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QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTERS: China SIGNATORIES: Israel, Turkey, Egypt, USA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 4. 3. 2. 1.

Urges the Security Council to create a body specifically targeting a. b. Bridge the gap between the combating of terrorism and the Create uniform guidelines to fulfill the obligations under nuclear terrorism, in order to: safety of nuclear facilities, Security Council Resolution 1540; Further urges nations to provide rewards (financial or otherwise) to operators of nuclear facilities who upgrade their facilities in compliance with the aforementioned guidelines, in order to: a. b. Prevent corrupt practices, Encourage investment into costly safety measures SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.1 Alarmed at the limited security measures against non-government obtainment of nuclear fissile materials, Reminding member nations of the importance of reprocessing unneeded nuclear fissile material into lower-enriched forms to keep such material out of the hands of terrorists,

Recommends that the IAEA be involved in inspection practices of a. The IAEA respects national sovereignty and obtains member

facilities storing or processing nuclear fissile materials, provided that: nations approval before inspecting facilities and publishing findings, b. Calls for increased cooperation between scientists and technicians a. b. Exchange best practices regarding storage of nuclear fissile Develop new technologies (such as encryption codes) to from different member nations in order to: materials and nuclear warheads, effectively prevent terrorist groups from utilizing any nuclear weapons components obtained,

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTERS: China SIGNATORIES: Israel, Turkey, Egypt, USA 31 32 33 34 5. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.1 c. Explore further methods in which highly enriched fissile materials can be converted for civilian uses such as electricity generation, Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Israel SIGNATORIES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1. Condemns the use of dirty bombs and/or nuclear arms and variants for the purpose of inducing terror, 2. Demands for nations to tighten the security of nuclear facilities and stockpiles, 3. Strongly condemns the possession of nuclear arms by rogue nations that lack credibility, military, social and political stability which in turn endangers global welfare, 4. Condemns terrorism: a) Demands active, preemptive and tenacious campaigns against terrorism in the forms including but not limited to: i. the disownment and purging of currently state-endorsed terrorists and, ii. law enforcement offensives against terrorists; 5. Requests member nations to limit the further proliferation of nuclear technology, so as to prevent the widespread capability of development and possession of nuclear arms, 6. Supports preemptive military strikes against nations whose nuclear armaments pose immediate threat to global security, 7. Appreciates the important role that intelligence campaigns play in the war against terrorism, especially those perpetrated by the United Kingdom and the United States of America, 8. Decides to remain seized on the matter. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.2 Recognizing the realistic danger and potential of nuclear terrorism, Considers the use of nuclear armaments as tools for terror in nations in possession of nuclear arms, Deplores secret possession of nuclear armaments,

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Russia SIGNATORIES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1. Decides that the sanctions in this resolution shall not apply to States, where the offence is committed within a single State, the alleged offender and the victims are nationals of that State, or if the alleged offender is found in the territory of that State, SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.3 Having in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations concerning the maintenance of international peace and security and the promotion of good-neighbourliness and friendly relations and cooperation among States, Recognizing the right of all States to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy, Deeply concerned about the worldwide escalation of acts of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, Understanding that the nature of terrorist groups make States where terrorist attacks were perpetrated not liable to sanctions, since they do not represent a States decisions, Noting that acts of nuclear terrorism may result in the gravest consequences and may pose a threat to international peace and security, Upholding the respect to the national sovereignty of all member States, Noting also that existing multilateral legal provisions do not adequately address those attacks, Being convinced of the urgent need to enhance international cooperation between States in devising and adopting effective and practical measures for the prevention of such acts of terrorism and for the prosecution and punishment of their perpetrators, Noting that the activities of military forces of States are governed by rules of international law outside of the framework of this Convention and that the exclusion of certain actions from the coverage of this Convention does not condone or make lawful otherwise unlawful acts, or preclude prosecution under other laws,

