e m g r a v e m et illustrent" (p. 5). p. cf. pp. poesis. t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n . T h e v a r i o u s p a r t s of S c i e n t i a a r e a l s o l i s t e d in the Aeneid c o m m e n t a r y (ibid. 131. 32. 32.. a n d b y m a s t e r s in a c a d e m i c c o m p o s i t i o n s " (ibid. the r e l e v a n t p a s s a g e f r o m B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y MS. 107-07). pp. pp. Lawl e r . e.

140." m e lior est sacta rusticitas. 1957) 290. 2nd ed. ornatu verborum. quam peccatrix eloquen- O n the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f simplicitas w i t h r e g a r d to m o n a s t i c i n ­ see J e a n L e c l e r c q . ( C a m bridge. a n d passim. I n h i s " S u m m a d e a r t e p r a e d i c a t o r i a . pr. . 44. 32 P L 210. "The H o u s e o f F a m e . " cap. M 452: see W r i g h t . De planatu. W 517.^ Antiolaudianus. " 31 A l a i n d e L i lle. 53. et f u c a r e n e s c i r e t . Analec­ ta Mediaevalia Namurcensia 1 8 ( L o u v a i n a n d L i l l e 1965) II. v a r i i s q u e v e n u s t o r u m d i c t o r u m c o l o r i b u s i n v e s t i r e . 221-22. sed Medium tenuere beati . De planatu.6 3 . w i t h a d d e n d a b y J e a n Préa u x . " Collec­ t e l l e c t u a l stud i e s . " I. . 26 The name varies in different manuscripts. nec n i m i s e x s a n g u i b u s v e r b i s d e b e t e s s e dejecta.1 6 5 3 : sed p l e b e m D o m i n u s s i m p l i c e m "Non gymnasia choris r e f erta sapientum. pp.9 0 . 27 W 467-68. 61. I. 4 8 0 "Ab a l t i o r i e n i m s u m e n s i n i t i u m e x c e l l e n t i o r - i q u e stylo. 29 . ^ cer. r e q u i s i v i t . . pr. J e a n L o u g è r e . 192. 853. A l a n p r o p o s e s : dans loquacitas: tia. 12. " E x p o s i t i o E v a n g e l i i s e c u n d u m L u c a m . ed.” in Grece ephipia. Liber poenitentialis. Mass. m e a e v o l e n s s e r i e m n a r r a t i o n i s c o n t e x e r e . W 489. ed. " II. " 28 Martianus Capella [De nuptiis Philologiae et Merourii]. verum pudenda aureis pudicorum verborum phal e r i s inau r a r e . p. VI. in PL 210. in PL 16. III-IX. IX.4 1 . ed. L u t z ( L e i d e n 1965) 1. X X V I "Melior est vera simplicitas. sunt o r n a m e n t a e q u o r u m . i n The Works of Geoffrey Chau­ M 464. q u a m abun(PL 2 1 0 . R o b i n s o n . 1 1 2 C : ". 2-5: o r n a m e n t a fabu l o s a . 1 6 3 D ) . 80-82. M 479. in P L 15. C o r a E.40. vel profanis v e r bo r um novitatibus profanare profana.209. Remigii Autissiodorensis Commentum in Martianum Capellam L z b n " P H A L E R A S id e s t Phalerae proprie Cui parat? P A R V O L I B E L L 0 meo. p. " S a n c t a S i m p l i c i t a s . Ponuntur abusive pro superfluo " S u m m a de a r t e p r a e d i c a t o r i a . A d o l f u s D i c k ( L e i p z i g 1925. " cap. S t u t t g a r t 1969) III. . 11. rpt. I. " II. ed. F. 33 tanea Ordinis Cisterciensium R e f o r m a t o m m 22 (1960) 138-48. " 34 "De o f f i c i i s m i n i s t r o r u m . . praedicatio enim non debet splendere phaleris verborum purpuramentis c o l o r u m . q u a e p h a l e r a r e audi t a . n o l o u t p r i u s plana verborum planitie explanare proposita.N.

