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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources: 25 Point Plan. 24 Feb. 1920.

The 25 Point Plan is the party platform for the Nazi party or the National Socialist Party. In the plan, it shows its main ideas and main beliefs. Within the plan are anti-semitic views and other beliefs of Nazis. We used it to show how the Nazi party came to be and the core values of Nazis. A Historical Adolf Hitler Speech. Perf. Adolf Hitler, Rudolph Hess. Youtube. N.p., 21 Feb. 2009. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGhdX1SI3KY>. This speech was by Hitler and his deputy Fuhrer Rudolph Hess after he had been elected as chancellor of Germany. From this video, we gained insight into how influential and emphatic Hitler could be in getting people to follow him. This video helped to show us the fanaticism Hitler could inspire in people and how that could lead to him being able to enforce such racism and violence in Germany and over Europe. Akhmatova, Anna. "Collection of poems by Anna Akhmatova." Poetry Lovers' Page. http://www.poetryloverspage.com/poets/akhmatova/akhmatova_ind.html (accessed February 20, 2013). We used this primary resource of poems written by a Russian poet Anna Akhmatova to learn more about how Russian citizens felt during Stalingrad. Her inspiring poems showed the resilient and determined spirit of the Russian civilians. Exec. Directive No. 45, (1942). Print. This is a translation of Hitlers Directive 45 which focused on planning out the initial phases of Operation Blue and Stalingrad itself. From this source we gained information on what Hitler planned was going to happen at Stalingrad. As a result, we saw how awry Hitlers plans actually went in the actual battle. The Brainerd Daily Dispatch, "Armistice Signed," November 11, 1918, 3 edition. This primary source newspaper article written after the armistice that ended WWI was signed was important to our project for two reasons: one because we used it as a visual aid on our website to help viewers understand the headline news that Germany had surrendered and two because it simply helped to show us more about WWI in regards to German defeat.

Ehrenburg, Ilya. "Kill." Red Star(Stalingrad), July 24, 1942. http://pictureshistory.blogspot.com/2012/11/kill-german-soviet-campaign.html (accessed February 12, 2013). This primary source newspaper article provided us with insight into the deep hatred that Soviet newspapers and propagandists were showing towards the invading Germans. Just the title of this Russian article Kill shows the venomous hate being thrown the Germans way. We used this article as a visual component and research component in our project. Exec. Directive No. 42, (1942). Print This is a translation of Hitlers Directive 42 which was Hitlers address to his military after a full year of Operation Barbarossa had already been under way. In the document, Hitler outlines his plans to take the oil fields and lands around the Volga river. From this source we gained insight into not only Hitlers overly optimistic views of the Russian campaign, but also the first plans and ideas that led up to the turning point at Stalingrad. "Germany Calling William Joyce Last British Broadcast.wmv."YouTube. YouTube, 23 Dec. 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEmZN-BNsJU>. This broadcast is William Joyce talking to the German people. This source is important because it told us about German ideals. Hoffman, William. Diary of a German Soldier. 1942. This source is a diary of a German soldier who died in Stalingrad. We used this to give us a first hand account of the Germans at the battle in particular the hardships they faced after being surrounded. It will be useful in our page about the German suffering during the battle

Hughes, Langston. Good Morning Stalingrad. This source is a poem written by the American poet, Langston Hughes. He wrote this poem shortly after the victory at Stalingrad and shows his gratefulness and support for the Soviets stopping the Germans at Stalingrad and turning the outlook of the war. Hurley, Patrick J. Interview by Alvin R. Sunseri. Personal interview. 9 July 1963. This is an interview with a man that was in Stalingrad at the time of the battle. Patrick Hurley was President Roosevelts representative to Stalin in 1942 and Stalin told Hurley to visit the war-torn city of Stalingrad in 1942. This interview

