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Segmental tunnel linings Applications Product range Features and benefits Joint and connection details Circle joints Cross joints Innovative features Caulking grooves and sealing grooves Grout socket assembly Packings Special rings Tunnel construction methods Segmental and one piece shafts Applications Features and benefits Cost savings Safer work environment Minimal environmental impact Innovative design Product range Construction methods Caisson method Underpin method Combination of the caisson and underpin methods Typical ring configuration One piece shafts Segmental shafts 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 14 3-pin precast arches Applications Features and benefits Product range Arch system components Box culverts Applications Features and benefits Jacking pipes The jacking technique (microtunnelling) Benefits of pipe jacking Technical Safety Economic Environmental Steel reinforced concrete pipes (SRCP) Benefits of reinforced concrete jacking pipes Fixed steel collar pipes Loose steel collar pipes Selection of jacking pipes Vitrified clay pipes Features and benefits Product range Connection to standard pipes and access chambers Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) Applications Features and benefits Backfilling Precast solutions Contact information 19 19 19 20 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 31 32 35 35 37 40 42 42 42 43 44 45
Tunnel and shaft solutions
5 1. x dia.30 External diameter (m) 2.85 2.19 4.07 2.26 3.84 4.015 1. • The elimination of cruciform joints.90 3.35 3.00 3. • Three segment types for curved or straight construction. x length (mm) 12 x M16 x 295 12 x M16 x 355 12 x M16 x 365 12 x M16 x 365 12 x M16 x 365 12 x M16 x 400 12 x M20 x 490 12 x M20 x 410 12 x M20 x 440 Note: These specifications and details may change.67 Bolts per ring No.000 1.21 3.60 4.083 1.Non-ferrous self locking. Other sizes may be produced on request (refer to Table 1 below).20 16. • The trapezoidal joint arrangement assists with a good ring build and helps maintain the ring shape prior to grouting.090 Ring weight (tonnes) 3.Segments are provided with a fast coarse thread plastic grout socket assembly at the centroid for lifting and grouting.478 Weight per segment (kg) 520 600 700 710 856 820 1. Features and benefits • Cost effective installation.005 1.24 5. • Single pass finish for permanent structures.189.007. which can withstand the increasing demands of modern tunnel boring machines and poor ground conditions.200 1.27 5.44 2.43 2.010 1. Humes offer segmental tunnel linings in partnership with Buchan Concrete Solutions Limited (UK). self-aligning connectors reduce internal bolt recesses. Applications • Utility tunnels • Traffic tunnels (road and rail) • Water pipelines • Desalination structures • Escape tunnels Product range Humes produces segmental linings measuring 2 m to 5.10 3.80 6.5 995 1.210. .13 4.5 1. please contact Humes for confirmation.71 3.84 5.040 2.010 1.38 3.Segments are designed to be machine handled with a rotating arm erector. Curved alignments are easily accommodated by altering the ring orientation (refer to Figure 6 on page 6).80 Maximum segment width (mm) 1. single pass tunnel.Segmental tunnel linings Humes’ trapezoidal segments use the latest technology to deliver a smooth bore.051 985 1. .80 3.35 3.3 m (internal) diameter.522 Minimum segment width (mm) 990 993 992.5 1. . Table 1 – Segmental tunnel linings details Internal diameter (m) 2. Tunnel and shaft solutions 3 Tunnel and shaft solutions .007 1.89 6.
The connector is manufactured from a high strength durable plastic. which means that it can be used with a stiff gasket and copes with varying joint gap. The elastic performance of the connection compliments the behaviour of the gasket. economy and alignment characteristics of a dowel. Figure 1 – Circle joint detail Movable plastic anchors allow segment to be located when imperfectly aligned High strength dowel giving self alignment and good shear connection Shield ram thrust Threaded screw connection which allows a push fit 4 Tunnel and shaft solutions . thus reducing finishing time.Joint and connection details Circle joints A self-locking plastic connector provides a robust joint fixing for tunnel linings. It combines the advantages of a bolted connection with the speed. • No circle joint pockets to fill. • Fully compatible with elastic compression gasket. • Highly durable connection with no corrodible parts. • They are designed to reduce lipping between segments. • The system is tolerant of a dirty environment and allows for the initial misalignment of segments to compensate for tapered joints and gaskets. • Does not induce bursting forces in the concrete. • The rigid dowel action of the coupler re-aligns the segment and minimises the stepping of joints. including Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) compression gaskets and hydrophilic seals. • Suitable for use with all types of sealing systems. The system has been developed in conjunction with major tunnelling contractors and is suitable for use in traditional open face shields or with the latest full face tunnel boring machines. The self-locking connector offers many benefits: • The dowels allow a very fast ring erection sequence. • Self-locking and self-aligning.