112." ^ 43 De nuptiis I. d ' A l v e r n y h a s p o i n t e d out. "A L e t t e r of Roger. 17. C a m b r i d g e . Dick. . B r a c e l a n d . 51-52. 7 1 0 A . c i t e d in M . 6 3 7 C . 28. 3 : 2 ) . . A b b o t o f B y l a n d . q u a s i q u a d a m e l e g a n t i str u c t u r a .J. 36 Talbot. 8 5 4 B ) . umbratilibus p o e t a r u m figmentis. " I am grate­ 'lac p o t u m d e d i n o n escam' ful to L. M 451: "Poetae aliquando historiales eventus joculationibus fabulosis. J o h n M. The Old [ a r gentu m]. ^ 38 " R e g u l a e A l a n i de S a c r a T h e o l o g i a " XXXIV. 35). pomposa tibi s c r i b e r e u e r b a n e c potui. a n d the g o s p e l ' s umbra (985D) a n d i t s velamentum ( 9 9 3 B ) . L i t t l e (1957. " Analeota Saori Ordinis Cisterciensis 7 (1951) 224.e. 169v: "Scribens d i l e c t o meo. " Analeo­ ta Cisterciana 30 (1974) 50. for d r a w i n g this l e t t e r to m y a t t e n t i o n a n d for p r o v i d i n g the t r a n s c r i p t i o n ..-T.H.-D. w h i c h is m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n that f o u n d in C. ut ex d i v e r s o r u m c o m p e t e n t ! j u n c t u r e i p s i u s n a r r a t i o n i s e l e g a n t i o r p i c t u r a resultet. " see N i t z s c h e . 154. MS. C h i c a g o 1968) involuorum is n o t f o u n d in a n y of the k n o w n w o r k s of J o h n S c o t u s ("Le c o s m o s s y m b o l i q u e d u X I I e s i è c l e . "The M o n a s t i c V o c a t i o n o f A l a n of L i l l e . in P L 2 1 0 . " in P L 2 1 0 . the h u s k of the n u c l e a r N e w T e s t a m e n t (970C). a p o s t o l o d i c ens: sed p l a n a q u o q u e u e l l e u i a p r e l i b a r e c u m (I Cor. S. 4 0 2 C . Trout. Nature. n e c d e b u i g e n t i l i s s c r i p t u r i s i m b u t o d i u i n e l e g i s a r c h a n a m o l ire.. B u t as M. 1. p.D . m o d e r n " g e n i u s " ) . 40 W 465. p.p h i l o s o p h e r . . Man and Society in the Twelfth Century: Essays on New Theological Perspectives in the Latin Vest. c o n f o e d e r a n t . T a k i n g G e n i u s as the A r t i s t w h o f o l l o w s N a t u r e . ii. fol. a n d tr. " III (Contra J u d a e o s ) . M 451: " . ed. as " b o t h the a r c h e t y p a l o r i d e a l p o e t . 322. " p. T e s t a m e n t is for A l a n the w a x c o n t a i n i n g the h o n e y of the N e w T e s t a m e n t (PL 2 1 0 . 39 " C o n t r a h a e r e t i c o s . „ I n Disputatio oatholicorum patrum adversus dogmata Petri Abae- lardi. n e e s p u m e u m v e r b o r u m a m b i t u m n e c p h a l e r a t i s e r m o n i s s e n t e n t i a s e l i m a r e c u r aui.35 P e m b r o k e C o l l e g e . the w o r d s e l e c t e d . . P L 210.o r a t o r a n d the a g e n t of a r t a n d i n s p i r a t i o n (i. b y J e r o m e T a y l o r a n d L e s t e r K. quae a r t i s p o e t i c a e d i p i n x i t i n d u s t r i a . Chenu. Diuino namque mancip a t u s obsequio. " L i b e r in d i s t i n c t i o n i b u s d i c t i o n u m ." 41 W 465-66. .

