# Chapter 6

Flow of Fluids
6_001

Water at 68 F flows from a lake through 500 ft of 4-inch i.d. cast-iron pipe to a water turbine located 250 ft
below the surface of the lake. After flowing through the turbine, the water is discharged into the atmosphere
through a horizontal 50-ft section of the same pipe. The turbine power output is 10 hp when the water in the
discharge pipe is flowing at 5 ft/sec. What is the turbine efficiency, defined as the actual power output of the
turbine divided by the power output that would be withdrawn if there were no friction within the turbine?

Solution:
D = 4 inch = 1/3 ft
-4
@ 68 F, µ = 2.43 lb/hr-ft = 6.75 x 10 lb/sec-ft
νm = 0.016056 cu ft / lb
p1 at the lake = 0 gauge pressure
p2 before turbine
p3 after turbine
p4 at discharge = 0 gauge pressure

p1 − p 2 =

fmG 2 ν m (L 1 ) g z 2 − z1
+
2gc rh
gc ν m

where:
z2 - z1 = -250 ft
L1 = 500 ft
g = 32.17 ft/(sec)(sec)
gc = 32.2 ft x pounds matter/(sec)(sec)(pounds force)
G = V / νm = 5 / 0.016056 = 311.41 lb/sec-sq ft
Solving for fm:

DG ( 13 )(311.41)
=
= 153,783
µ
6.75 × 10 − 4
Equation 6-8e.
NRe =

1
f
1

(

)

= 3.2log10 NRe f + 1.2

(

)

= 3.2log10 153,783 f + 1.2
f
f = 0.00502
0 − p2 =

(0.00502)(311.41)2 (0.016056)(500) + (32.17) (500)
2(32.2 )( 112 )
(32.2) (0.016056)

p2 = 14,828 lb/sq ft
fmG 2 ν m (L 2 ) (0.00502)(311.41)2 (0.016056)(50 )
=
= p3
2gc rh
2(32.2)( 112 )
p3 = 73 lb/sq ft
p3 − p 4 =

p2 - p3 = 14,828 - 73 = 14,755 lb/sq ft

Page 1 of 9

3)(π/4)(1/3)2 w = 119.3 lb/sec-ft w = GA w = (1.2 ft x pounds matter/(sec)(sec)(pounds force) L = 300 ft D = 1 1/2 in = 1/8 ft R T ν= G p T = 68 F + 460 F = 528 F RG = 53.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids Volumetric rate of flow = q 2 q = AV = (π/4)(1/3) (5) = 0.70 hp) (100 %) Turbine Efficiency = 85.43633 cu ft/sec hp = (p 2 − p 3 )q = (14. 300 ft long. A = (π/4)D2 = (π/4)(1/8)2 A = 0. gauge or higher.4363) 550 hp = 11. what would be the mass flow rate of water through the 550 ft of 4inch pipe? Solution: If the turbine is by-passed: p1 − p 4 = fmG 2 ν m (L 1 + L 2 ) g z 2 − z 1 + =0 2gc rh gc ν m (0. The maximum rate of consumption by the equipment connected to this distribution system is 600 cu ft of free air (measured at 68 F) per minute. p2 = 12. 6_003 Air is to be delivered from a compressor to a distribution line by means of standard 1-1/2-in. what must be the pressure rating of the compressor? Assume that the air flow is isothermal.696 lb/sq in abs.70 hp 550 Turbine Efficiency = (10 hp / 11.755)(0.17) (.76 lb/sec .372. . Solution: Air at 600 cu ft per minute at 68 F gc = 32. Ans.2)( 112 ) G = 1. In order for the pressure in the distribution line to be always 70 lb/sq in.016056)(550) + (32.00502)G 2 (0. Ans. 6_002 If the turbine in Prob. .5 % .372. 1 were by-passed. steel pipe.196 lb/sq ft abs.012272 sq ft Page 2 of 9 .34 rh = D/4 = 1/32 ft p2 = 70 lb/sq in gauge = 84.2) (0.250) = 0 (32. .016056) 2(32.

