Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: Argentina Delegate: Joycelyn Woo (joycelynwoo@hotmail.com); DGS Argentina expresses its deepest concern about the insecurity and rapidly deteriorating humanitarian situation in Mali. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the number of internally displaced persons is now over 200,000, with an estimate of 4.2 million Malians who will need emergency humanitarian assistance this year. Alongside with death and bloodshed, the conflict in Mali has also brought a lot of problems, including instances of gang rape, extrajudicial executions, and the use of child soldiers by both Tuareg and Islamist groups as well as a risk of international crime and terrorism. Moreover, more than half a million people currently in northern Mali, need aid to cope with rising food prices, collapsed public services and a lack of health care. In addition, the escalating violence has exacerbated the chronic food shortage in Sahel, further complicating the situation. Since 1983 when the democratic system was restored, Argentina resumed the promotion of human rights, showing consistent political will to address the human rights violations that occurred during the 1976-1983 military dictatorship. Therefore, Argentina urges all groups in northern Mali to immediately cease all violations against human rights, including abuses against civilians, recruitment of child soldiers and unlawful executions. Argentina also condemns the implementation of draconian laws that infringes upon the rights of females. Argentina fully recognizes the sovereignty of Mali and stresses that the Malian authorities have the primary responsibility of restoring peace and unity in its territory. While acknowledging the steps taken by the Mali government including the signing of a Framework Agreement towards developing a road map for restoration of constitutional order, the agreement to an inclusive national dialogue as well as the organization of free, transparent and fair presidential elections within 12 months after the drafting of the framework, Argentina believes that more has to be done in order to rectify the situation in Mali. Argentina believes that war should be solved with peace, not further violence. Hence, instead of deploying troops to combat against the Tuareg and other rebel groups, the transitional authorities of Mali should actively engage in negotiation processes with the aforementioned groups as soon as possible. In order to ensure the credibility of the negotiation process, Argentina suggests that the negotiations to take place under the auspices of representatives of neighbouring countries, regional bodies as well as international bodies. In the meantime, the conditions at refugee camps should be improved. In order to reduce the burden on the border camps, Argentina urges all surrounding nations to

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

open up their doors to help accommodate and relocate the Malian refugees. Furthermore, Argentina also encourages all nations to provide humanitarian aid to the areas unaffected by war so that an adequate supply of food and water can be maintained. In conclusion, the situation in Mali can only be improved with the cooperation of the Malian interim government and the international community. Argentina hopes that all nations can generously provide humanitarian aid to Mali while the Malian government puts in its greatest efforts to negotiate with the Tuareg and Islamist groups and restore peace and security to the region.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: People Republic of China Delegate: Nicholas Liu (140023@hkis.edu.hk), HKIS Mali, like many other nations in the Sahel, has been torn apart by conflict. Continued violence has resulted in countless atrocities, rampant poverty, mounting casualties, and great instability. Due to Mali’s numerous cultural, religious, and political differences, several separatist groups have taken over large swathes of territory from the central government. If this continues, there will come a point where Mali cannot even be considered a single nation. Militant groups heeding to the call of religion impose their own Sharia laws on large swathes of territory. Stability most restored, and the nation must be reunified, with international assistance if necessary. The humanitarian problems in Mali have reached desperate levels. Refugees fleeing with war zones and militant-controlled areas flood urban areas and refugee camps, where financial and medical aid is lacking. Moreover, the problems posed by this conflict are not restricted to Mali itself. China is unnerved my recent news of the Al Qaeda takeover of northern Mali, and believes this furthers the urgency for international intervention. Already the world has seen the effects a terrorist-controlled nation has on the international community. If the Al-Qaeda is able to maintain its grip on the north, then there will be enormous ramifications. Terrorist training camps will be set up. Weapons will be produced and sent to militants around the world. Furthermore, China is concerned with the safety of its citizens who have taken up residence in the country, and calls for the government to commit their best efforts to protect them. China, through its own experience with militant groups, believes a strong government with control over the military is necessary to restoring a peaceful situation to the country. Though this may sacrifice the individual rights of many, it is a step to restore stability in the long run. Having said that, China does not condone using violent means to achieve these ends; and therefore condemns the actions of the military junta. China supports the release of innocent officials and the restoration of a democratically elected president to power. China trusts that with support from the international community, a democratic government will heed its advice and utilize the power of the government and military to crush rebel uprisings. Though China usually knows better than to meddle in the affairs of other sovereign countries like some other western nations tend to do, oir government believes that intervention may be a necessary step towards restoring peace and stability. China has always had strong ties to Mali, and is willing to send both financial and military aid to the country. While China is aware that the EU is preparing to send military training units our government is also committed to doing our part. Apart from the obvious problems that have been borne from the conflict, many Chinese businesses are based in Mali, so the stability of the country is one of China’s top priorities. With regards to humanitarian issues, China is once again willing to send aid to both the government and NGOs to improve the dire situation. China is also open to a