. i..-T. a u t h o r of De bello trojano. . M. . 1 6 5 . ^ Ed. ^ 1 2 6-28. T h e a c t u a l d a t e of p. p. "Vetus . " Roman-La 5 0 [1924] 10-12). a n d V i c e — 7-8) of the poem. p. III. in l u c e m m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s . Ratione incognitionis quia mundus prodierat Hucusque enim nullus tractavlt hanc m a te r ia m . F o r t u n e . " b u t h u m a n ­ i t y r e q u i r e s a medium. 67. i n c o g n i t i o n i s r a t i o n e et r a t i o n e a n t i q u i t a t i s .8 3 ) .M. 11. a speoulum.-T.e.8 6 . 13-15. and John (C. Mi d a s . éd. a n d D a v u s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s H e n r y II o f E n g l a n d a n d h i s fo u r sons He n r y ." L'Homme devant Dieu: Mélanges offerts au Père Henri de Lubao (Paris 1964) II. w h o w r i t e s that " m o y s a r u m [i. 527) . c l e a n s e d of i n t e r v e n i n g images. 34) c o n c u r s . 61-62: Nero. in o r d e r to g l i m p s e the i n v i s i b l e (P. pp. Richard. Na t u r e . 1184 T h e Antiolaudianus is d a t e d b e t w e e n 1 1 8 1 an d (see H u t c h i n g s . e x p e r i e n c e s t h e o p h a n y or " d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n " s i m p l y a n d " r e c i p r o c a l l y . 33-36. a n d " E n n i u s " to J o s e p h o f E xeter.I. 42. in Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini. " AHDLMA 20 [1954] 28 2 . The four arti f i c e r s — (p. A j a x . i n " A l a i n d e L i l l e e t la Theologia. Glorieux. 1-2: "Gaudet . Poète du XII^ sièale. 47 In Antiolaudianum Alani oommentum. " M e u i u s " r e f e r s to W a l t e r of C h â t i l l o n . . ” III. p. d ' A l v e r n y . 11. i u v e n e s c e r e r a t i o n e c o g n i Ideo s u b i u n g i t q u i a s c i l i c e t p r o d i i t in l u c e m m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s . a u t h o r o f the Alexandreis." 49 T h e i d e a t h a t the p o e t m u s t y i e l d to the p r o p h e t is fo u n d in a p o e m b y J o h n S c o t u s . 19. P a r i s . pp. Geoffrey. R a y n a u d d e Lage." a r e t h e materia God. p r o p o s e s t h a t the De planotu w a s w r i t t e n b e t w e e n 1 1 6 0 a n d 1170. novitate scribendi. c o m p o s i t i o n is u n k n o w n . . 48 tionis. m u s a r u m ] c a n t u s " a r e r e p l a c e d f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n b y the " d i c t a p r o p h e t a r u m " (" I o h a n n i s S c o t t i C a r m i n a . in Alain de Lille: G. M. 1 9 9 -201). d ' A l v e r n y (Textes inédits . 11. 13). "La S o m m e ' Q u o n i a m H o m i n e s ' d ' A l a i n d e L i l l e . M o m m e n t a Germaniae Historioa [ B e r l i n 1896] T h e a n g e l i c m i n d . L u d o v i c u s Tr a u b e . . "L'Anticlaudianus d ' A l a i n d e Li l l e : E t u d e d e c h r o n o l o g i e . 6 8 . H u t c h i n g s . Ibid. ed. q u i a a p r i n c i p i o m u n d i fuit h a e c m a t e r i a s c i l l i c e t q u a t t u o r a r t i f i c e s et e o r u m o p e r a s t a t i m s c i l i c e t p o s t l a p s u m Adae. a s t h e aooessus o f t e n f o u n d w i t h the Anti­ olaudianus e l a b o r a t e s ( " S u m m a r i u m " in B o s s u a t . p.