covers his experiences in Stalingrad at the time of the battle and gives us insight into what it was like at a personal level. "Inside the Third Reich [Paperback]." Inside the Third Reich: Albert Speer: 9780684829494: Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. This is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments. This source was crucial to our project because it gave in depth explanation on how the leadership of Nazi Germany functioned. Luftwaffe Attack Soviet Defenses in Stalingrad. YouTube, 2 Nov. 2007. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzDyVk7DTVQ>. This source was a newsreel showing the Luftwaffe bombardment of Stalingrad. We used this video as evidence of the Luftwaffes role in destroying the city of Stalingrad which led to much of the brutal man to man combat on the ground at Stalingrad. Manstein, Erich von. Lost victories. Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1958. Print. Erich von Manstein was one of the commanders for the German Sixth Army. This memoir was helpful to our group when working on the effects of the Battle of Stalingrad. This book talks about the demise of Hitlers army.

Memorandum by General von Seydlitz. 25 Nov. 1942 This primary source is a message from General von Seydlitz making his case on why to not attempt to airlift the Sixth Army. We used this source to show multiple viewpoints of the dilemma and to show the main argument as to why not to do it. Message to the Commander of VI Army surrounded at Stalingrad, Colonel-General Paulus, or his representative. 8 Jan. 1943. This is a message from Soviet officer, Konstantin Rokkossovksy, to General Paulus offering terms of surrender. We used this source to research more about the terms of surrender at the Battle for Stalingrad. Minard, Charles Joseph. Map Representing the Losses over Time of French Army Troops in the Russian Campaign. Digital image. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. This is a graphic made by Charles Joseph Minard in 1869 that shows the size of Napoleons army relative to where they are. This was very useful in our research about past invasions of Russia because the graph/map gave us a lot of data about the failed invasion.

Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact. 23 Aug. 1939. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact aka The German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was a treaty signed by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939. This treaty was then broken by Germany when they invaded Russia during Operation Barbarossa. The text of the treaty helped us see exactly what was meant by the pact. Neruda, Pablo. Canto de Amor a Stalingrado. This is a poem by the Chilean poet, Pablo Neruda that translates to A Love Song to Stalingrad. This poem shows the impact the victory at Stalingrad had on the world, even to people in South America. We used it to show how influential this battle was in boosting the morale of the free world. ORDER No. 227 BY THE PEOPLES COMMISSAR OF DEFENCE OF THE USSR. 28 Jul. 1942. Print. This primary document is a transcript of joseph Stalins speech urging his people to not give any more ground against the German invaders. Specifically, at the city of Stalingrad where Stalin saw the importance of stopping the Germans and turning the tide of the war. From this source we got insight into part of the motivation for the Soviet people and the mindset of the soldiers at Stalingrad, Order No. 270. 16 Aug 1941. Joseph Stalin issued Order No. 270 on August 16th, 1941. This order enforced strict laws against Soviet soldiers who desert or leave their comrades. It allowed officers to execute the deserter on the spot. This shows how serious Stalin was about defending Russia and showed his views about loyalty to the Soviet Union. Radio message from Adolf Hitler to Friedrich Paulus. 24 Jan. 1943. In this response to Paulus request to surrender Hitler simply responds that the men at Stalingrad are forbidden to surrender and should die honorably for their country. This message gave us a direct view of the stupidity and arrogance of Hitlers mindset where he would want men to die for no reason, but for the pride of their country. Radio message from Friedrich Paulus to Adolf Hitler. 24 Jan. 1943. In this source, Paulus is desperately asking Hitler to allow him and his men to surrender at Stalingrad as they are just slowly starving and freezing away. From Paulus grim description of his situation at Stalingrad we got a picture of how low

the German morale was, as well as how much they pleaded for Hitler to allow them to surrender. Radio message from Friedrich Paulus to Adolf Hitler. 31 Jan. 1943. This was a radio message from the general Friedrich Paulus to Adolf Hitler after he surrendered on January 31st, 1943. His quote to Hitler shows that even though he went against Hitlers orders, he still believes he did all he could to fight for the fatherland.