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

diplomatic proposal to militant groups that would request access for humanitarian assistance in their territories. Ultimately though, the most far-reaching solution is to aid the military effort of Mali to re-establish a strong government throughout the country and provide long term benefits for its people. As an economic and military powerhouse of the world, China is willing to do anything necessary to put a stop to Mali’s bloodshed. China only hopes the rest of the world can do the same.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: French Republic Delegate: Brian Wong (brian.ys.wong@online.island.edu.hk); Island School

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: Germany Delegate: Monica Wadekar (monica.wadekar@yahoo.com); FIS Over the past year, the crisis in Mali has been gaining global importance. In which rebels, the Tuareg, located in Northern Mali, have been fighting for land and cultural rights. Following the removal of President Toure, the military hands over the power to President Traore and Prime Minister Diarra and a clash occurs between the Tuarag and the Islamist Ansar Dine rebel group in the Northern area, leading the Islamist to proclaim that Northern Mali is an Islamist state. After the Islamist seize control of the North, the West Africa regional group ECOWAS agrees to prepare for the recapture of the north using military actions. In December 2012, Prime Minister Diarra resigns and President Traore appoints a Django Sissoko to succeed him. The UN and US then begin to threaten sanctions. Recently, Islamist rebels have captured the central town of Konna and President Traore asks France for help, causing the recapturing of Timbuktu and Gao, leading European countries to pledge to help retrain the Mali’s army. Following World War II, Germany has adopted a pacifist attitude and declines the use of military force for any objective except for defense. Under the Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle, Germany has adopted a “culture of military restraint”. Therefore, Germany denies to send German troops to Mali but believe that “developing and establishing viable peacekeeping structures, especially by building-up security structures” are crucial. Germany will provide “logistical, medical and humanitarian support” such as supplying planes to airlift African troops from ECOWAS and has provided two Transall transport planes to the offense. Furthermore, Germany has also provide humanitarian support in the form of one million euros and since the end of 2011, Germany has also pledged 13.65 million euros for Mali to support the activities of organizations including the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the World Food Programme (WFP), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and German NGOs in Mali. Currently, Germany is hoping to send “around 40 military personnel” from Berlin to Mali to train local troops “in late March, early April”. This decision is pending the approval of the German Bundestag (German parliament) as the army is under the control of the parliament. Germany supports France in sending troops to Mali; "it is clear that it was right and imperative for France to intervene," said Thomas de Maiziere, Germany’s Minister of Defence. In addition, Germany further commends France for its actions especially its cooperation between ECOWAS, itself and the EU saying that “if such a cooperation is successful it might serve as an anchor of stability with far-reaching effects on the region” adding that “a military intervention was necessary to create the minimum conditions for a political process in the first place”. However, Germany feels that the use of military force is a short-term resolution and that “military superiority in its traditional sense no longer guarantees a lasting settlement of a conflict.”

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Germany believes that the communication and cooperation between U.N., NATO, the EU and local and regional bodies is the correct approach to handling the crisis in Mali and any other similar situations that may arise in the future. Furthermore, Germany believes that “if such a cooperation is successful it might serve as an anchor of stability with far-reaching effects on the region” and proposes the setting up of a committee in overseeing such situations.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: Israel Delegate: Matthew Tam (wiseyoungmat@hotmail.com); CIS

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: Pakistan Delegate: Chris Crabbe (101brains@gmail.com); WIS