8 steel and have a nominal ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 800 N/mm2 (or Mpa) and a nominal yield strength of 640 N/mm2 (or Mpa).5 Load (KN) 15 12.Figure 2 – Circle joint connector interaction Water pressure Gasket compression Self-locking plastic connector extension 25 22.5 0 0 0.5 20 17. The segments are cast with bolt hole recesses designed to accommodate gel impregnated grommets. The bolts are made for grade 8.5 10 7.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 5 Buclock connectors A resultant joint gap of 1.5 Joint gap (mm) 3 3.5 mm @ equilibrium. equally spaced 1 No Plastic grout/Lifting socket Cross joints Figure 3 – Cross joint detail Sealing groove Sealing groove Radiused bolt Curved bolt Cross joint connections are made by passing a curved M16 threaded bolt through a pocket in each segment. Gasket sealing performance remains unaffected. Manufacturing is carried out in accordance with the requirements of our quality management system. Typical circle joint detail 12 no. Inner face of typical segment 1000 (Nominal) Caulking groove Caulkinggroove Typical cross joint detail All raw materials comply with current Australian standards. Figure 4 – Curved bolts used for cross joints Tunnel and shaft solutions 5 Tunnel and shaft solutions 30 o 60 o 15o .5 5 Joint gap 30o 60o 30 o Ex ter nal Interna dia Stiff EPDM gasket compression characteristic Bituminous packing to all longitudinal joints l diame me ter ter Elevation on ring Self-locking plastic connector extension characteristic 2.5 4 4.
Grout socket assembly Each segment is fitted with a plastic grout socket assembly which includes a non-return valve. Non standard tapers can be manufactured to the purchaser’s specific requirements. Sealing grooves for either hydrophilic strip or elastomeric compression gaskets can be incorporated at the time of casting. Grout/Lifting socket Figure 6 – Segment orientation for curved and straight alignments Special rings The rings currently available have a taper across one axis. Rings in same orientation for curved alignment Rings in same orientation for curved alignment Rings in same orientation for curved alignment straight alignment Rings rotated at 120o for straight alignment Rings rotated at 120° for 6 Tunnel and shaft solutions . Segments are supplied to the erector in a predetermined sequence dependant upon the alignment required.Innovative features Caulking grooves and sealing grooves Right: Attaching a grout plug to a grout/ lifting socket All segments are cast with caulking grooves on the circumferential and longitudinal sides. The ring orientation is altered by erecting segments in a different order (refer to Figure 6). The socket is used to inject grout to permanently secure the rings. Circumferential packings made from 3 mm bituminous felt or 3 mm or 6 mm timber can also be supplied if required. Figure 5 – Grout socket assembly Threaded grout plug Sealing washer Non-return valve Packings Bituminous felt packing of 3 mm nominal thickness should be used on all longitudinal joints and can be supplied if required. Tunnel construction methods The rings consist of three different segment types.
The shaft system suits a variety of soil conditions.Segmental and one piece shafts Applications Humes’ precast concrete shafts are an economical and safe solution for permanent and temporary underground structures. Tunnel and shaft solutions 7 Tunnel and shaft solutions . They are ideal for a variety of applications including: • ventilation shafts • escape shafts • launch and receival shafts for pipe jacking applications • storage overflow and pump stations (sewerage) • water harvesting and reuse. Humes offer segmental shafts in partnership with Buchan Concrete Solutions Limited (UK). and provides a soil and watertight solution.
• Suited to a variety of soil conditions. we now offer the following Safer work environment Humes’ precast shafts enable contractors to provide a safer environment for their workers: • The majority of work can be carried out above ground (caisson method). • Shaft installation does not require the use of water or wet concrete (except for the base and collar). so no further concrete work is required to finish the structure. Humes’ precast shafts also help to reduce the environmental impact of construction. • The precast concrete segments provide a one-pass finished shaft. Product range Humes is proud to announce the expansion of our range of precast concrete shafts. as the precast units are relatively compact at less than 2.5 m segmental shaft • 9 m segmental shaft • 10. cost benefits. • No bracing is required due to its structurally efficient circular shape. eliminating the need for specialist trades. The shaft gains structural stability from the surrounding soil so tie-backs or ring-beams are not required to support the segments. • There is no requirement for specialist labour and a small team should be capable of managing the entire installation process. • A unique external fixing is used to join the segments. • Extensive diameter range with full range of ancillary products. sizes in one piece and segmental shafts: • 2. please contact Minimal environmental impact An efficient design means shafts have minimal impact on project sites and the surrounding environment: • Noise and ground vibration are virtually eliminated as no hammering is required.4 m one piece shaft • 3 m one piece shaft • 3.5 m wide.5 m segmental shaft • 6 m segmental shaft • 7. like welders.5 m segmental shaft • 15 m segmental shaft • Sizes up to 25 m are also available.5 m segmental shaft • 12. Cost savings • Installation time is significantly reduced as excavation and ring placement can be on a continuous cycle. 8 Tunnel and shaft solutions .6 m one piece shaft • 4. • A soil and watertight solution. greater installation efficiencies.Features and benefits Precast shafts provide installation contractors with a number of significant benefits over traditional shaft construction methods. Innovative design • The shaft can be installed accurately due to the high degree of control over the rate and direction of installation. Humes for availability. and a safer work environment. • Overhead services hazards are minimised as no large cranes are required. on site. • The system has a built-in safety barrier created by the installation of the top ring. • The excavation and site storage areas are minimal.
