Following an audit conducted in the abovementioned plants; these guidelines are issued in the interest of energy conservation. Findings and recommendations were discussed with the energy conservation team on February 20, 1996.

1. FURNACE/KILNS Check that: 1.1 The fuel: air ratio in fuel-fired furnaces is the minimum permissible consistent with complete combustion; 1.2 Brickwork, flues and dampers are free from leaks; 1.3 Furnace draughting is properly balanced; 1.4 Fuel supplied to the furnace is in proper condition eg. temperature, pressure, atomisation, burner setting, moisture; 1.5 Multiple burners and multiple zone heating are properly balanced; 1.6 Fans, pumps and compressors are not badly worn or leaking; 1.7 Furnace heating cycle is as short as possible; 1.8 Production is planned to give to give the maximum possible evenness of operation; 1.9 Unwanted furnaces are switched off.

Calcination kiln

2. STEAM MAINS Check that: 2.1 Heat exchangers surfaces are examined, repaired and kept clean; 2.2 Steam mains do not leak; 2.3 Steam traps are effective;


VENTILATION Switch off extraction ventilation equipment as soon as process is completed and it is safe to do so. 5.Leaking steam trap 2.3 Check steam pipes for leaks. convect or radiate heat. 3. 2 .2 Check and repair all necessary insulation on hot pipes.4 Ensure that all plant in intermittent use is turned off during idle periods eg.1 Check all ductwork for leaks and seal as necessary. PLANT OPERATIONS 3.6 There are no leaks in fuel or compressed air lines. this will improve load factor. MAINTENANCE 5.7 Supply lines not in use are turned off. 2. 3. consider operating during night shift instead of day where possible. flame cutting and welding equipment. 4. 2. 5.5 Thermal insulation is applied to all hot surfaces which are not required to conduct. check steam traps for correct operation. 3. 3.3 Consider staggering the times of shift change-overs and meal breaks to improve load factor and to minimise peak electrical demand. ensuring maximum return of condensate.4 Hot clean steam-condensate is utilised or recycled.1 Arrange to operate plant as close to full capacity as possible for as long as may be necessary then shut it down. 5.2 For high-electricity load operations. 2.

1 Review insulation standards and consider improvements. in watts.2 Review control systems. 8.3 Use spray taps and low throughput showers.this is prevention rather than cure.2. stock and quality of fuels. 6.4 Ensure that power factor of electrical installation is brought to optimum value.1 High sulphur content of fuels (>3. and is the ratio of true power. temperature recorders.2.where heat from waste gases is given up and stored by a heat exchange medium. 6. 8. kWh and maximum demand meters etc. where no external heat exchanger is employed.2 Make regular checks on purchases. 8. 6. THE REACTIVE POWER USES PART OF THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ALTHOUGH IT DOES NO USEFUL WORK.5. refractory or metallic. ENERGY AUDIT 7. 7.3 Regeneration . 7. electricity and services consumption at regular intervals and ensure periodic accuracy checks on all metering equipment.6 Match electrical motors' power as precisely as possible to duty.3 Aids to any energy-saving campaign are.1 Monitor fuel. 8.This is the percentage of current in an AC circuit which can be used as energy.2.5 Consider maximum demand control system. the power factor is normally defined as "lagging" power factor.3 Power Factor .1 Direct utilisation . 3 . and subsequently returned and used for preheating air.e.7 Examine the possibility of waste heat recovery/utilisation on kilns and compressors.for drying. 8. to apparent power in VA.4 Waste heat boiler – process steam or hot water can be recuperated.2 Methods of dealing with waste heat can be classified into the following categories: 8. log books. GENERAL NOTES 8. 8.where waste gases and air for preheating are separated by a metallic or refractory heat-exchange surface.2. 8.. consider closer thermostatic control.g. RENEWAL AND IMPROVEMENTS 6.5 Reduction of waste heat emitted . 6. 6.5%) can restrict usage where the gaseous atmosphere is important and can give rise to cold-end acid corrosion problems. 6.2 Recuperation . Since the reactive current is a quarter of a cycle behind the voltage. Apparent power is obtained by multiplying the volts by the current flowing in The circuit or by the vector sum of the active and reactive components.6. 7.

5. clutches and fluid couplings should be fitted on heavy machinery so that motors are started on no-load.1 No two units of heavy machinery that are used only during short periods of the working day are ever used at the same time. 8. 4 .4 Remember that star/delta starters will only take approximately twice the normal running current whereas direct on-line starters will take 5-6 times normal running current.5. reduction of the reactive current will permit an increase in the available power for newly installed equipment without the need for enlarged switchgear and cables. The power factor of an induction motor falls as the mechanical load on the motor decreases.6 Ensure that the whole of the plant's starting load does not occur within the same half hour period of the maximum demand meter. power factor correction may have other advantages.5. The usual method of correcting a low power factor is to use capacitors. 8. 8.5 A starting schedule for heavy machinery is prepared and adhered to 8.2 Heavy machinery which takes a high starting load and is used intermittently is never started twice within one half-hour recording period of the maximum demand meter. If cables and main switchgear are operating at the limit of their current capacity. 8.5. the reading of the kilowatt maximum demand meter should be divided by the reading of the kVA maximum demand meter.7 Maximum advantage is taken of night usage. 8.4 Neglect of machinery lubrication. 8.5.3 Wherever possible.Diagram showing the benefits of power factor correction An approximate value of the overall power factor of any plant may be obtained by a simple calculation from the electricity maximum demand meters.5 Some of the ways of reducing maximum demand are to ensure that: 8. Apart from reducing the electricity bill. therefore the aim should be to keep all motors fully loaded. 8. machine misalignment and spillage build-up also waste power.5.5.


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