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: The Russian Federation Delegate: Paula Martinez Gutiereez (Paula13@lpcuwc.edu.hk); LPCUWC Currently, the volatile situation in Mali is the most urgent crisis the Security Council needs to address. The instability created by refugees fleeing the country, the destruction of cultural heritage, and the peril of witnessing extremists attacks, poise a serious menace for the global stability, and the lives of thousands of civilians. The Russian Federation reaffirms that it is of outmost importance that the Security Council mediates in different ways in Mali, in order to establish order and political stability, and avoid an escalation of the conflict, which could threaten global peace and security and cause millions of deaths. For the Russian Federation, the most important challenge in this issue is to protect civilians, and prevent further deterioration of West Africa’s political condition. The various rebel groups throughout the country represent a grave risk of instability, since extremist from countries such as Nigeria, Morocco, and Algeria have already joined. In addition to this, the migration of Malian refuges to Burkina Faso and Mauritania will signify the whole region a severe problem of unemployment, lack of facilities and services, and additional violence. Thus, the recovery of North Mali, and the Security Council’s full support of the regional forces to control the situation is vital for the international community. In order to confront the acknowledged issues, the Russian Federation relies on international cooperation with the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), approved by the Security Council earlier this year, to strengthen the regional alliance against political instability and extremist attacks. Furthermore, as a concerned State for the well being of the Malians, the Russian Federation has sent Mikhail Margelov as a special envoy for the African Union Summit, that started last Sunday in Ethiopia. We strongly believe in the cooperation of regional bodies with the supervision of the Security Council, which will aim to ensure international security regarding refugee camps and distribution, and coordinated combat against extremist rebels. The Russian Federation also calls upon the Security Council and all the United Nations organs responsible for the impartation of justice, to prosecute those who commit human rights violations, and to condemn the crimes against cultural heritage in Northern Mali. In conclusion, the Russian Federation reaffirms the importance of international performance on recovering control of Mali for its government. The Russian Federation believes that AFISMA is capable of supervising the stabilization of the region, and thus believes that the French intervention will only be necessary until control of North Mali is recovered. Then, the Russian Federation calls upon the international community to allow the African Union and the Mali government to initiate the process of State-building, and refugee repatriation. Russia looks forward

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

to cooperating with the Security Council and the regional bodies to recover the stability of Mali and West Africa, protect refugees, prosecute offenders of the law, and prevent extremist groups from committing serious attacks against the international community. The Russian Federation is ready to engage in dialogue, and cautions the Security Council that failing to establish equilibrium in Mali will lead to a dangerous escalation of aggressions in the region.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: South Africa Delegate: Christopher Au (christopher_au@student.aishk.edu.hk); AIS

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: The Republic of Turkey Delegate: Nicholas Kan (likhork@gmail.com); Yew Chung International School In the past, three attacks have been done by terrorists on nuclear military bases of Pakistan, but all the attacks have failed and nothing was stolen. All the intruders have been killed or captured successfully, nonetheless, the Republic of Turkey believes measures need to be in place to prevent any repeat of these cases. As well as that, the target for the terrorists were the American planes. The Republic of Turkey believes that this is a planned attack from the Taliban for vengeance purposes and not the thieving of nuclear weapons the United States of America is suggesting. The Republic of Turkey therefore believes that the terrorist attacks on Pakistan military bases would stop once the United States removes all its weapons and property off Pakistani soil. The Republic of Turkey believes that the attacks conducted by the terrorists may not be done because of the nuclear technology, nor do we believe the assumption of the terrorists wanting to use nuclear weaponry. To think about it, there is no reason why a terrorist group would want to cause mass destruction by the means of a nuclear weapon. Most terrorist actions are irrational but they will still not risk the end of the world. Nonetheless, it is a problem that has to be resolved. This is why the Republic of Turkey believes that according to article 2 of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, any person or group that possesses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm will be seen as an act of nuclear terrorism and therefore the Republic of Turkey However, the Republic of Turkey recognizes the right of every country, unless as declared by this Council’s Resolutions and the international laws, to use nuclear technology in for civil purposes in peaceful means, such as electrical power production; the Republic of Turkey stands that this right shall not be deprived of member states, unless they have seriously and clearly breached International Peace and Security or any International Law or any Resolution of this Council with regards to International Peace and Security.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