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Russia SIGNATORIES: 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.3 2. Calls upon member States to take all practicable measures to prevent and prohibit in their territories illegal activities of persons, groups and organizations that encourage, organize finance or provide technical assistance in the perpetration of terrorist activities, 3. Requests States Parties to exchange accurate and verified information in accordance with their national law, and coordinate measures as appropriate to detect, prevent, suppress and investigate the offences presented in this resolution, 4. Specifies that States Parties shall not be required to provide any information which they are not permitted to communicate pursuant to national law or which would jeopardize the security of the State concerned or the physical protection of nuclear material 5. Encourages States Parties to make every effort to adopt appropriate measures to ensure the protection of fissile material, taking into account recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency; 6. Recommends States Parties in possession of nuclear devices or facilities to take steps to render them harmless, and ensure that any nuclear material is held in accordance with applicable International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards; 7. Requests the States Parties involved in the disposition or retention of any radioactive material to inform the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency of the manner in which such an item was disposed of or retained 8. Calls upon the States Parties to carry out their obligations regarding this matter in consistency with the principles of sovereign equality and territorial integrity of States and that of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of other States. 9. Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Ukraine SIGNATORIES: Germany, United Kingdom, Argentina, Uganda, Turkey, Pakistan, France 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 1. Strongly recommends the creation of an independent United Nations Nuclear Weaponry Governance and Anti-Terrorism Subcommittee (UNNuWGATS) to have the purposes of: SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.4 Noting with utmost concern the present situation regarding the mishandling and misuse of nuclear armaments by governments and external parties, respectively, leading to threats towards international peace and security, Aware of the threats towards international peace and security should said holding facilities be breached by unwanted parties, Fully aware of the controversies surrounding the inspection of nuclear material stockpiles in its security, Noting with respect the national sovereignty of all member nations, Concerned with the continued development of nuclear arsenals and the threat to international peace and security it brings, Recognizing a lack of international standards to be met by facilities holding nuclear material, Fully acknowledging the need for nations to employ nuclear materials in the production of electricity and peaceful purposes, Further acknowledging the need for nations to employ nuclear armaments in self-defense and national security, Realising that so long as NWS employ nuclear weapons as a threat, that non-State actors will be able to derive a rationale for acquiring nuclear weapons in response, Emphasizing that so long as NWS maintain a stockpile of nuclear weapons and fissile material, non-State actors will be able to steal weapons or acquire fissile material to construct one, Determined in resolving this issue of nuclear terrorism, Confident that all nations will take responsibility in ensuring the eradication of nuclear terrorism to the best of their abilities,

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Ukraine SIGNATORIES: Germany, United Kingdom, Argentina, Uganda, Turkey, Pakistan, France 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 IAEA vi) Fissile materials b) assist the IAEA in providing international safeguards against nuclear proliferation c) assisting nations in the application and enforcement of legislation prohibiting the acquisition, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons by both State and non-State actors, d) determine the international standards for the appropriate safeguarding of nuclear armaments and fissile materials, and review said requirements biannually, e) inspect regularly, at least biannually, if there is appropriate security at nuclear material holding facilities and: i) issue warnings to nations without appropriate security, ii) advise on measures in improving the strength of said security; f) be a platform for discussion between regional bodies and the Security Council; 2. Urges nations to support universal transparency of nuclear activity by: a) creating independent ombudsmen within each country specifically dealing with nuclear terrorism within a 9 month period of this resolution being passed, i) where these ombudsmen will submit to the UNNuWGATS quarterly reports including but not limited to: SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.4 a) maintaining a stockpile of governed nuclear material in nations including but not limited to (herein named nuclear materials), and to be reviewed upon at the discretion of the NuWGATS: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Nuclear-based bombs and missiles Thermonuclear weapons Nuclear submarines Nuclear Explosives Raw masses of radioactive metals as listed by the

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Ukraine SIGNATORIES: Germany, United Kingdom, Argentina, Uganda, Turkey, Pakistan, France 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 NuWGATS: i) Which is required to submit biannual reports to the Security Council regarding this issue, ii) Which grants the Security Council the right to review and adjust the goals, proceedings and aims of said Subcommittee; 3. Authorizes the creation of the United Nations Nuclear Security Fund (NuSeF), directing to the NuWGATS, aided by the voluntary contribution of developed countries in assisting nations without the financial capability to appropriately safeguard nuclear armaments or fissile materials (clause 4) to strengthen their security, overseen by the NuWGATS, 4. Further urges nations without the financial capability to appropriately (see Clause 1d) safeguard nuclear armaments or fissile materials to achieve one of the following within 3 months of the primary NuWGATS inspection: a) Surrender entire stockpile of nuclear material to the NuWGATS for further treatment, b) Seek financial aid through the NuSeF via the NuWGATS to improve security at nuclear material holding facilities; 5. Encourages all member states to invest in efforts in: facilities, d) Log of all import/export of nuclear material; ii) where governments are obligated to send 0.031% of their GDP in maintaining the integrity of their respective ombudsmen; b) allowing the monitoring of their nuclear stockpile by the SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.4 a) Inventory of nuclear materials equivalent to clause 1a, b) Log of nuclear materials usage, c) Security report of all nuclear material holding