2)  12.082 ν m = 21  + 2. is pumped at a rate of 28. Ans. p1 = 406.196)2 (353)2 ln p1  + (0. .327  12. steel pipe.309 = = ν1  28.2 f f = 0. p12 − p 2 2 G 2 ν 2 fmLG 2 = ln + 2R G Tm αg c ν1 2gc rh ν2 p1 2. what head must be developed by the pump? Solution: Page 3 of 9 .309  = + 1.2 f 1 = 3. It is agreed to neglect pressure drop due to fittings.1545 p p1 1   Use Equation (6-9d) assuming ν2/ν1 > 2.2222 × 10 −5 = 3.31 lb/sq in gauge.309 cu ft /lb Air viscosity at 68 F -5 µ = 0. What is the velocity in the smaller pipe? What is the pressure drop through the lines? If the lines discharge into an open tank.870ln 1  + 56.2log10 3. 6_004 Glycerol at 68 F. One is a standard 4-in.2log10 NRe f + 1.164  14.610. α = 1 Steel pipe: 1 = 3.621 lb/sq ft abs.2)( 132 ) p12 − (12.196    p1  p12 − (12.34 )(528) 28.34 )(528) 12196 ν2 = 2.610.196)2  p  = 3. the other a standard 9-in.196  By Trial and Error: p1 = 60. specific gravity 1.000 cu ft/hr by a single pump through two horizontal pipes connected in parallel.164 ν1 = G = = p1 p1 p1 ( ) ( νm = 1 2 ) (ν1 + ν 2 )  28.164  12. steel pipe.26.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids ν2 = (53.293 NRe = NRe Therefore. Both pipes have a length of 100 ft. .196  2(32.0440 lb/hr-ft = 1.395 56.003036)(300)(353)2 = 2(53.293 f + 1.2222 x 10 lb/sec-ft ( 18 )(353) DG = µ 1.003036 R T (53.34 )(528) (1)(32.

624 ) p1 − p 2 = 0.941 in = 0.26)(62. D = 8.624 ) p1 − p 2 = 0.2 ft x pounds matter/(sec)(sec)(pounds force) p1 − p 2 = fb G b 2 (100) 2(32. µ = 7 cp = 4.4qa G= Gb = 4(78.624 )q a Ga = π (0.704 x 10 lb/sec-ft q = volumetric flow rate = 28.2)(0.106024fb G b 2 Then: 0.083875)(78.083875 ft gc = 32.3355)2 Ga = 889.2 ft x pounds matter/(sec)(sec)(pounds force) p1 − p 2 = fa G a 2 (100) 2(32. pipe.220865fa G a 2 ρq 4qρ = A πD 2 4(78.235465fa G a 2 = 0.3qb Page 4 of 9 .106024fb G b 2 fb G b 2 = 2.7451 ft rhb = Db/ 4 = 0.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids Use Line a for 4 in pipe and line b for 9 in pipe -3 Glycerol at 68 F.000 cu ft/hr = 7.186275)(78.2)(0.186275 ft gc = 32.4) = 78.235465fa G a 2 Line b: p1 − p 2 = fb G b 2 ν mL fb G b 2L = 2gc rh 2gc rhb ρ rhb = Db/4 For 9 in dia.624 lb/cu ft Line a: p1 − p 2 = fa G a 2 ν m L f a G a 2 L = 2gc rh 2gc rha ρ rha = Da/4 For 4 in dia.777778 cu ft/sec q = qa + qb ρ = (1.7451)2 Gb = 180.026 in = 0.3355 ft rha = Da/ 4 = 0. D = 4. pipe.624 )q b π (0.