mens i p s a u i d e t u r in illo. p. " 56 P L 2 1 0 . . " Q u o m o d o N a t u r e s u b i e c t u s se r m o s t u p e s - / D u m t e m p t a t d i u i n a loqui. h o w e v e r . in C h r i s t o e s t d i v i n a n a t u r a h u m a n a e un i t a .2 7 . supercelestis theologia. ar e set f o r t h in A l a n ' s Summa " Q u o ­ n i a m h o m i n e s . " ( q u o t i n g E z e c h i e l 1:4. 6 7 3 . q u i d u c t u p u r i o r i s m e n t i s ad i n [ e ] f f a b i l i a c o n s c e n d u n t ." 58 T h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . intellectus.2 2 . p. 53 V. 12 4 . immo / I p s o F i d e s h a n c a n t i c i p a t F i d e i q u e d o c e n t i / O b s e q u i t u r t a n d e m R acio. " the a r t i c l e s o f f a i t h a s symbola in " E x p o s i t i o P r o s a e de a n g e l i s . " 52 VI. pp. . V.7 4 . / P e r q u o s n o s t r a f i d e s totuzn d i f f u s a p e r o r b e m / C l a r u i t et l a u d u m t i t u l i s p r e c l a r a r e f u l s i t . 126-27: cit. .es (PL 2 1 0 . et p e r a u r u m d i v i n i t a s . s e q u i t u r q u e d o c e n t e m / A r t i c u l o s Fidei. A l a n te r m s b o t h the s a c r a m e n t s an d the a r t i c l e s of f a i t h symbola. 201.VI. P L 210 . p. quia. 622: " . In Antialau- dianwn Alani commentum. et p u r i o r i o c u l o p h i l o s o p h i a e s e c r e t a p e r s p i c i u n t . 141: " I p s a m n a m q u e Fidexn R a c i o n o n pr e u e n i t . . a n d w h a t i s s u e s f r o m them. pictura magistros. P L 2 1 0 . r e l a t e t h e m d i r e c t l y to t h e n a r r a t i v e of t h e Antialaudianus. subcelestis theologia. 1 1 9-23. ^ Ibid. p e r . 4 8 5-86. s i c u t in e l e c t r o a u r u m u n i t u r a r g e n t o . 59 V. p. thesis. / D e q u e suo s e n s u d e p o n u n t u e r b a q u e r e l a m . in hi s Oistinction. 6 2 1 . n o s t r o u e s t i b u s a m i c t u . n o s t r e q u e s a l u t i s / I n d u i t ip s e togam. L i s t i n g the v a r i o u s s i g ­ n i f i c a t i o n s of g o l d in t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e . intel- Hgentia. XCIX. d i u i n a q u e simbola carAlan defines n i s / I n s e r i t hec. u i x b a r b u t i r e e m c u p i t i l l e r e c u r r e r e sensum. u i r e s q u e l o q u e n d i / P e r d i t et ad u e t e r / M u t e s c u n t q u e soni. 964). d i c t a n t e f i g ­ ura / Concipit. 127: " C u n c t a . p. 142: "cultusque fatetur / Arbitrium mentis. 24-28. / P i c t u r e c e d i t u e s t i s q u e to t a f i g u r i s / S c r i b i / Hic renouât ueteres uiuens tur e t f o r m a p r e t e n d i t s c r i p ta l i b elli. " I. s c r i b e n s a n i m o q u o t a r u n d i n e p i n g i t . R a d u l p h u s d o e s not. .715B. . an d a r e s u m m a r i z e d b y R a d u l p h u s . ualentes. A l a n i n c l u d e s " D e u s . "Et in m e d i o i g n i s q u a s i e l e c t r i " ) : "Ibi elecsic t r u m d i c i t u r C h r i s t u s . 137-38: " ." Distinctiones ['aurum']. 121. pp. p. naturalis philosophia. m e d i a n t e tropo. 42. 31-37. " 54 Theologicae Regulae. " Textes inédits.