• All caisson units are provided with grout sockets This allows the exterior annulus to be filled with a cementitious grout at completion of the installation. • The bottom/choker ring is wider than the standard ring and the same diameter as the excavation The choker ring is designed to provide a seal diameter between the shaft and excavated ground so that the fluid in the annulus above the ring is retained. Refer to combination method on page 11. underpin method and the last method is a combination of the two. The design of caisson and underpin shafts requires specialist skills and should be executed by a designer experienced with these construction methods. • Hydraulic jacks (gallows) These are installed to both steer the shaft and to add to the vertical force in addition to the self weight of the shaft lining (generally not required for one piece rings). • A steel cutting edge underneath the bottom/choker ring The steel cutting edge literally cuts through the ground.Construction methods There are three techniques available to install a precast concrete segmental shaft. These are the caisson method. • Excavation should be slightly larger in diameter than the precast concrete shaft The annulus between the shaft and the excavated ground should be filled with suitable fluid (usually bentonite with additives as required to suit the ground conditions) which acts both as a lubricant but also supports the ground during installation. The choker segments are also designed to bolt the steel cutting edge to the shaft and connect the underpin segment. in larger diameter shafts. An additional function is that it acts as a stiffener. Tunnel and shaft solutions 9 Tunnel and shaft solutions . resist the force from the hydraulic jacks. or as a ‘dry caisson’ where the inside of the caisson is open to the atmosphere. There are a number of common features unique to Humes' caisson shaft systems which facilitate installation. the precast concrete elements are erected at the surface and are then lowered into the ground whilst excavation progresses. These are: • In-situ cast concrete collars These collars act as a guide ring to keep the caisson shaft vertical and. Top: Caisson method of shaft installation showing hydraulic jacks (gallows) Bottom: Bottom/choker ring with steel cutting edge Caisson method The caisson method is generally used in softer soils with or without the presence of ground water. In the caisson method. Caisson are either installed as a ‘wet caisson’ where the water level inside the caisson is slightly higher than the external ground water level.
If you wish to hire a frame. In this method. Segmental rings are built and the annulus between their outside perimeter and the excavated ground is immediately grouted. This reduces the risk of overloading the upper rings which could pull down the whole ring build. the precast concrete elements are progressively installed at the base of the excavation. • The underpin segments are designed to be installed using a specialised handling/lifting frame. The segment will be secured into the frame via the plastic grout socket assembly. install and grout one ring at a time.Underpin method Top: Underpin method of shaft installation Bottom: Segment lifting frame for underpin method The underpin method can be used in self supported soil where caisson installation is not possible. 10 Tunnel and shaft solutions . contact Humes for assistance. The recommended installation procedure is as follows: • Secure the first installed ring by casting a concrete collar around it prior to excavating underneath to construct the next ring. Shear connection may be required. due to lack of ground friction. • Always excavate. • Excavation of the next ring below can commence once the grout reaches it recommended strength.
Right: Combination method of shaft installation Figure 7 – Combination method details Caisson rings Tie rod Choker ring Underpin rings Double eye bolt Tunnel and shaft solutions 11 Tunnel and shaft solutions . Installation commences with the caisson method (using a special choker ring) and then shifts to the underpin method when the hard soil ground is reached. After grouting the exterior annulus. it may be possible to remove the cutting edge and then continue the shaft construction using the underpin method. A special choker/transition ring must be used to enable the shift to the underpin construction method. With some ground conditions it may be necessary or cost effective to stop the caisson at a certain depth. The choker/transition rings are wider than the standard caisson rings allowing the connection of underpin rings below this ring as required.Combination of the caisson and underpin methods A combination of both methods can be used if the soil condition varies.