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: Ukraine SIGNATORIES: Germany, United Kingdom, Argentina, Uganda, Turkey, Pakistan, France 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.4 a) The implementation of the NPT for Nuclear Weapon States, b) Educating the younger generation in the dangers of misuse of nuclear armaments, c) Endorsing the Nuclear Terrorism Awareness Day in Clause 6; 6. Recommends the Security Council fully implement the UN Security Council Resolution 1540, to take and enforce effective measures against the proliferation of WMD, their means of delivery and related materials, and ensure that no State or non-State actor is a source or beneficiary of WMD proliferation; 7. Proclaims a Nuclear Terrorism Awareness Day, the date to be agreed by all member states of the UN, to spread awareness to the general public about the issue of nuclear terrorism; 8. Encourages the Security Council to impose economic sanctions to nations deliberately and without legitimate reason: a) Refusing NuWGATS monitoring and inspection, b) Not employing appropriate security measures for nuclear material holding facilities, c) Harbouring undeclared nuclear material, d) Failing to maintain the integrity of their respective ombudsmen, e) Ratify the NPT, f) Fully ratify the UNSCR 1540; 9. Endeavours countries to resolve conflicts regarding national security in order to finalize this treaty and to take a step further in enforcing international peace and security; 10. Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: United Kingdom, Germany, Argentina, Israel, Turkey 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1. Urges the monitoring by sovereign governments of the sale of any isotopes capable of causing radiological terror through a nuclear or dirty bomb; Reaffirming the role of the IAEA in promoting the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes; Realising the dangerous nature of using enriched nuclear materials classified as weapons-usable for civilian purposes; Regarding the free flow of highly-enriched nuclear materials in black markets around the world as a serious global threat; Noting that fissile materials enriched to only a low degree suffice for civilian purposes; Appreciating that some circumstances involving scientific purposes such as research may require the small-scale production and usage of highly enriched fissile materials; Applauding the current efforts undertaken by bodies including the IAEA and the NTI to combat nuclear terrorism; Respecting that countries should have a degree of confidentiality with regards to the disclosure of information regarding nuclear-related activities; Advocating that the United Nations as well as other relevant bodies should play an active role, due to their mission goal, to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war; Ascertaining the importance of preventing the information needed to construct a nuclear weapon or create weapons-grade fissile materials from falling into terrorist hands; SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.5 Recognising the rising significance of nuclear terrorism as a global threat; Acknowledging that the usage of radioactive materials for civilian purposes provides openings for the materials necessary for nuclear terrorism to fall into terrorist hands; Understanding the need for transparency with regards to act involving radioactive materials both within borders and on a transnational basis;

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: United Kingdom, Germany, Argentina, Israel, Turkey 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 c. b. b. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.5 a. Recommends nations to monitor the transfer of the following isotopes capable of being made into a dirty bomb: americium-241, californium252, caesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, plutonium-238, polonium-210, radium-226 and strontium-90; i) Promotes the creation of a country-wide database where all sales of these materials must be recorded; Requires nations to implement strict controls with regards to the trading and movement of fissile material, including thorium, caesium, plutonium and uranium, by: i) miscommunication; ii) iii) providing increased levels of security and subtlety for declaring planned international transactions to the United transactions within a nations borders; Nations Security Council so as to promote transparency with regards to the acquisition of fissile materials to a reasonable extent of detail; 2. Requires the strict regulation of the sale and trade of enriched and highly a. Urges the banning of the production and trading of highly enriched i) enriched uranium; Urges the improved security of facilities storing nuclear materials, i) Advocates that national governments oversee municipal in light of stolen materials appearing on the black market; governing bodies in matters involving the protection of fissile materials; Requires for any usage or preparation of highly enriched fissile materials for scientific and research purposes to be declared to the United Nations Security Council in advance; Recommends countries to declare current amounts of highly enriched fissile materials, in particular uranium; uranium for civilian usage; maintaining high standards of security and communication with regards to cross-border transactions to avoid problems caused by

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: United Kingdom, Germany, Argentina, Israel, Turkey 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 the NTPC; SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.5 3. Calls for international transparency when carrying out activities relating to radioactive material; a. Recommends that countries submit a brief record detailing all major activities relating to the use of special nuclear materials (i.e. fissile materials) for civilian/scientific usage; b. Calls for nations to immediately report any losses of control over fissile materials or significant amounts of radioactive materials in order for a cohesive global response to be formulated; 4. Stresses the importance of the protection of any and all information a. Urges that any countries possessing information regarding the relating to the nature and location of fissile materials; creation of a nuclear weapon or processes involved in creating weapons-grade fissile material take extra security measures to ensure that the information is not divulged; b. Stresses that Private Sector Organisations that handle nuclear stockpiles should have the right to speak at and consult the Subcommittee, to enhance cooperation between all organizations on this issue; 5. Advocates the establishment of a new sub-committee to be created under the Conference for Disarmament (the CD), to be called the UN Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Committee (UN NTPC), for the purpose of providing a platform for future discussions and collaborations regarding nuclear terrorism; a. Resolves to unify existing organisations acting against nuclear terrorism under a single umbrella organisation (to be referred to as the United Nations Alliance Against Radioactive Threats [UN AART]); i) ii) Recommends that the members of AART (be voted upon by Asks for tasks involving these organisations collected under the nations participating in the NTPC; AART to be shared between the organisations in a manner to be decided upon by