Russia Stopping Hitler-The Soviets Fight Back. Youtube, 28 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=85ZVKU2W8S8>. This American newsreel depicted how Russia was stopping Hitler by having all its citizens help out the cause and participate in manufacturing wartime products. The reason this source was important to our project was because it showed us how war can unite a country under one goal; to defeat its enemy. Schneider, Franz. "Last Letters from Stalingrad." The Hudson Review 14.3 (1961): 335367. Print. Schneider collected a series of letters from military archives to portray the feelings of the German soldiers at Stalingrad. The vivid description of the horrors of war and the soldiers outward animosity towards their superiors really set the tone of what the Battle of Stalingrad must have been like. Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich; a History of Nazi Germany.New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960. Print. William Shirer puts together a book of captured Third Reich documents, including diary entries from Joseph Goebbels. This source was important because it gave a first-hand account on general history of Nazi Germany. Stalin, Joseph. Speech at Celebration Meeting of the Moscow Soviet of Working People's Deputies and Moscow Party and Organizations. Speech, Moscow, November 6, 1943. This is a transcript of a speech Joseph Stalin said at a Celebration Meeting. We used it because it shows the enthusiasm the allies had after they won at Stalingrad. We used this in our website on our page describing the momentum it gave the allies.

Street Fight in Stalingrad. N.d. Youtube, 22 Oct. 2008. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ECLWD9_-wlk>. This source is a German wartime newsreel depicting actual battle scenes at Stalingrad. For one, this showed us that the Battle was actually fought on the ground in between beaten down buildings. Furthermore, the brutality of the battle and the close-quartered nature of the battle really embodied what we had been reading about in our other-first hand accounts.

Studs Terkel interview U.S. Soldier Robert Rasnus 1985. Print.

The historian Terkel interviewed Rasnus for his book on WWII, The Good War. In this excerpt of the interview Rasnus talks about what the allied reaction was to the Russian victory at Stalingrad. From this source Rasnus gave us insight into the feelings of the allies such as the confidence they gained from knowing Germany could be beaten. Treaty of Versailles. 28 Jun. 1919. The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty to end World War I. It was crucial for us to use in our context because it was the cause of the economic depression Germany was put in after World War I. Transmission From Erich Von Manstein to Adolf Hitler. 19 Dec. 1942. Field Marshal Manstein sent a message to Hitler trying to convey the fact that he should either allow the German 6th Army to retreat or surrender because it was falling apart as a result of being surrounded by the Russians. This source was used to show that Hitler had knowledge the army was in trouble and did not act on it.

Weinert, Erich, and Egon Larsen. 1944. Stalingrad diary. London: [I.N.G. Publications]. Erich Weinert published his diary recounting his observations as a German living in Russia because he opposed Hitlers rule and ideal. For one he provides a different perspective as a person who is split between the two sides and he also provides a great first-hand account of the Battle and the individual stories and events he witnessed at Stalingrad. Secondary Sources: Baird, J. W. "The Myth of Stalingrad." Journal of Contemporary History 4.3 (1969): 187-204. Print.