2log10 53.945q f ) + 1.012 1 fa ( ) = 3.4q a ) = = 63.704 × 10 − 3 NRea = NReb ( ) ( ) 3.434(0.559q = b b = b µ 4.2log (209. try fa = 1.2 f ( Then: ) ( ( ) ) fa 3.8357) = 53.434 )(0.2log10 N Re f + 1.2 D a G a (0.2 = fb 3.3q b )2 = 2.3qa ) = 28.2log10 63.2 = = 1.559qb fb + 1.306937qa 7.07826)] + 1.2 = fb 3.2 = 3.351272qa fa fb Equation 6-8e. 1 = 3.07826 fa = 0.012 fa + 1.13 fb qb = (7.13 fb 0.8357)(0.2log10 NReb fb + 1.777778 = qa + 8.13)qa qb = 8.4q a )2 q b = 7.2 fa = 0.474q f ) + 1.2log10 [(209.8357 cu ft/sec NRea = 63.2log10 NRea fa + 1.2 fa 3.220865fa (889.13 fb 3.945 )(0.2 fa fb 10 a 10 a a a By trial and error.2 Therefore trial value is okay.006125 = 1.306937qb qa = 0.2log (63. fa = 1.8357)(0.2log10 28.351272)(1.474q a fa + 1.704 × 10 − 3 DG (0.2log10 [(63.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids Then: fb (180.07826 )] + 1.7451)(180.3355)(889.006125 fa 3.434qa µ 4.13 fb Page 5 of 9 .

c.24)(1040 .p2 = 796.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids fb = 0.624 lb/cu ft) Head = 10.24 = 40 F = 1040 F a.006125 )[(889. Ans.40) Q = 388. The heat is to be supplied by electrical wires wrapped around the outside of the pipe. .76 lb/sq ft .8 lb/sq ft abs.4)(0.134 ft .5 ft .235465fa G a 2 p1 − p 2 = 0. having an i. and these wires will supply 4. . . .235465fa (889. Heated Length Q = wacp(t1 .8357) Va = 9. p1. . b. p1 − p 2 = 0. Ga = Vaρ Ga = 889. Ans. .4qa Ga = Vaρ = 889.0 kw of electrical power/ft of heated pipe. . Head developed by pump. Pressure drop thru line a or b. The air is to leave the heated section at a pressure of 1 atm. Ans.4 )(0. 6_005 It is desired to heat 27 lb/min of dry air from 40 to 1040 F (moving-stream temperatures) by passing it through a heated horizontal section of smooth pipe.4q a )2 p1 − p 2 = 0.004797 a.76 lb/sq ft) / (78.620)(0. = 2116.4535 ft/sec .4qa Va(78. Page 6 of 9 .45 lb/sec = 0. Velocity of the smaler pipe. p2 = 1 atm abs. of 2 inches. distributed uniformly over the heated length.8357)]2 p1 . Ans. What must be the length of the heated section and the pressure of the air entering the section? Solution: wa cp t1 t2 = 27 lb/min = 1.t2) Q = (1. Head = (796.95 kw L = heated length = 113. b. abs.d.620 lb/hr = 0.95 kw / 4 kw/ft L = 28.624) =(889. . Pressure entering the section.000 Btu/hr = 113.235465(0.

837.34 )(40 + 460) = p1 p1 ν1 = 26.00140 + NRe 0.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids D = 2 inches = 0.496 µ 1.125 f = 0.93833 x 10 lb/sec-ft DG (0.002476)(28.335 = + 18.2)  26.9 p1 Viscosity of air at average temperature. tave = (1/2)(40 + 1040) = 540 F -5 µ = 0.8)2 ( 330)2  37.06978 lb/hr-ft = 1.56  By trial and error: Page 7 of 9 .8)2  p  = 3382ln 1  + 2864 106.670  2(32.32 Use Equation 6-9d.5)(330)2 = ln + 2(53.002476 (2.670 p1 ν2 = R G T2 (53.166667 ft rh = D/4 = 0.041667 ft gc = 32.837.8  p1  = 2 13.00140 + = 0.45 ) πD π (0.8  (0.8 νm = νm νm (ν1 + ν 2 ) 2  26.670   + 37.8 ν 2 = 37.125 f = 0.496)0.2 ft x pound matter / (sec)(sec)(pound force) 4w a G= 2 = 4(0. 0.166667)(330) NRe = = = 2.2 )(.34 )(1000) (1)(32. Tm = 540 F + 460 F = 1000 R p12 − p 2 2 G 2 ν 2 fmLG 2 = ln + 2R G Tm αg c ν 1 2gc rh   p12 − (2116.041667)2 G = 330 lb/(sec)(sq ft) ν1 = R G T1 (53.34 )(1040 + 460) = p2 2116.041667) p1   p12 − (2116.680  705.32 0.93833 × 10 − 5 α=1 Smooth pipe: Equation 6-8.