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: United Kingdom, Germany, Argentina, Israel, Turkey 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 6. regulations; iii) to regulations; Urges for governments to recognise the growing significance of nuclear a. Requires regional bodies to regulate such activity through: i) ii) biannual basis; collaborating with other member nations to create a regularly inspecting all private-sector facilities on a activities carried out by the private sector; requests that the AART advises the NPTC on these updates d. c. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.5 iii) Requires for member organizations of AART to maintain communications between both themselves and related governmental and UN bodies; b. Calls for individual states to settle radioactive material-related i) ii) the illegal obtaining or trade of radioactive materials or the obtaining of radioactive materials or SNMs from failed disputes through the NTPC, of which such discussions could involve: SNMs by terrorist organizations; states or collapsed governments; Requests the AART to act as a UN watchdog; i) Calls for the monitoring of both suspected nuclear terrorist

activities and public activities being carried out by governments, particularly those extending across borders; iv) of nuclear materials Promotes the NPTC as a platform for the discussion of the international regulations involving nuclear activities that could further the threat of nuclear terrorism; ii) recommends that the committee meet both in times of need as well as on a 2-year basis to discuss any changes that may be needed to global Recommends that the AART keep track of all trade records

cohesive, well-defined set of restrictions to be placed upon the private sector;

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: United Kingdom, Germany, Argentina, Israel, Turkey 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 b. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.5 iii) requiring private sector companies to submit full and detailed reports on all aspects of their activity to the governing body of their country; iv) v) urges countries to act upon any suspicious or seemingly urges the establishment of rules to govern physical mendacious activity as gleaned from the aforementioned reports; security of nuclear materials, civil and fissile, emphasizing these rules shall also govern Private Sector Organizations handling nuclear materials vi) urges countries to establish protocols to govern the transportation of nuclear materials Stresses the growing risk of a large black market in radioactive i) ii) monitoring all known and suspected illicit trading of allowing local task forces the ability to deal with of areas materials as a legitimate one, and urges countries to tackle this via: nuclear activity by members of the private sector; suspected to be involved in the illicit trading of radioactive materials through both force and technology; iii) offering local task forces a direct line to call the overarching government for support in the cases of suspected large volumes of the illegal trading of radioactive materials, in particular those where special nuclear materials may be involved or potential retaliation is suspected; iv) enforcing stricter border controls and security to prevent private-sector cross-border dealings and potentially devastating consequences that may arise from such transactions; v) providing customs and border control authorities with geiger counters and other detectors of radiation for the purpose of detecting radioactive materials; 7. Advocates the creation of a set of internationally recognised disasterresponse protocols for the purpose of preparing local authorities for cases of nuclear terrorism;

QUESTION OF: Nuclear Terrorism SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: United Kingdom, Germany, Argentina, Israel, Turkey 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 8. e. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1.5 a. Urges municipal governments to provide local authorities with the adequate materials and training to be able to cope with small-scale radiological terrorist attacks, including; b. Stresses the need for governments to provide their national defense systems with the tools necessary to deal with large-scale attacks on behalf on nuclear terrorists in terms of disaster relief in particular; c. d. Calls for neighbouring countries to offer assistance with recovery Recommends that plans of action be established regarding the i) recapture the nuclear materials ii)prevent radioactive leakage, both intentional or accidental, iii) prevent possible detonation, Recommends that countries collaborate to create such protocols; Decides to remain actively seized in the matter. in the times after nuclear terrorists attacks, should they occur; event of thievery of nuclear materials to