Baird was the 27th president of the American Psychological Association. In this Journal Baird dives into the German propaganda machine and how it tried to deal with a military disaster like Stalingrad. Bahr, Lauren S., and Bernard Johnston. Collier's Encyclopedia: With Bibliography and Index. New York: P.F. Collier, 1993. Print. This encyclopedia was used to find information on Joseph Stalin, a dictator. Before starting our website, our group used this encyclopedia to obtain background information on Stalin. Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege 1942 - 1943. New York: Penguin Books, 1999. Print. This book by Antony Beevor is one of the best secondary sources that covers the battle of Stalingrad. We used in countless parts of our projects to gain insight about the Battle, its context, and its effects. Bethell, Nicholas. Russia besieged. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1977. This book served as the main source of many of our visuals on pages like Operation Barbarossa and our information on Operation Blue. Not only did this book provide us with pictures but it also provided us with great primary sources like the image of a German spies fake press pass that allowed him to recieve intel about Germanys movements. Brunberg, Jon. "Mamayev Kurgan - Soviet World War II Memorial | the Polynational War Memorial." The Polynational War memorial: Introduction to The Polynational War Memorial. http://www.war-memorial.net/Mamayev-Kurgan---Soviet-World-War-IIMemorial--1.93 (accessed November 13, 2012). This source described in detail not only what the monument the Mamayev Kurgan is, but also what it represented which is the brave men and women who gave up their lives for the victory at Stalingrad. Along with pictures and in-depth information on the statue, this site also provided a great deal of facts on the actual battle and insight into the importance of remembering Stalingrad in the modern world. Burton, Terry D. "Battle of Stalingrad: an introduction of how Germany and Russia created collateral damage in one of the bloodiest wars in History." USASMA Digital Library. Accessed September 13, 2012. http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15040coll2/id/2885/rec /5. This source provided basic statistics and stories about the sacrifices made by both sides, German and Soviet at The Battle of Stalingrad. We used this source as a way to start to realize the utter human suffering that occurred as a result of Stalingrad. Furthermore, the statistics from this page helped to create some of the graphs that we created on our website.

Clairmont, Frederic F. "Stalingrad: Hitler's Nemesis." Economic and Political Weekly 38.27 (2003): 2819-823.JSTOR. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. Clairmont who has been the Permanent Senior Economics Affairs Officer in the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), as well as a respected college professor and historian wrote this article on Stalingrad for an established journal Economic and Political Weekly. We used Clairmonts background information on Stalingrad

Cooke, Tim, Adrian Gilbert, Tony Hall, Robert Jackson, Chris McNab, Donald Somerville, Robert Stewart, and Ian Westwell. History of World War II. Tarrytown, N.Y.: Marshall Cavendish, 2005. Print. This book is an overall history of World War II. It helped us understand the broader picture of how the battle of Stalingrad influenced the rest of the war as well as showing us more about the battle itself. Cowley, Robert. "Battle of Stalingrad." History.com. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 1996. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/battle-of-stalingrad>. This article goes into depth about how the Battle of Stalingrad was a turning point in World War II. This was a big source throughout the whole project because it related directly to our thesis and theme. Craig, William. Enemy at the Gates. New York: Dutton, 1973. Print. This book by William Craig is a story of the Battle of Stalingrad and includes a compilation of multiple primary sources from the battle. We used many quotes from these primary sources on our website to help support our thesis with firsthand accounts. Dixon, Ursula. "Stalingrad: In Desperate Battle." The History Web. N.p., 30 Aug. 1999. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.thehistoryweb.net/stalingrad2> This source goes in depth with the events of the Battle for Stalingrad. This source helped us really see the logistics of the battle and we used many facts from the battle. Erich Von Manstein." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERmanstein.htm> This website is a biography of the German figure, Erich von Manstein. Von Manstein was a key player for the Germans in the Battle of Stalingrad and this source helped us better understand his role in the battle and the war in general.

Fann, W. E. "The Fall of Berlin 1945." American Journal of Psychiatry 160.12 (2003): 2251-252. Print. Fann goes into both the invasion of Russia, the battle of Stalingrad and the effects of these events. Fann creates the connection between the German cruelty while invading Russia and the subsequent cruelty of the Russians while invading Germany later in the war. Fenyo, Mario. "The Allied Axis Armies and Stalingrad." 29.2 (1965): 57-72. JSTOR. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1983962>. This source proved to be essential in the research of the Battle of Stalingrad. This journal talks mainly about Operation Barbarossa. The book also talks about the Axis Alliance. This source was important because we had pages on the Axis Alliance and Operation Barbarossa and many of the facts came from this journal. "German-Soviet Pact." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005156>. This website gave an overview as well as in depth information about the GermanSoviet Nonaggression Pact. It helped us with our research about German and Soviet relations before the battle of Stalingrad. Gilbert, Martin. The Second World War: A Complete History. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1989. Print. This book goes very in depth about the Second World War and helped us put the Battle of Stalingrad in perspective, seeing what led up to it and seeing how it influenced the outcome of the war. Glantz, David. Email interview. 4 Dec. 2012. We interviewed the Stalingrad Historian and author of countless books, David Glantz. Mr. Glantz gave us answers to questions over e-mail. His answers to these questions were very useful in giving us insight to the Battle of Stalingrad and we were able to use some of the quotes on our site to help better prove our thesis and drive our point home. This interview was particularly useful in his answers regarding to the effects of the battle especially the militarization of the Soviet Union as a result of Operation Barbarossa. Glantz, David. Soviet Military Strategy During the Second Period of War . New York: Frank Cass and Company, 2012. Print. David Glantz is an American military historian. This book was very helpful when trying to understand Soviet deep battle theory to compare it to the Sixth Army Blitzkrieg. Glantz, David M.. The Soviet use of war experience the documentary basis. Fort Leavenworth, Kan.: Soviet Army Studies Office, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center,