(L Q Antécédents et postêicitê de 3. " cap. 47. "De V i r t u t i b u s . 1. V I ( G e m b l o u x 1960) 5 1 -52. " Q u o n l a m h o m i n e s . 2r." ^ Theologiaae Regulae. 1 0 . ed. I. MS. R. " cap. " s a p i e n t i a . Alan's p o e m becomes. l i k e F a i t h ' s m i r r o r a n d T h e o l o g y ' s gown. 64 " I n v o c a t e r g o P h o e b u m id e s t n a t u r a l e m s c i e n t i a m optat. r ο In Anticlaudianum Alani ootmentum. " B. Psychologie et morale aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles. P L 210. p. ^ C o n c e r n i n g P h i l o s o p h i a as the p i n n a c l e o f h u m a n r e a s o n r a t h e r see P i e r r e C o u r c e l l e . v i t i i s e t d e d o n i s S p i r i t u s S a n c t i . Boèce ( P a r i s 1967) 21-22. La Consolation de than a divine Intelligence. 119. pp. Philosophie dans la tradition littéraire. 14-16: " q u i a p e r e a q u a e f a c t a sunt v i s i b i l i a c o m p r e h e n d u n t u r i n v i s i b i l i a et p e r c o g n i t i o n e m c r e a t u r a r u m a s c e n d i t u r a d c o g nitionem Creatoris. " pp. fol. art. " m e d i t a c i o r e r u m .a r g e n t u m i n t e l l i g a t u r h u m a n i t a s .M. XCIX. " I. G r e e n c o n t r a s t s A l a n ' s a l l e g o r i c a l m o d e w i t h t h a t of t y p o l o g y a n d f a b l e i n o r d e r to e l u c i d a t e its u n i q u e a b i l i t y to c o n v e y "the m i n d ' s a w a r e n e s s o f its o w n c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s " ("Alan o f L i l l e ' s Anticlau­ dianus: A s c e n s u s M e n t i s in D e u m . p. p. MS R o y a l 15 B XX. A l a n d o e s m a k e v e r y c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t ypes of l a n g u a g e a p p r o p r i a t e to the r e a l m s o f N a t u r e a n d of Grace. I. O d o n L o t t i n . 51 a n d art. 24. 6 8 .H. w h e r e b y k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d i v i n e is g i v e n to m a n "per i m a g i n a b i l i a et c a d u c a " ( " Q u o n i a m h o m i n e s . 4r. a n d o n e is led to . 10. ^ Ibid. 59. p. p. 1 1 . P r o b l è m e s d ' h i s t o i r e l i t t é r a i r e d e 1 1 6 0 à 1300. fol. 62 Cf. 6 6 : "in p artes u estem diffibulat istam / In uar- i i s s c i s s u r a locis. art.673-74. C o t t o n V e s p a s i a n A.1 5 .M. " B. m e d iante tractare p o ssit de naturalibus": qua In Antialaudianum Alani com- mentum. " II." 66 O n the n a t u r e of prudentia. 59 I. II. 283). l u g e r e u i d e t u r / V e s t i s et i l l a t a s i b i m e t c o n u i c i a flere. " ^ W h i l e n o t i n g that the "the p r o p r i e t y of a m e d i a t i n g f i c t i o n b e ­ c o m e s m o r e a n d m o r e q u e s t i o n a b l e " o n c e A l a n a s s u m e s the p r o p h e t ' s v o ice. a m e d i a t i n g speculum for c e l e s ­ t i a l t h e o p h a n y . p. then. 313. see A l a n ' s "De V i r t u t i b u s et de 2. 9).1 2 . 6 . N e v e r t h e l e s s . 11. 28-30.

99 (1977) 266-68 (a r e v i e w . Events and Their Afterlife : The Dialectics o f and M e d i e ­ Christian Typology in the Bible and Dante ( C a m b r i d g e 1966) 257. " Textes inédits. S i n g l e t o n .H. J a u s s h a s p o i n t e d out. 243. isolated instances where e. Alan's "Zum P r o b l em der alle- 78 E. 77 " S e r m o i n d i e E p i p h a n i a e . in " D a n t e ' s ' A l l e g o r y of Poet s ' v a l T h e o r y o f P o e t i c F i c t i o n . "Liber senten t i a r u m et d i c t o r u m m e m o r a b i l i u m . h i s u n m i s t a k a b l e p o r t r a y a l of t h e allegoriae o f Faith. 2 0 7 A . Commedia: Elements of * Structure ( C a m b r i d g e . Dante Studies I. t h o u g h " f i c t i v e .S. h i s a s s u m p t i o n of the p r o p h e t i c voic e .g. " D a n t e ' s A l l e g o r y . Still. M a s s . "De P a s c h a . 