QUESTION OF: Cooperation between the UN and Regional Bodies SUBMITTER: China SIGNATORIES: Russia, Argentina, Turkey 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3 c b 2 b c d 1 Urges the Security Council to establish a UN Subcommittee on Coordination of Regional Bodies (UNCRB) with a mandate to: a organize regional bodies requests and carry out resource allocation, craft timetables for cooperative missions, coordinate joint workshops targeted at sharing best practices, convene annually to analyze regional actions and potentially amend the methods in which the UN cooperates with regional organizations; Further urges the UNCRB to create an appropriate set of rules governing the relationship between the UN and regional bodies, including that: a the Security Council holds supreme authority should any disagreements between regional bodies and the UN occur, regional bodies retain sovereignty, which will not be infringed upon unless a majority vote of the Security Council with approval of the P5 nations deems that the such an organizations actions are violate human rights or international security, Security Council guarantees the representation of regional bodies in discussions that involve matters of their respective regions; Recommends that regional bodies report major proposed actions, with the exception of actions in response to crisis situations, to the UNCRB for initial approval and referral to the appropriate UN committee in order to: SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 2.1 Understanding the increasing importance of regional bodies in global politics, particularly in crisis resolution, Alarmed by the loss of life and property incurred by logistically uncoordinated actions between the UN and regional bodies, Encouraging increase of communication between the UN and regional bodies, Hoping that regional bodies will recognize the UN as the supreme forum for international, cross-cultural communication and a valuable resource for conflict resolution,

QUESTION OF: Cooperation between the UN and Regional Bodies SUBMITTER: China SIGNATORIES: Russia, Argentina, Turkey 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 6 b 5 d c b 4 c SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 2.1 a foster the legitimacy of these actions under the international eye, b allow for sharing of resources, particularly personnel, for the duration of the proposed actions, provide a better understanding of regional issues to the UN; Requests that regional bodies bring proposals for resolution of crisis situations directly to the Security Council (without going through the UNCRB), in order to increase efficiency of crisis response, such that the Security Council can: a issue a mandate to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations for personnel and equipment if such resources are deemed necessary, urge member nations with sufficient capability to contribute to the response effort, such that individual nations can contribute in the most conducive way, create a strategic planning group with representatives from all major organizations involved, for continued cooperation after initial proposal approval, keep involved parties informed of crisis developments in an efficient manner; Emphasizes the need to reform existing peacekeeping operations by increasing cooperation between such forces under the UN and regional bodies, through means such as but not limited to: a enforcing a common code of conduct among regional and UN peacekeeping forces, standardizing terminology in order to minimize possible misunderstandings; Recommends improvements in transparency between regional organizations and the United Nations in the form of mutual accessibility of technical information including: a military capabilities of regional organizations and functional support required,

QUESTION OF: Cooperation between the UN and Regional Bodies SUBMITTER: China SIGNATORIES: Russia, Argentina, Turkey 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 8 7 d e c SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 2.1 b geographical proximities including conflict-prone zones, conflict enclaves and peacekeeping support bases, social conformities: providence of social demographics on the basis of: technological capacity, time frameworks;

Affirms the need for regional bodies to have observer status in UN committees while their proposals are being debated, in order to present details regarding proposed actions and express their views; Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

QUESTION OF: Cooperation between the UN and Regional Bodies SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 SECURITY COUNCIL 2.2 Recalling with alarm previous failed attempts to moderate the civil war in Liberia and Sierra Leone with the regional body ECOWAS, resulting in the withdrawal of ECOWAS troops and a failure to alleviate the crisis; Recognizing the success of NATO and UN cooperation in the crisis of Libya, which involved the participation of multi-state coalition military intervention in an attempt to implement the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, and resulting in the removal of Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi; Noting with concern the sharp decline incorporation between the regional bodies and the UN; Noting with concern the sharp incline in regional conflicts with international implications; Regretting the loss of human life as a consequence of such lack of cooperation between the UN and relevant regional bodies; Alarmed by poor logistics, inefficient communication which are the causes of failures in interregional body and UN cooperation; Bearing in mind that such causes of the lack of cooperation could be solved by a framework for the UN and other such regional bodies to abide by, leading to future successes in joint efforts on the part of the UN and any body of regional jurisdiction that it may concern; Stressing the importance of setting guidelines to ensure cooperation is encouraged and easy to participate in; Noting with regret that the loss of human life in areas with international conflicts, which could be remedied by a joint effort on UN and regional bodies, could be easily averted; Desiring a more cooperative UN, and the faster and more efficient response in areas of regional conflicts which concern the international community;