1988. Print. David Glantz is an American military Historian. This book was helpful before starting the actual project because it gave us an idea on how the Soviet military operated. This later proved to be helpful when comparing German Blitzkrieg to Soviet tactics.

Hayward, Joel S. "Stalingrad, An Examination of Hitler's Decision to Airlift." Airpower Journal 155.704 (1997): 21-38. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://www.dtic.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA529777>. Hayward who is writing in a military journal about Airpower is pointing out the disastrous decision to try to save the sixth army through airlift rescue by the Luftwaffe. Hayward goes into depth on where the blame for this decision falls and why Hitlers generals were reluctant to tell Hitler his ideas about airlifting was wrong. Hickman, Kennedy. "World War II: Battle of Stalingrad." About.com Military History. About.com, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/p/World-War-Ii-Battle-OfStalingrad.htm>. This article was important in research before starting our website because it gave our group a grasp on the importance of the Battle of Stalingrad. This article also described the effects of the Battle. This was important because there were not many websites that clearly stated the effects.

History Channel. "Soviet counterattack at Stalingrad History.com -11/19/1942." History.com . http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/soviet-counterattack-atstalingrad (accessed November 13, 2012 From this source we gained knowledge of the soviet counterattack that occurred after Stalingrad was won that drove towards Berlin and eventually toppled the Third Reich. This helped us with information and analysis of the long-term effects of Stalingrad and how it helped the overall allied victory in the war.

Jahrbuch, Statiches. "Unemployment in Germany." Facing History. Facing History and Ourselves , n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://weimar.facinghistory.org>. This site helped us to find out even more about the German economic depression that ensued after its loss in WWI. Along with general information it provided, charts and graphs to help us visualize what the depression was like. Furthermore, it provided us with a couple primary source charts and statistics that ended up on the site.

Kimball, Warren F. "Stalingrad: A Chance for Choices." The Journal of Military History 60.1 (1996): 89-114. Print. Stalingrad:A Chance for Choices is an account of the political and military policies and effects of the battle of Stalingrad on both the U.S., British and Russian sides. Warren sites endless first-hand accounts and examples of not only the facts of Stalingrad, but the behind-the-scenes choices it forced political leaders such as Joseph Stalin and Franklin Roosevelt to make.

Lewis, S. L. "The Battle of Stalingrad." Strategique.org. N.p., n.d. Web. Sept.-Oct. 2012. <http://www.strategique.org/3.cours/3.Documentations/3.2livres/ Livres/Urban_Operations_XX- Century/chp2.pdf>. Lewis gives the play by play analysis of Stalingrad. This source gives great historical background as well as military details on the battle such as maps and diagrams demonstrating aspects of the battle. He also provides multiple primary sources of letters and military documents that make it a viable as well as mostly primary source. Luther, Thomas . "The Strategic Implications of the Battle of Stalingrad."Defense Technical Information Center. N.p., 3 May 2004. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA424054>. This report is on the strategic implications of the battle. It helped our group truly understand the strategic importance of the battle and see how the battle unfolded from a strategic standpoint. MacDonald, John. Great Battles of World War II. New York : Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. This book goes in depth to the actual battle of Stalingrad, including all of the advances made by both sides. This helped us better understand the military side of the battle and helped us see how Russia was able to win the battle. Noren, James. "CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Economy." Central Intelligence Agency. CIA, 16 Mar. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-thestudy-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/watching-the-bear-essayson-cias-analysis-of-the-soviet-union/article02.html>. This is an article about the economy in the Soviet Union. In particular, it shows the growth of defense spending from 1950 to 1989. This helped us in our research of how the Battle of Stalingrad affected militarization in the USSR and indirectly led to the collapse of the Soviet Union 40 years after. PBS. "WWII Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West . In Depth . Uneasy Allies | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service.