access chambers for large diameter pipelines and jacking launch or receival shafts for small diameter microtunnelling.400 3.Typical ring configuration One piece shafts One piece caisson units are ideally suited for construction of sewage pump station wet wells. One piece shafts can be supplied in a range of diameters but standard sizes are as detailed in Table 2 below.060 3.0 Number of tie rod couplers 6 8 9 Note: * Dimensions are subject to change.460 4. Contact Humes for confirmation.2 6.000 3.374 3.000 1. Figure 8 – One piece shaft used in a pump station application Detail – Panelled ring with recesses Vertical tie rod Cutting edge 12 Tunnel and shaft solutions .000 Mass of standard units (tonnes) 4.000 1.600 External diameter (mm) 2.000 Height of standard units (mm)* 1.3 5. Table 2 – Standard one piece caisson units* Nominal diameter (DN) 2.782 3.600 Internal diameter (mm) 2.
installed to prevent flotation. The joint and connection details for the standard rings are included with these cover slabs. Either single or multiple panelled rings are particularly effective for wet caissons where the connection plug will be cast prior to de-watering. Left: One piece shaft Right: Cover slab Tunnel and shaft solutions 13 Tunnel and shaft solutions . In addition. For permanent installations. Special units Special units include the following: • Panelled rings which include recesses. • Soft eye rings are applied to small diameter (DN600 or less) microtunnelling applications. it is recommended that approximately half of these rods and couplers be replaced with stainless steel so that the hydrophilic seal is confined during the life of the structure. • Rings with corrosion protection linings (either High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or Plastiline® . units come complete with a groove on the inside face which allows caulking of the internal surface. are designed to provide a shear connection between the precast concrete shaft and an in-situ cast concrete plug. a single butyl mastic seal is likely to be sufficient. • Cover slabs incorporating openings and/or lids as required. Horizontal joints between one piece caisson rings are connected with vertical tie rods that are mainly provided for temporary loads during installation. These rods are normally made from galvanised steel.Joint and connection details Horizontal joints between one piece caisson units are sealed with both a hydrophilic rubber seal near the external surface and a butyl mastic rubber seal near the internal surface.Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)) for added corrosion resistance. Rings can be provided with either reduced or no steel reinforcement at pipe penetrations. For temporary installations.
36 10.270 1.00 1.340 1.45 7. A ring consists of a series of ordinary segments which have four edges that are perpendicular to each other and two tapered segments (left and right) which have one tapered end which allows for closing of the ring by simply lowering the last (tapered right) segment into position.50 11.37 17.500 Note: Diameters up to 25 m are also available.95 9.00 13.50 9. the segmental shaft system comes into its own so that shafts of almost any diameter can be constructed.50 6.050 2.00 7.00 1.200 1.050 1.00 External diameter (m) 4.00 1.90 6.50 15.80 25.820 2.15 15.00 1.78 13.00 1.Segmental shafts Where shaft diameters exceed the size of the one piece ring '3.50 12.00 1.00 Ordinary 5 7 8 12 12 14 16 Tapered 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mass per ring (tonnes) 7.40 32. Figure 9 – Installing tapered segments to close the ring Tapered left segment Tapered right segment Ordinary segment Table 3 – Standard segmental shaft details Internal diameter (m) 4.80 44. 14 Tunnel and shaft solutions .00 10. Number of segments per ring varies depending on the shaft diameter (refer to Table 3 below). contact Humes for availability.60 m ID'.50 Mass per segment (kg) 1.75 Segments per ring Height (m) 1.
Joint and connection details A unique external fixing is used to join the smooth segmental shaft. the rings come together to form a shaft. Top: Curved bolt fitting caisson installation Bottom: Curved bolt fitting . Subsequently. The strong connection bolts together the segments to form a ring.underpin installation Figure 10 – Curved bolts used for cross joints Tunnel and shaft solutions 15 Tunnel and shaft solutions . flexibility and speed of erection whilst providing the client with a safer shaft construction system. The system retains all the benefits of strength. • Cross joints Segments are connected across this joint using curved bolts (refer to Figure 10 below) which are installed from the outside for caisson installation and from the inside for underpin installation (see photos).
underpin installation 16 Tunnel and shaft solutions . Once segmental shafts have been grouted into position the bolts are redundant. Underpin segmental rings are connected using a double eye bolt arrangement that allows the joint to be tightened from inside the shaft (refer to Figure 13 below).• Circle joints Caisson segmental rings are connected using vertical tie rods that extend through the full length of the segments (refer to Figure 11 and 12). Figure 11 – Jointing details (caisson segment) Conduit for tie rod Grout socket assembly Curved bolt hole recess Figure 12 – Tie rod connection used for caisson installations Tie rods Hexagonal couplers Washer Gel grommets Tie rods Figure 13 – Double eye bolt used for underpin installations Top: Tie rod Bottom: Adjusting the double eye bolt . All bolts used with segmental shaft construction are made from galvanised steel and are only necessary to support the shaft during the installation.