QUESTION OF: Cooperation between the UN and Regional Bodies SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 SECURITY COUNCIL 2.2 1. Calls for member states to acknowledge the right of regional bodies to work in their areas of jurisdiction with high level of autonomy, as long as such autonomy is in compliance with the United Nations Charter; 2. Further calls for the formal representation and recognition of regional bodies in the UN in the form of advisory delegations: a) To be represented in a UN committee in which they are pertained to; 3. Endorses the creation of treaties between the UN and regional bodies, to include guidelines to help international cooperation, and to be overseen by the subcommittee as stated in this resolution; such cooperation may encompass responsibilities including but not limited to: a) Maintenance of regional stability, b) Economic collaboration, c) Protection and the championing of human rights; 4. Recommends the incorporation of regional bodies into the solving of regional crises in order to achieve a more nuanced approach by methods such as, but not limited to: a) Relative regional bodies acting a conduit through which the UN and the areas of conflict, 5 Emphasizes the right of regional bodies to retain autonomy. Regional bodies reserve the rights to: a) Retain jurisdiction, b) Be selective regarding the requests of UN, c) Not be made directly accountable to the UN; 6. Further endorses the formation of a subcommittee (UNREGCO) with the responsibility of coordinating: a) Bi-annual meetings between representatives of the UN and regional bodies on issues pertaining to international importance: i) Meetings can be called for within short notice should the need of it arise, b) The UN should be dully notified should the regional bodies decide to

QUESTION OF: Cooperation between the UN and Regional Bodies SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 SECURITY COUNCIL 2.2 undertake intervention, be they of social, economic or military nature in a particular area, ii) Appointments of 5 persons representing the UN, (if any issue were to arise that may involve large number of regional bodies when deemed necessary, additional members may be added ad hoc), iii) Representatives will be nominated by the United Nations and voted upon by the General Assembly, b) Representatives from each regional body should not exceed 2 delegates, i) Such representatives should not also hold positions in the UN so as to eliminate possible conflict of interest; 7. Calls for basic guidelines to be set on all matters of cooperation between regional bodies and the UN, including but not limited to: a) The use of peacekeepers or the soldiers of regional bodies, in cases of regional conflict, b) The method to which decisions are made on behalf of the UN in regards with UN cooperation with regional bodies, including but not limited it: i) The agreement on a decision, ii) The potential affect made by the permanent members of the SC, should they veto a consensus, c) The method to how the parties are to communicate, d) Training of people through the UN Peace Corps; 8. Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: Republic of Turkey, Russian Federation, Republic of Uganda, Republic of China, Republic of South Africa SECURITY COUNCIL 3.1 Topic: The Situation in Mali Council: Security Council Deeply concerned by the threat posed by terrorist and militant groups in Mali to stability in north-western Africa, as well as the humanitarian situation and refugee crisis in affected areas, Fully aware of the influence of al-Qaeda in the direction and sponsorship of the forceful takeover of northern Mali by militants, Alarmed by the ability of insurgents to seize weapons from Libyan arsenals, available after the fall of Muammar Gaddafi, Noting the issue of naturally arising tensions between ethnic and political groups within Mali, resulting in conflict, regional instability and leaving a vacuum open to exploitation by the AQIM, Recalling the relative success of African forces against insurgency in Somalia in 2006, Taking into consideration the uprooting of thousands of civilians due to the clashes in the North, along with the proliferation of armed groups, drought and political instability, Strongly regretting the unauthorised imposition of a dictatorial regime based on extremist beliefs in northern Mali, Recalling the 2012 resolution adopted by the U.N. Security Council, authorizing the deployment of the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), condemning the continued political interference by members of the Malian military with the civilian government and calling for efforts to bring

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QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: Republic of Turkey, Russian Federation, Republic of Uganda, Republic of China, Republic of South Africa SECURITY COUNCIL 3.1 perpetrators of human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law in Mali to justice, Recognising that the destabilisation and broadening insurgency has spread to neighbouring countries to Mali, such as Algeria, Chad, Niger and Mauritania, and to the general region of the Sahel, Condemning the kidnapping of hostages, with particular regard to foreign diplomats, in the afflicted area surrounding Mali, as a method of delivering a political message, Appreciating the foreign military, strategic and/or humanitarian aid provided by countries such as Nigeria, Chad, Canada, France, Italy, the United States and the United Kingdom, 1. Condemns the illegal actions committed by both the AQIM and Malian army against civilians, the abuse of human rights and imposition of the rigid-theocratic al-Sharias law, a) Recommends the implementation of force protection mechanisms, including but not limited to the stationing of African Union- or Malian troops in Malian population centres, b) Insists that the Malian authorities protect civilians residing in Mali to the best of their ability, c) Completely rejects the establishment of an unauthorized state in northern Mali by insurgents and the unlawful control it exerts on civilians, d) Strongly urges for the immediate withdrawal of rigid-theocratic Sharias law from the aforementioned regions, e) Calls for any authorised forces to hold perpetrators of international humanitarian law violations in Mali accountable to their actions,