The Republic of Turkey has seen past actions by the United Nations by setting up the non-nuclear prohibition treaty, however, not much action was done after that was set up. This problem was ignored for some time, until terrorists attacked the Pakistani nuclear military air base terrorist base three times. The Republic of Turkey recognizes the lack of military defenses in Pakistan and calls upon the United Nations and more economically developed countries to provide assistance to if requested by Pakistan by providing their country with the troops and arms required to defend its facilities. The Republic of Turkey calls upon all member states under provisions of Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations and Resolution 1874 of this Council, to inspect, in accordance with their national authorities and legislation, and consistent with international law, unauthorized nuclear materials and any arms with the exception of light arms thereof, that are in the process of being transported to DPRK, or are in their possession, in the extent of their national territory and international territory.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: Uganda Delegate: Dante Yen Tong Yum (danteyum@gmail.com); Heep Yunn The Republic of Uganda recognizes the urgency of Mali’s rebellion which has arouse humanitarian tragedies of refugees and of people who have forced to obey the Sharia law, risks of crime and international terrorism and a ruling junta instead of a democratic government. Uganda believes that security and common defense at African continental level is the key. Uganda does not recognize the state of Azawad for its unethical actions of marginalizing ethnics apart from Tuaregs as well as the oppression of women’s right under its ruling. Our President, Yoweri Museveni, stressed on a meeting with the African Union (AU) Chairman on 17th Jan, that the African continent needs economic integration, security and common defense. As both Mali and Uganda are members of the African Union, Uganda believes the peace & stability can be achieved in Mali when foreign funding, intelligence and logistic supports are provided to the African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA), which has been a mission already authorized by the Security Council on 20 December 2012. By now, a total of 20 African countries have already committed to deploy their ground and air forces to AFISMA for an initial period of one year. AFISMA still needs international support in terms of transportation, communication, medicine, combat rations and uniforms for the troops tracking the Islamist rebels in Northern Mali. Sending Special Forces to provide intelligence and training support to the regional armies will be much appreciated. Through organized military mission such as AFISMA, the objectives of AU such as to promote peace, security, and stability on the continent and to protect human's rights in accordance with the African Charter could be upheld. Moreover, it also helps to realize the objectives of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) which Mali is a member nation. The ECOWAS was not only founded to achieve collective self-sufficiency in trading for its member states, but also to serve as a peacekeeping force in the region. Uganda also wishes to achieve agreements over areas of operation by troops from different countries. Thus, the establishment of one unified and co-ordinated force under the leadership of an African Commander was most appropriate, since African nations share similar cultures and geological environments to Mali. Looking back into history, military intervention by AU in a member state's affairs has been the common practice. Dating back as early as in May 2003, AU has supported the deployment of a peacekeeping force of soldiers from South Africa,

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Ethiopia, and Mozambique to Burundi to oversee the implementation of the various agreements. AU troops were also deployed in Sudan for peacekeeping in the Darfur conflict, before the mission was handed over to the United Nations on 1 January 2008 UNAMID. Besides, when Somalia dragged into warlord anarchy in 1991, the response with the UN was minimal, only sending a failed US-led intervention. It was until The AU has sent a peacekeeping mission to Somalia in September 2012, of which the 17,700 troops are from Uganda, Kenya and Burundi, that peace is retained. Thus, this approach would be most welcomed and acceptable by the Africans, creating no risk of a backlash against their fragile democracy. Therefore, Uganda believes by deploying peacekeeping troops and further providing supports for AFISMA is the most effective resolution.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: Ukraine Delegate: Albert Zhang (12zhangl1@kgv.hk); KGV We represent Ukraine, a former member of the Soviet Union and current neighbor of the Russian Federation. After our independence in 1990, we inherited a large military force and the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world. Yet, as fervent sponsors of peace, we returned to Russia all 1900 of these warheads and halved the size of our armed forces. We are a neutral state, with limited but peaceful ties to NATO and Russia. Peace is something we should all cherish. Peace gives rise to prosperity, equality and, not surprisingly, peace itself. This is a philosophy to which Ukrainians have long adhered. We are a young sovereignty that had been caught turbulence of the world wars and the Cold War, and so inevitably there have been difficulties within our own borders since our independence—notably concerning whether our country should ally with the EU or with Russia. Yet we have unfalteringly maintained our resolve; we have refused to descend into violence and conflict; we have remained true to peace. For this reason, we deeply condole with the Malians. It is in our vision to resolve their issues in the fastest means possible. We hope that the members of this council share this vision for peace, something for which the Malian people yearn earnestly. Ideally, this situation is solved using nonviolent means, although it would be understandable if the case cannot be salvaged now. We support the movement of the French forces, although we urge them to refrain as much as possible from opening unnecessary fire on the innocent. Essentially, our hope is for peace and the most peaceful means to achieve peace. We hope not to antagonize supporters of military action, as long as military action is taken with caution and temperance and careful deliberation. This is the spirit that we believe should be reflected in the resolutions formed by this council.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: United Kingdom Delegate: Nathaniel Hallam Norman (norman1@rchk.edu.hk), RCHK The government of the United Kingdom acknowledges the urgent need of the UN Security Council to resolve the current conflict in Mali through military means if deemed necessary. The national question is not a new one; it is one that the government of the United Kingdom has dealt with before. Extreme nationalism has been created amongst many ethnic Taureg peoples in Mali and has been allowed to take the form of a militaristic one. The national question of the Taureg peoples is one that must be seriously addressed for a long-term solution to this conflict to be sought. The actions Ansar Dine have taken—terrorized several cities and many innocent people in Mali, kidnapped innocent Algerian civilians, forceful implementation of Sharia Law, and maintaining links with other terrorist groups (namely Al Qaeda)— prevent the possibility of UN negotiation with the Ansar Dine. However, peace negotiations between the Malian government and the Ansar Dine should commence, with supervision of the African Union or the UN. The excess weapons left by the heavily militarized Gadhafi Regime poses a threat to the people of North Africa as these weapons are not being guarded by the “Transitional Government” in Libya and are practically open to pillagers. Therefore the United Kingdom urges the African Union and the governments of Algeria and Niger to prevent further transporting of arms and military equipment from Libya to Mail to their best ability. The United Kingdom supports and applauds the intervention of the French military creating a stable buffer zone between the rebel groups and the Malian government. The presence of the French military in Konna makes further military intervention far simpler. Should the Ansar Dine refuse to negotiate peace with the Malian government and continue acts of violence towards civilians, destruction of religious freedom, and terrorism foreign military intervention will almost certainly be deemed necessary.