http://www.pbs.org/behindcloseddoors/in-depth/uneasy-allies.html (accessed November 13, 2012). This source was extremely valuable for providing background, information and multimedia about the effects of Stalingrad as it related to the Cold War and U.S.Russian relations. The in-depth analysis by PBS helped us to back up our own points and analysis within the website.

Pulido, Marco A. "The Battle of Stalingrad: A Behavior Analytical Perspective." The Mexican Journal of Behavioral Analysis 2.33 (2007): 239-46. Print. Pulido goes more into the analysis of Hitlers decisions and the reasons why the Germans failed at Stalingrad. He particularly focuses on Hitlers stand fast order which may have cost Germany the war. Rees, Laurence. "Hitler's Invasion of Russia in World War II." BBC News. BBC, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/hitler_russia_invasion_01.shtml>. This article contains most of the information that was used for our context pages. The article goes into vivid description of why Hitler chose to fight in the Battle of Stalingrad. Many of the ideas that are talked about in this article are used in our website. Rottiers, Geert. "The Battle for Stalingrad." The Battle for Stalingrad. WebMaster, 2 Dec. 1998. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.stalingrad.net/>. This website contains important information that was critical for our project. This website has newspaper articles, a diary from a soldier, and maps from the war. Many of the maps were used on our website. This website also provides vivid explanations of certain battles. Schenk, Robert. "A Case of Inflation." Ingrimayne. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://ingrimayne.com/econ/EconomicCatastrophe/HyperInflation.html>. This page helped us with our research of hyperinflation in Germany after it lost WWI. This source provided graphs, facts and background as to the extent and causes of the hyperinflation as well as its after-effects which helped to allow Adolf Hitler to rise to power. Sella, Amnon . "Barbarossa: Surprise Attack and Communication." Journal of Contemporary History 13.3 (1978): 555-583. JSTOR. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. This source talks about why Germany so easily invaded the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa. Amnon discusses Russias lack of preparedness and Stalins failure to interpret the intelligence given to him about troop movement on the border. This source helped us see what led up to Operation Barbarossa.
Silverberg, Robert. 15 battles that changed the world. New York: Putnam, 1963.

Silverberg puts the Battle of Stalingrad in perspective as one of the greatest, most influential battles in military history. We used this source to back up our thesis of Stalingrad as a turning point within our project. Silverberg talks about how Stalingrad was the pivotal point for the allies to begin their defeat of Germany.