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QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: Republic of Turkey, Russian Federation, Republic of Uganda, Republic of China, Republic of South Africa SECURITY COUNCIL 3.1 2. Calls for dialogue between AQIM in the North and the Bamako government. a) Recommends working with regional governments to increase their capability, foster regional cooperation, and counter violent extremism, b) Endorses the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership, a military and civilian interagency program with a more specified strategic design extending traditional bilaterial aid, 3. Calls for democratic elections to be held in Mali by April, and for a representative and inclusive government to replace the current interim government. a) Supports the deployment of a team of neutral observers into Mali under an U.N. mission, to observe the transition in political leadership, b) Bans the terrorist groups, AQIM and the Ansar Dine, from running in these elections c) Emphasizes the necessity of having a single, sustainable political body in control of the entirety of Mali, 4. Requires the gradual withdrawal of French troops and for the African Union and ECOWAS to increasingly take a leading role in Mali, a) Encourages security duties to be gradually handed over to Malian and West African troops, b) Calls for French troops, at the basic minimum, to remain in Mali until insurgents and al-Qaeda affiliates are completely expelled from the country, c) Initial stages of French withdrawal should occur by d) Mandates a thorough and continuous crackdown on al-Qaeda-allied insurgents in proximity to Mali, either by local or foreign forces, 5. Supports the coordination of foreign military and strategic aid against insurgents in Mali, in the interests of promoting efficiency and unity,

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QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: Republic of Turkey, Russian Federation, Republic of Uganda, Republic of China, Republic of South Africa SECURITY COUNCIL 3.1 a) Recommends the funneling of net aid into the U.N.-mandated African peacekeeping force that is currently fighting alongside the Malian Army, b) Officially authorizes foreign intervention in Mali, as long as it has been previously approved by the Security Council and is solely for the purpose of peacekeeping and/or assisting the resistance effort against insurgents, c) Encourages member states to provide voluntary contributions, if so desired, in the form of military training, sharing of intelligence, logistical support or humanitarian aid, 6. Encourages Mali or other friendly countries to implement protection measures for important cultural heritage in areas of potential conflict, especially those recognized by UNESCO, a) Calls for deployment of UN peacekeepers to these areas in order to improve the security of these UNESCO world heritage sites, 7. Condemns the coup detat conducted by the Malian military authorities in 2012 in response to a Tuareg separatist movement, resulting in the ousting of a legitimately elected president, 8. Reaffirms U.N. support for the deployment of the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), to contribute to Malian efforts aiming for reestablishing authority over their territory, a) Recommends the usage of contributions to rebuild the capacity of the Malian Defense and Security Forces, b) Emphasizes the need for military planning to be refined before the commencement a possible offensive operation under the guidance of the UN Security Council and Secretary General, 9. Establishes a U.N. committee responsible for oversight of political progress in Mali, and for aiding the Security Council in decision-making concerning Mali, through provision of information and intelligence, a) Recommends the committee to send bi-weekly reports to the Security Council, with details and updates on the situation in Mali,

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QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: United States SIGNATORIES: Republic of Turkey, Russian Federation, Republic of Uganda, Republic of China, Republic of South Africa SECURITY COUNCIL 3.1 b) Deploys U.N. officials and peacekeepers onto the field in Mali, c) Authorises officials to guide and oversee democratic progress within the Malian government system, d) Calls for transparency measures to be delivered in all forms to the Security Council on a weekly basis, 10. Affirms the need to track, monitor and remove arsenals of weapons leftover from previous conflicts in African states, through means including but not limited to: a) Reinforcement of international measures already in place, including the United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms and the ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials, b) Stipulation of stricter controls on the transfer, manufacture, possession and security of small arms and light weapons between African states, 11. Decides to remain actively seized on the matter.

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QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: France SIGNATORIES: SECURITY COUNCIL 3.2 Noting with concern that militants and mercenaries armed from the employment of the fallen Libyan dictator Qaddafi, currently jeopardise the stability of northwestern Africa, in particular the state of Mali, Alarmed that these militants are directly sponsored and supported by the globally outlawed, belligerent Islam al-Qaeda terrorists in an attempt to forcefully take over the northern regions of Mali, Condemning the unlawful and unauthorised militarisation of such mercenaries with interests to propagate an autocratic, totalitarian reign of terror in adherence to extremist beliefs, Fully aware of the long-term detriments to the infrastructure, society, and political stability of the state of Mali as a result of a continuous lack of intervention and regulation, Recalling the definition of terrorism under Security Council Resolution 1566 as criminal acts committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public, Taking into consideration the universally championed endeavour of eradicating and subduing vehement terrorist groups under the 2001 Security Council Resolution 1373, Regretting that domestic tensions between malevolent groups with vested interests within Mali have pervaded and escalated into grave regional instability and violence, no less epitomised by the recent kidnappings of foreign diplomats in neighbouring nations, Seeking a conclusion to the reproachable violation of human rights and their progress in Mali and elsewhere in the African Sahel as a result of militarisation by the fallen Qaddafi regime: 1. Strongly condemns the separatist movement of the Tuareg ethnic group of MNLA, the Islamic militant group supported by the terrorist organization AlQaeda, Ansar Eddie, and the large-scale unrest instigated by these malicious groups of twisted intents, particularly embodied in the events of: a. The ousting of President Amadou Toure