It is recommended that complete panelled ring(s) are installed. It is possible to provide rings with some segments manufactured using fibre reinforcement located at pipes penetrations for microtunnelling applications. The assembly is used to introduce bentonite slurry between the caisson ring and the soil. each segment is cast with caulking grooves on the internal circumferential and longitudinal sides to meet the specific requirements of the sealing system. • Packing Bituminous felt packing of 3 mm nominal thickness is used on all longitudinal joints. • Watertightness All shaft segments are supplied with Ethylene Propylene Diene Manomer (EPDM) gaskets fitted into purpose designed grooves cast around the full circumference of each segment. The same socket is used to inject grout to permanently secure the rings. • Soft eye rings Standard segments are reinforced with steel reinforcing bars.Special units Special rings and/or segments can also be supplied in addition to the standard segmental shaft caisson rings: • Panelled rings Recesses can be included in both standard rings and choker rings as required. Detail Non-return valve Grout/Lifting socket Tunnel and shaft solutions 17 Tunnel and shaft solutions . For the caisson method. Figure 14 – Grout socket assembly Threaded grout plug Sealing washer Top: Panelled ring Bottom: Segment packing and detail of stacking spacer Innovative features • Grout socket assembly Each segment and ring is fitted with a plastic grout socket assembly which includes a non-return valve. As with the one piece caisson rings these are intended to provide a shear connection between an in-situ cast plug or base slab and the segmental shaft. The packing is designed to prevent direct contact between concrete surfaces as a result from compressed forces imposed by the surrounding soil. In addition. a complete ring of fibre reinforced segments is not recommended. Refer to Figures 15 and 16 on the following page. For underpin installations the socket is also used to secure the segment into the underpin lifting frame (refer to page 10). to lubricate and reduce friction force while jacking rings into the ground.
tel: +31 180 495 555.V.V. fax: +31 180 433 080 Detail 10.25 Gap 10 mm offset 26 30 Right: Ethylene Propylene Diene Manomer gasket placement and detail 18 Tunnel and shaft solutions 6.5 7 7 8 8 10.5 . fax: +31 180 433 080 Pressure (bar) Pressure (bar) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Gap (mm) Gap 6 6 6.25 9 9 10 10 10/05 Trelleborg Bakker B. tel: +31 180 495 555.30 Load-deflection graph Figure 15 – Load deflection graph 60 55 50 45 Load (kN/m) Load (kN/m) 40 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 35 TUNNEL SEGMENT GASKET TYPE JS1 GAP 26 10 mm offset 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 30 7 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 Deflection (mm) Deflection(mm) Water Figure 16 – Watertightness graph tightness graph 10/05 12 11 10 9 8 7 Trelleborg Bakker B.5 7.5 7.5 6.5 6.
the combination of backfill and overfill protects the arch element . • Grades and curved tunnels can be achieved using the same type arch profile. staggering. • A unique jointing system without any overlapping. • Arches can be installed with minimum disruption to conveyor operation. does not require scaffolding or support of backfill. They are designed to suit coal and other mineral stockpiles up to 45 metres. • Fewer units are required for installation as most arch units are 1. Features and benefits • Designed to meet the mine’s designated design life and can exceed 100 years. A wide range of 3-pin arches have been used for reclaim tunnels in mining applications. • Easy to clean and maintain as conveyor belts can be attached to the internal soffit of the arch allowing sufficient clearance for service vehicles to pass beneath. bolting or cast in-situ joints. The 3-pin arch is a soil-structure interaction system where the backfill of the specified zone contributes to the load carrying capacity of the arch and becomes part of the structure. Applications • Reclaim tunnels • Conveyor tunnels • Escape tunnels • Underpasses Tunnel and shaft solutions 19 Tunnel and shaft solutions . Its optimised geometry and the unique pinned joint allows it to bear and pass heavy load to the foundation.it has no exposed metal nor bolting system. • Self supported during installation.8 m to 2.5 m wide. • Delivered in segments to suit light cranes. escape accesses and intake valves can be easily accommodated. A large range of custom designed 3-pin arches have been developed which are ideal for a variety of complex heavy loading criteria and internal envelopes. • Require minimal maintenance since: . • Openings for ventilation.3-pin precast arches Humes' precast arch system is a high performance and cost effective tunnel solution.
000 4. They are designed to accommodate the defined envelope.000 3.000 1.000 2.000 6.000 3.000 0 8.000 5. an example of this is shown in Figure 18 below. We will conduct both linear and non-linear 3D analysis to define structure suitability.000 5.000 4.000 7.000 8.000 10.000 2. where the function of the tunnel and loads are applied.000 8.000 6.000 7.000 1.000 9.000 5.000 4. Figure 17 – 3-pin arch profiles 11.000 1.Product range Humes 3-pin arches are custom-made to suit specific project requirements.000 0 Figure 18 – 3D design analysis 20 Tunnel and shaft solutions . Humes in-house design team can assist in choosing the most economical 3-pin arch profile (some standard profiles are shown in Figure 17 below).000 2.000 3.000 6.000 7.