73 A l t h o u g h R." in L ’ Humanisme médiéval dans les littératures romanes du XIIe au XIVe siècle [Paris 1964] 116). p. S i n g l e t o n ' s r e s p o n s e to Green. Dante Studies I. " P L 210. p. d u c i b l e D o v e .g. 160).C. " S e r m o in d i e E p i p h a n i a e . " Textes inédits. " CL 9 (1957) 118-28. 74 S i n g l e t o n . gift of P u d o r m a k e s the n e w m a n a s e c o n d E l i a s a n d a n o t h e r J o s e p h (VII. c h a r a c t e r i z e s the Cormedia as p o e t i c r a t h e r t h a n t h e o l o g i c a l a l l e g o r y (contra C. g o r i s c h e n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n M i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r D i c h t u n g . ad m a g i s t r o s c l e r i c o r u m .R. 134). " Speculum 25 [1950] 78-83). p. it is c l e a r t h a t the Cormedia. " PL 210. Green. 243.e x p e c t s o m e a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e s y m b o l i c m o d e o n c e h e a v e n is b r o a c h e d . 116. b y w h i c h I m e a n that s u c h a l l e g o r y is n o t e v e n t h i n k a b l e w i t h o u t the c o n c e p t i o n of the L o g o s m a d e f l e s h and d w e l l i n g a m o n g us. 1957) 61. " is w r i t t e n in a d i f f e r e n t m o d e f r o m t h a t of the i n t e g u m e n t a l Convivio. t h e t y p o l o g i c a l a l l e g o r y is m i x e d i n w i t h a b s t r a c t a l l e g o r y .. 7·· C h a r l e s S. a s H.240B. " CL 9 (1957) 129.3 5 . " Beitrage zur Ges chichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur. d i s d a i n f o r historia is n o t e d b y C h r i s t e l M e i e r . p. S i n g l e ­ ton.. T h e r e are. in " T h e I r r e ­ [the reiterates his "firm persua s i o n p h r a s e a p p e a r s to b e b o r r o w e d f r o m W i l l i a m B l a k e ] that t h e k i n d of a l l e ­ g o r y w h i c h D a n t e g i v e s us in the Comedy h a s its r o o t a n d l i f e . a n d t h e m y s t e r y of two n a t u r e s j o i n e d " (p. 72 A. C h a r i t y .s p r i n g in the m y s t e r y of the I n c a r n a t i o n . b u t t h e s e do l i t t l e to s u p p o r t the idea t h a t A l a n h e r e w a s a t t e m p t i n g to l i n k a l l e g o r y w i t h h i s t o r y ("La T r a n s f o r m a t i o n d e la f o r m e a l l é g o r i q u e e n t r e 1 1 8 0 et 1240: D ' A l a i n de L i l l e à G u i l l a u m e de Lorris. 62. o n e is left t r y i n g to a c c o u n t for A l a n ' s c h a l l e n g e to M a c r o b i u s .

M a c r o b i u s . rpt. 80 A Study o f Medieval Tradition (1936. S e r vius. w i t h th e r e c e n t w o r k b y P. cf. Studien zum " A n t i c l a u d i a n u s " des Alanus ab Insulis [ F r a n k f u r t and B e r n 19 7 5 ] ) . I. p. 204. 21 0 . 1 1 4 A . R a d u l phus. T h i s e x c e l l e n t s t u d y of the Interpretationsdilemma p o s e d b y the Anticlaudianus c a m e to m y a t t e n t i o n t o o l a t e to m a k e f u l l u s e of it here. Cf. The Allegory of Love: t o r i a . I w o u l d s t r e s s th e i m p o r t a n c e of the i n f l u ­ (Calcidius. 11. a l s o " S u m m a d e a r t e p r a e d i c a - Liber poenitentialis. PL. p. i n part. 81 " E x p o s i t i o P r o s a e d e a n g e l i s . 24. l i k e Me i e r . and. " cap. ence of the p h i l osophical allegorlsts Boethius) 79 i n d e t e r m i n i n g the l i t e r a r y t h e o r y b e h i n d it. p.a r t i c l e c o n c e r n i n g i t self. M y t r e a t m e n t i n t h i s p a p e r a n d e l s e w h e r e o f A l a n ' s u s e of t h e i n t e g u m e n t a l m o d e p r o p o s e s a t le a s t a p a r t i a l a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d b y M e i e r c o n c e r n i n g th e l i t e r a r y f o r m of th e Antiolaudianus (pp. 191. 2 6 8 . O c h s e n bein. In Antiolaudianum Alani oommentum.6 9 ) . . 20-23. " Textes inédits. L o n d o n 1 9 6 7 ) 99-100.

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