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QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: France SIGNATORIES: 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 SECURITY COUNCIL 3.2 b. The coup detat in 2012 c. The brutal abuses and exploitation of human rights; 2. Reaffirms the importance of maintaining a singular and politically sustainable control of the state of Mali so as to avoid political radicalisation with vested interests by unjustified terrorist organisations, and of cracking down, in a united manner, on mercenaries supported or affiliated with al-Qaeda; 3. Authorises and supports the righteous intervention of members of the Security Council, such as the French Republic, in order to assist the Mali government in its resistance efforts and for peacekeeping purposes, in the forms including but not limited to: a. Artillery fire b. Air strikes c. Provision of: i. Military training ii. Military equipment iii. Soldiers; 4. Strongly condemns and denounces the illegitimate state established by Islam radicals in northern Mali, and henceforth refers to such groups as solely insurgents with no authorised or rational justification to their unlawful control of the Northern regions; 5. Establishes a committee reporting directly to and under the command of the United Nations Security Council, with the transitional title of Committee of Peacekeeping in Mali and Sahel Africa (CPMSA), with the responsibility of: a. Producing a weekly report on the progress of peacekeeping and repression of Islam extremists, b. Conferring on a long-term political solution appropriate for Mali, through consultation of parties including but not limited to: i. The transitional Mali government ii. Representatives from the United Nations iii. Representatives from the African Union iv. Representatives from the NATO

QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: France SIGNATORIES: 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 SECURITY COUNCIL 3.2 c. Actively discussing any other events of interests with the Security Council, until: i. Three months have elapsed, upon which another Security Council meeting must be called, or ii. Otherwise deemed appropriate by the Security Council; 6. Reiterates the validity of Security Council resolution 2071 passed by the Council in October 2012, affirming the absolute necessity for the Transitional authorities of Mali, the Malian rebel groups, and legitimate representatives of the local population in the north of Mali, to engage in a credible negotiation process to seek a short-term ceasefire, under the supervision and hospice of: a. The aforementioned CPMSA, b. The African Union; 7. Affirms that the fulfillment of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter requires the establishment of a just and lasting stability and harmony in the region, which should include the implementation of the following principles: a. The immediate surrendering of the violent Islam activists, namely in the identities including but not limited to: i. Soldiers and officials, ii. Political officers iii. Military trainers b. Termination of all claims or states of belligerency; c. Respect for and acknowledgement of the territorial integrity of Mali, and the right of the Mali people to live in peace within secure boundaries free from threats or acts of aggression, 8. Demands the protection of Mali citizens by Mali authorities in currently disputed regions to the best of their abilities: a. Such that their human rights are not deprived or removed in any manner by the rebels in the following formats: i. Under vigilante mob justice, ii. With extreme and inhumane torture;

QUESTION OF: Situation in Mali SUBMITTER: France SIGNATORIES: 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 SECURITY COUNCIL 3.2 b. Under the close monitoring and supervision of the CPMSA, which has the obligation to ensure that the above demands are met through regular checks every week, with follow-up reports submitted to the General Assembly, until deemed appropriate by the CPMSA; 9. Affirms the absolute responsibility and need for neighbouring African countries to enforce their regulations and monitoring of the trading and flow of arms, through the means including but not limited to: a. Increased frequency of check-ups and inspections of vehicles suspected of transporting arms or other potentially hazardous materials that can be exploited for weaponry, b. Increased installation of arms detectors and trained personnel to regularly patrol regions where illegal arms trade is particularly proliferate, c. Introduction of a transparent and cohesively monitored registration system of arms, such that the arms within the area can be subject to the monitoring by a wider public; 9. Advocates for severe penalties to any states, organisations, or NGOs who have been discovered to be supporting the rebel groups in Northern Mali, through the following forms: a. Provision of military supplies, equipment, and personnel, or b. Housing of recognised or apparent violent rebels; 10. Demands a just and rapid solution to similar crises surrounding Sahel Africa. 11. Decides to remain actively seized on this matter.