Arch system components A range of precast concrete products are usually provided as part of the arch structure along with a selection of retaining wall structures including: • precast concrete feeder chambers to fit intake valves • spandrel walls which run parallel to the arch. retaining the backfill at each end of the tunnel. Top: Arch system with spandrel wall and wing walls Middle: Spandrel wall Bottom: Wing walls Tunnel and shaft solutions 21 Tunnel and shaft solutions . They are designed to match the arch profile. • wing walls which are placed at each end of the spandrel wall to retain the backfill and support the spandrel walls.
A complete precast base and crown unit can be supplied for fast and easy installation. • Blast doors can be fitted into units as required. • Conveyor belts are easily attached to the internal surface of the crown. This will minimise the need for cast in-situ concrete. no backfilling or jointing of units is required for structure stability. prestressed units and post-tensioning are also available. 22 Tunnel and shaft solutions . For additional strength. especially for remote mining sites. • Custom made to suit project specific envelopes. Box culverts can also be jacked underneath railways and roads or slid into a pre-excavated tunnel.Box culverts Top and bottom: Construction of a box culvert mine portal Opposite page: Jacking pipe Humes manufactures extra large span box culverts with spans and leg heights up to 6 metres. • Can be installed to meet site grade condition. • Designed to take heavy mining vehicle loads. • Easy to install. Applications • Portal entries .provide safe ingress and egress for mine and construction sites • Conveyer tunnels • Escape tunnels • Railways and roads • Drainage for haul roads Features and benefits • Designed to withstand explosion loads and impact from rock that may fall from a cut face.
STEINZEUG KERAMO vitrified clay jacking pipes are manufactured and inspected in accordance with European Standard EN 295. Steel reinforced concrete pipe from DN300 to DN3600 and vitrified clay pipe from DN150 to DN1200. sewage. The jacking technique (microtunnelling) Pipe jacking is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to thrust specially made pipes through the ground behind a shield machine. closed faced microtunnelling systems. Our jacking pipes are available in the following ranges. Reinforced concrete pressure pipes are designed for the combined effects of the external load and internal (in service) pressure. The term microtunnelling is also often used to describe this method of pipe installation. classes and joint types to suit various applications and installation methods. and electricity and communication cables) • pipe replacement and relining Tunnel and shaft solutions 23 Tunnel and shaft solutions . We provide a comprehensive range of both steel reinforced concrete and vitrified clay jacking pipes. from launch shaft to receival shaft. They are available in a variety of sizes. Pipe jacking is used to install conduits below ground for a variety of applications including: • sewerage pipelines • stormwater pipelines • road and rail culverts • pressure pipelines • as a sleeve pipe for other utility pipelines (water.Jacking pipes Humes leads the industry and develops world class jacking pipes ideally suited for use with modern. Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4058:2007 Precast Concrete Pipes (Pressures and Non-Pressure) gives a minimum requirement for factory test pressure of 120% of working pressure in the pipeline.
• Smooth internal finish giving good flow characteristics. • Less risk of settlement. Economic • Less affected by weather condition • Less risk of settlement • Minimal surface disruption • Minimal reinstatement • Reduced requirement for utilities diversions in urban areas Environmental There are substantial environmental benefits to be gained by the use of pipe jacking techniques when compared with the traditional open trench approach: Safety Pipe jacking is an inherently safer method than open trench construction or when considering the risks associated with deep. opportunities for accidents to occur are less with pipe jacking. • Provision of invert channels in larger pipes to contain the dry weather flow of a sewer in a combined system. • Minimal surface disruption and reinstatement. • Noise. • Considerably less joints than a segmental tunnel. Source: An introduction to pipe jacking and microtunelling design – Pipe Jacking Association UK Figure 19 – Typical pipe jacking set up Detail – Intermediate jacking station Rubber rings Timber joint packer Lead pipe (steel can) Trail pipe Jacking direction Jacks Crane to lower pipes into position Standard pipe Lubrication port Thrust ring Standard pipe Jacking direction Working face with jacking shield Launch shaft with hydraulic jacks Intermediate jacking station to assist longer drives Receival shaft 24 Tunnel and shaft solutions . • Typically the trenchless method will reduce the quantities of incoming and outgoing materials. • Prevention of ground water ingress by use of pipes with sealed flexible joints. This in turn leads to reduced vehicle movements and subsequently less associated disruption. dirt and smell are minimised. • There is significant reduction in the risk of injury as a result of utility strikes and interface with the public. with a consequent reduction in tipping of spoil and quarrying of imported stone fill. trenchless operation will not interfere with pedestrian and motor traffic movements. large section. • In busy urban centres. • Trenchless will not harm existing vegetation. open excavations: • Major reduction in man-hours. • No requirement for secondary lining.Benefits of pipe jacking Technical • Inherent strength of lining.