. The discharge end of the pipe is several feet above the surface of the reservoir.042) = 1001 lb/sec w 4w 4(1001) G= = = 2 A πD π (1.5)(566.5 ft and is made of steel.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids p1 = 42.269 lb/sq ft abs.2 νm = 1/62.).75 Equation 6-9a. which has an altitude of 1010 ft above the lake surface.375 ft g = 32. compute the shaft horsepower which must be delivered to the pump to move water through this system at a rate of 120 gal/sec. p1 = 20 atm abs. The pipe line next travels another 1000 ft horizontally and empties into a reservoir.43 lb/hr-ft = 6. .4 = 0.778 NRe = 6. From the pump. . Ans 6_006 Water is pumped over a high pass in mountain country from a lake in the valley.10 ft = 500 ft L = 2000 ft + 1000 ft + 1000 ft = 4000 ft q = 120 gal/sec x 231 cu n/gal x 1 cu ft / 1728 cu in q = 16. f G 2 ν mL g z 2 − z 1 p1 − p 2 = m + 2gc rh gc ν m z2 . Neglecting end losses and assuming that the lengths of pipe are reported as “equivalent lengths” (thus containing allowance for bends.258. the pipe line extends 2000 ft to the top of the pass.d. µ = 2.75 × 10 − 4 Equation 6-8 Page 8 of 9 . of 1. etc. losing 500 ft in altitude.01603 cu ft/lb -4 viscosity at 68 F.500 ft .042 cu ft/sec w = ρq = (62.5 ft steel q = 120 gal/sec Pimp-Efficiency = 0. Solution: D = 1.4)(16. The pump is located 10 ft above the lake surface. the over-all pump efficiency is 75 per cent.17 gc = 32.z1 = 1010 ft .45) = 1. The pipe line then runs 1000 ft down the other side of the pass.45 lb/sec-ft rh = D/4 = 0.5)2 G = 566.75 x 10 lb/sec-ft (1. The pipe line has an i.

2 )(0.178.2)(0.482 hp Ans.042) 550 hp = 996.2) (0.01603) 2(32.75 = 2.45)2 (0.832.00354 p1 − p 2 = (0.9 hp 550 Checking if height 1000 ft is reached.17) (1000) (32. .2log10 NRe f + 1.2log10 1.258.01603)(4000) + (32.p2 = 34.9)(16.178.17) (500) (32.8 hp > 996.8 hp / 0.9 lb/sq ft hp = (p1 − p 2' )q = (63.2 f f = 0.01603) 2(32.Chapter 6 Flow of Fluids 1 f 1 ( ) = 3.042) 550 550 hp = 1.00354)(566.861.10 ft = 1000 ft p1 − p 2' = (0.p2’ = 63.3 lb/sq ft hp = (p1 − p 2 )q = (34.2) (0.861.01603)(2000) + (32.9 jp Therefore: Shaft hp = 1.778 f + 1.00354)(566.3)(16. If L’ = 2000 ft z2’ .45)2 (0.832.375) p1 .375) p1 .end - Page 9 of 9 .2 ( ) = 3.z1 = 1010 ft .