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DUCTILE

BRITTLE

TRESCA CRITERIAN

MSST:MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS THEORY

MOHRCOLOUMB THEORY

UNIAXIAL TEST

BRITTLE

DUCTILE

MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS THEORY For maximum normal stress theory, the failure occurs when one of the principal stresses (1 , 2 3 ) equals to the yield strength.

1

1 > 2 > 3

Failure occurs when either 1 = or 3 = ,where is strength in tension and is strenght in compression. MOHR-COULOMB THEORY The Coulomb-Mohr theory or internal friction theory assumes that the critical shearing stress is related to internal friction. MAXIMUM DISTORTION ENERGY THEORY(VON-MISES THEORY) The maximum distortion energy theory ,also known as the Von Mises theory, was proposed by M.T.Huber in 1904 and further developed by R.von Mises(1913).In this theory failure by yielding occurs when at any point in the body ,the distortion energy per unit volume in a state of combined stress becomes equal to that associated with yielding in a simple tension test.

STRAIN ENERGY

1 2

ij ij

2 2 1 1 1 1

1 + 2 3 + 3 (1 2 +

2

3 )

HYDROSTATIC STRESS

2

1 + 2 + 3 3

1+ 3

1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 1

= = =

(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2 2

If the state stress is in this area then the material will not yield.

3

3 = 1

1 2 + 3 2 1 3 =

31 2 =

3 2 =

= 0.577 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS THEORY The maximum shearing stress theory is an outgrowth of the experimental observation that a ductile material yields as a result of slip or shear along crystalline planes. Yielding begins whenever the maximum shear stress in a part equals to the maximum shear stress in a tension test specimen that beings to yield.

1 3 2

SY 2

Then , = 1 3

Materials

1 ( )

1 3 2

= = =

1 3 (MDET)

Strain Energy:

1 = 2 Design Margin=M=

combined state of loading defined by bending moment M=8 kN.m and torque T=24kN.m.Calculate the required shaft diameter d in order to achieve a factor of safety N=2.Use a) the maximum shearing stress theory(MSST-Tresca) b)the maximum distortion energy theory(MDET Von Mises)

c=

and =

16 3

Then, =

32 3

and =

Then, substituting the numerical values of M,T, and N: d=113.8mm b) For maximum distortion energy theory = (1 2) 2 + 1 2 + 2 2 = 2 + 3 2 = =

16 3

42 + 3 2

FRACTURE MODES

OPENING

SLIDING

TEARING

Fracture is defined as the separation of a part into two or more pieces.The mechanisms of brittle fracture are the concern of fracture mechanics ,which is based on a stress analysis in the vicinity of a crack or defect of unknown small radius in a part.

MULTIPLE FRACTURES

Stress Intensity Factor: In the fracture mechanics approach a stress intensity factor, , is evaluated. This can be thought of as a measure of the effective local stress at the crack root. =

8

where =normalstress, =

, = (or half

crack length) ,w=member width(or half width of member) Fracture Toughness: In a toughness test of a given material, the stress intensity factor at which a crack will propagate is measured. This is the critical stress intensity factor , referred to as the fracture toughness and denoted by the symbol . N=

(N=factor of safety)

EXAMPLE: For a shape with width 12m , crack length 65mm , thickness 30mm and applied loading 50MPa.Find the factor of safety.( =28.3MPa , =240MPa)

50MPa

65mm

30mm

1 =

240 50

= 4.8

12m

9

65 2

103 =15.97MPa

28.3 15.97

= 1.77

2 is better than 1 in order to obtain a safe structure; therefore, to have a safe structure, loading should not be used to calculate safety factor.

10

Reference List: 1. Lecture Notes AEE 361, Demirkan KER), 2009, Static Failure Theories 2. Static Failure theories, Ansel C. UGURAL & Saul K. Fenster, 2007, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, fourth edition. 3. Lecture 5 & 6, The University of Jenessee at Martin School of Engineering, 2009, Machine Design Notes. 4. Static Failure theories, J. Keith Nisbett, 2009, Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design, eighth edition.

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