Sontheimer, Michael. "Frank Interviews With Red Army Soldiers Shed New Light on Stalingard - SPIEGEL ONLINE."SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten. Spiegel, 2 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/frankinterviews-with-red-army-soldiers-shed-new-light-on-stalingard-a-863229.html>. This secondary source provided us with insight and background of the battle and gave us insight into the actual feelings of the Russian soldiers fighting at Stalingrad. It included direct quotes from interviews that were actually too graphic for the public in Russia until recently and shows how terrible, but also how dramatic the fighting at Stalingrad was. "Stalingrad, Battle of." The Reader's Companion to Military History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. Credo Reference. Web. 12 November 2012.<http://www.credoreference.com.ezproxy.bpl.org/entry.do?id=5800863>. This scholarly journal explains the overall event of the Battle of Stalingrad. This source was help to our group when we were taking notes to use. This source was not much help in later dates of our project. Stolfi, Russel H. "Barbarossa Revisited: A Critical Reappraisal of the Opening Stages of the Russo-German Campaign (June-December 1941)." Journal of Modern History 54.1 (1982): 27-46. JSTOR. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1906049?uid=3739696&uid=2&uid=4&uid=373 9256&sid=21101088601373>. Stolfi focuses more on the preliminary actions of Germanys Operation Barbarossa and invasion of Russia. This source from the Journal of Modern History focuses more on the events just prior to Stalingrad and the similarities and differences between the battle of Moscow at the beginning of the offensive and the Battle of Stalingrad which signaled the end defeat of Germany in Russia. Simkin, John. "Stalingrad." Stalingrad. Spartacus Education, Sept. 1997. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSstalingrad.htm>. This website provides a general description on the Battle of Stalingrad. This was important in the early stages of the project because it taught me the main events of the Battle. It also had a great deal of links to other primary and secondary sources relating to Stalingrad so it acted as a almost baseline place to start on our preliminary online research. "The Nazi Party." Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Enterprise, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org>.

This source provided great detail about the Nazi Party and its views on Jews and Bolshevism. Along with details and facts it also provided some great links to pictures and examples of the anti-semitism and fascist views of the Nazi Party. Although this was a pretty generic source it gave us links and other opportunities to expand our research further. "The Second World War." The Map as History. http://www.the-map-ashistory.com/maps/8-world-war-II-1939-1945.php (accessed January 31, 2013). This source is a series of animated maps depicting different parts of WWII. We used these maps in our website to show certain events pertaining to our topic notably the German Blitzkrieg tactics.

Trueman, Chris. "Blitzkrieg." History Learning Site. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/blitzkrieg.htm (accessed November 13, 2012). This source provides great detail on the tactics and history of the German Blitzkrieg particularly in WWII. This related to our topic and we used this information because the Germans had conquered most of Europe by Blitzkrieg and had advanced toward Stalingrad by these tactics. Trueman, Chris . "Operation Barbarossa." History Learning Site. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm (accessed November 13, 2012). This source provided in-depth facts, quotes and diagrams of Operation Barbarossa. This directly related to our topic as Barbarossa was the German invasion of Russia which led and basically was stopped at Stalingrad. We used many of the statistics, as well as the general information about the Operation from the source. Trueman, Chris. "The Battle of Stalingrad." The Battle of Stalingrad. N.p., 2000. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_stalingrad.htm>. This website turned out to be one of the most valuable websites in our research. This website contained many quotes used on our website. It also had charts that contrasted the German and Soviet armies. This website does all of this while connecting it back to the battle as a turning point.

Whaley, Barton . "Codeword Barbarossa."The History Teacher 7.4 (1974): 644645.JSTOR. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. Operation Barbarossa is depicted and broken down through this source. This was vital to our project because it helped us to form the ideas behind how Operation Barbarossa fit into the broad spectrum of the whole war as well as how it led up to and provided context for our turning point in the Battle of Stalingrad. Wertsch, James. "Blank Spots in Collective Memory: A Case Study of Russia." Annals of

the American Academy of Political and Social Science 617 (2008): 58-71. JSTOR. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. This source goes in depth about the signing of the Nonaggression Pact. This source helped us better understand the impact of the pact and the significance of Germany breaking the pact. "WWII: Behind Closed Doors." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/behindcloseddoors/education/snapshot-lessons/stalingrad.html>. This source was important to our group because it provided many videos for our website. This website also provided a couple maps and images. Without this website, we would not have as many interactions on our website. Yoder, Mike. "Battle of Stalingrad." Military History Online. N.p., 04 Feb. 2003. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwii/stalingrad/uranus.aspx>. In this source, Yoder talks about the two main operations of the Battle of Stalingrad; Operation Uranus and Operation Saturn. This website was important because it was the only website we obtained that did an in-depth description of Operations Uranus and Saturn. These two operations were huge in the Battle of Stalingrad