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

Country: United States Delegate: Elizabeth Huang (16775@student.gsis.edu.hk), Michelle Lam (NA); GSIS Mali’s geopolitical significance lies in its bleak and arid north. The United States regards the potential of northern Mali becoming a haven for Islamist radicals and jihadists as a grave threat to the global community. The dangers posed by the regional affliate of al Qaeda cannot be more evident. Not only is the rebel movement armed with a massive arsenal of heavy weapons, procured from the Libyan war in 2011, but we cannot condone the establishment of a stronghold for terrorist syndicates and criminal enterprise, in a country championed as a model of African democracy and stability. Of crucial importance is to expel al-Qaeda-linked rebels from Mali and to prevent Mali from becoming a launchpad for international attacks. But even more fundamentally, the U.S. objects to the violation of human rights of civillians in Mali and the imposition of Sharia’s law upon ordinary Malians. We see an imperative to protect civillians as well as valuable cultural heritage from harm. The U.S. urges other countries to recognize that neighbouring West African countries such as Algeria, Chad, Niger and Mauritania are also at risk of destabilisation and broadening Islamic insurgency. The U.S. forms part of the international backing for French forces battling Islamist militants in Mali, along with Canada, Britain and Italy. The EU is also launching a 450-strong training mission in Mali. Three American hostages have been killed in a siege with Islamic terrorists at a gas plant in Algeria, as a direct retaliation to French intervention in Mali. At the request of France, the U.S. is aiding France in combating Islamic militants, mainly through communications, logistics and intelligence from the Pentagon. U.S. airlift has also delivered 80 French troops and 112 tonnes equipment into Bamako over a total of two weeks. Furthermore, the U.S. is assisting the six African countries of Niger, Chad, Nigeria, Senegal, Burkina Faso and Togo by providing military training and equipment, as well as transport for moving their troops to Mali. The Malian army alone is not strong enough to combat the insurgents in control of the north. The U.S. backs the previous U.N. resolution that deployed a mandated African peacekeeping force to fight alongside the Malian army. French troops have also been quite successful at rolling back the frontiers of AQIM control and securing Malian population centres, but the crisis is far from resolved. Beyond Mali are wider regional problems such as instability in the Sahel, poverty, drought and ready supply of weaponry from Libyan arsenals. Any potential resolution also has to tackle the issue of Islamist forces that have taken refuge in inaccessible areas near Mali’s borders. The U.S. would support a resolution calling for force protection and African-led, owned and -directed efforts, but at the same time appreciates foreign aid for Malian

Committee: Security Council Topic: Situation in Mali  

armed forces, in particular from France. Furthermore, the African Union and ECOWAS should increasingly take a leading role in the situation in Mali, and security duties should be gradually be handed over to Mali and West African troops, including but not limited to Nigerian and South African troops. Key to any long-term stability in Mali is steady political progress, the formation of an inclusive government, dialogue between groups in the North and Bamako and democratic elections. Mali’s military and political structures must also be strengthened and reorganized, and the interrim government replaced. The U.S. sees that accomodation with the Tuaregs will be necessary in some shape or form, considering that it is the uprising of Tuareg separatists in the north that led to a military coup, leaving a vacuum for Islamic radicals to exploit. Lastly, and importantly, misbehaviour and executions committed by both the AQIM and Malian army against civillians must be deterred.

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