particularly as high compressive strength is related to this criterion. • Low water absorption. The machines ensure that the reinforcement cages are dimensionally correct and have tight enginereed tolerances.35.html Tunnel and shaft solutions 25 Tunnel and shaft solutions . lengths and strengths available. Aggregates are a key element in producing quality concrete and in turn. SEQ (refer to our case study on this project for further details). Durable Humes SRCP has a number of concrete properties that influence long service life. The strength of the pipe is a result of the materials used in the concrete mix. The steel reinforcement is shaped into cages by automatic cage welding machines. AS/NZS 4058-2007 specifies a maximum allowable absorption of 6% for all concrete pipes. The inherent strength of concrete pipe can compensate for site problems not designed for. Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia.Steel reinforced concrete pipes (SRCP) Humes is Australia’s leading manufacturer of SRCP. • A low water/cement (W/C) ratio of below 0. sewage. We have a wide range of diameters. due to the density and impermeability of the concrete used and manufacturing process. The Benefits of reinforced concrete jacking pipes Optimal strength Humes SRCP are manufactured and factory tested for quality to AS/NZS 4058:2007 "Precast concrete pipes (Pressure and Non-pressure)": • A concrete pipe is a rigid pipe system that relies mostly on the strength of the pipe and is only slightly dependent on the strength derived from the soil envelope. both coarse and fine. • All concrete pipe strengths are standardised by AS/NZS 4058 “Precast Concrete Pipes”. and maintain their shape by not deflecting. W/C ratio is considered a trademark for durable concrete pipe.030 m without any intermediate shafts on the Northern Pipeline Interconnector – Stage 2.asn. www. quality pipe. such as construction shortcomings and higher fill heights and trench depths. the mix design. Concrete pipes are strength-tested by the manufacturer to proof loads. A milestone was achieved when Humes' DN2100. • Steel reinforcement in concrete pipes adds significantly to their inherent strength. manufacturing techniques and the curing process. Our SRCP has a proven track record and can be custom designed for applications such as drainage. • Concrete pipes are less susceptible to damage during construction.au/concrete-pipe-facts. material properties as well as the manufacturing and curing process. These properties are: • Ultimate compressive strength: Humes SRCP compressive strength is usually in the range of up to 60 MPa and above.cpaa. fixed steel collar pipes were jacked 1. water supply and irrigation. below 4%. • Concrete pipe aggregates. as nominated by the standard for particular diameter and class. Source: Concrete Pipe Facts. meet the requirements of AS 2758. or test loads. • High alkalinity is controlled by cementitious content maintained by a proper mix design.
deflected joints with external hydrostatic pressures up to 400 kPa without visible leaks.Fixed steel collar pipes A wide robust range is available from DN300 to DN3000 inclusive. limiting the ingress of soil into the joint during jacking. sewerage. a secure steel collar cast onto the pipe and a flexible watertight joint. Both steel collars include a water stop hydro-seal to prevent ingress of water between the band and the concrete pipe wall. Applications The fixed steel collar jacking pipes provides high axial load transfer capacity and a flexible watertight joint. Both unique designs will ensure that the elastomeric seal remains in place in compression even if joint deflection occurs. fixed steel collar jacking pipes are rated for 250 kPa external pressure for the joint deflections shown in Figures 22 and 23 on page 29. sleeve pipe and jacked low pressure pipeline applications. While. Figure 20 – S type joint profile Figure 21 – J type joint profile 26 Tunnel and shaft solutions . This is the ideal jacking pipe for all stormwater. The joint integrity remains intact when subjected to either internal or external hydraulic pressure. A muck ring is fitted within the J type joint. The muck ring will be compressed by the end of the steel collar. which are cast into the pipe wall in locations to meet the project specific requirements for grout and/ or lubrication injection. Humes can design pipes for higher external pressure ratings if required. The steel collar bands are fabricated to high tolerances to ensure optimum joint performance. Bentonite or grout injection fittings Pipes can be supplied with or without threaded sockets and plugs. All these being essential for longer pipe jacks and unstable ground conditions. On this basis. factory secured internally to the steel socket band with adhesive. They are a custom designed reinforced concrete jacking pipe incorporating a single wide jacking face including timber packers. Elastomeric seal The elastomeric seal is located with the corrugated steel collar in the S type collar band. Watertight joint – (External pressure testing) Steel collar types Humes have undertaken external pressure testing of Humes offer two different types of fixed steel collars: the S type which is fitted into pipes up to DN700 and the J type fitted into remaining sizes (mainly from DN800 to DN3000). in the J type the seal is retained within the accurately formed recess on the pipe spigot.
Secure system Steel collar will remain watertight and secured in place during jacking. applied internally after installation. These linings are a proven method of concrete protection against H2S attack in trunk sewers. Watertight joint Lubrication fluids are retained in the excavated annulus without loss of fluid or pressure. Maintain watertight joint After installation the muck ring protects the rubber ring and the steel collar to maintain watertightness. Table 4 – Features and benefits Features Elastomeric seal Benefit to asset owner Watertight joint Prevents ingress or egress of water and soil surrounding the pipes and allows pressure grouting of the excavated annulus at the completion of jacking (if required). Permanent seal location The seal remains in place throughout the design life of the pipeline providing a long-term watertight structure under external groundwater pressures or ground movement. Intermediate jacking stations Humes have standard designs for intermediate jacking stations and these include trail and lead pipes for all Secondary sealing recess All J type steel collar jacking pipes are supplied with a recess on the internal pipe ends which allows for locating a flexible sealant. Generally. lower construction costs and less disturbance to above-ground activities. Benefit to contractor Flexibility Allows joint rotation without damage to the pipe joint. Tunnel and shaft solutions 27 Tunnel and shaft solutions . Long drives The wide face on the pipe end enables transfer of high jacking forces through the centerline of the pipe wall enabling accurate steering and long drives. even in variable ground conditions. Collar material The designer has many options for the grade of steel to suit the intended design life in the installed environment of the pipe. Steel collar fixed to pipe with in-built water stop Corrugated collar recess (S type) Deep spigot groove (J type) Single wide jacking face Muck ring (J type) Internal joint recess No spalling Prevents spalling of inside concrete face if the packer is displaced during jacking. The arrangement of these pipes at the intermediate jacking station is shown in Figure 19 on page 24. Maintain watertight joint Prevents ingress of soil into joint during jacking. mild steel is considered suitable for in-ground conditions and a non-aggressive environment.Inert thermoplastic linings Humes are able to supply the J type steel collar jacking pipes complete with corrosion protection linings (either High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or Plastiline®. diameters DN1000 to DN2000. The combination of mild steel collars with internal joint gap sealant can provide a cost effective solution in certain ground conditions. if required by the project designer for isolation of the joint from the pipeline environment (see Figure 21 on page 26). Restrained seal Ensures that the seal remains in place during jointing and jacking with external pressure from groundwater or lubrication injection.Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)) in accordance with Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) standard specification WSA113. Additional sealing options The recess is shaped to allow retention of a flexible sealant if secondary joint sealing is required. Efficient construction Long drives. Efficient jointing Rapid pipe jointing ensures operational efficiency in the jacking pit.
Steel reinforced concrete jacking pipes are capable of withstanding higher jacking loads. both with S and J type collar. Ensure that jacking forces are maintained within the limits specified in Figures 22 and 23 on the following page. level have to be recorded at regular intervals of jacking distance (not exceeding 200 mm or every 90 seconds).Optimal strength Humes fixed collar jacking pipes. which combined with the strength and durability of Humes concrete pipes. Jacking Design Guidelines is a recommended guide to calculate and define jacking forces. Pipes with higher jacking loads and/or joint deflections can be designed for specific projects. provides an excellent jacking pipe.html Jacking forces and lateral displacement off line and The jacking load capacity of standard pipes for a range of joint deflections is illustrated in Figures 22 and 23 on the following page.asn.au/CPAA-Online-Shop. hold the jacking operation and contact Humes for assistance.cpaa. 28 Tunnel and shaft solutions . www. If circumstances cause a jacking force/deflection combination outside of these limits. are designed with steel reinforcement placed for optimal strength. The guide can be downloaded by visiting. Jacking design and forces The Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia (CPAA) publication.
Figure 22 – S type jacking pipes deflection curves 300 250 Maximum jacking force (tonnes) 200 150 100 50 0 0.10 1.20 0.90 1.20 0.30 0.500 2250 2.20 1.90 1.101.30 0.50 0.250 2000 2.70 0.250 1000 1.70 0.30 Maximum joint deflection (degrees) DN300 DN350 DN400 DN450 DN500 DN600 DN700 Figure 23 – J type jacking pipes deflection curves J Series Jacking Pipes 2500 2.20 DN800 DN2700 DN900 DN3000 DN1000 DN1100 DN1800 DN2100 DN2400 DN2500 DN800 DN1650 DN900 DN1800 DN1000 DN2100 DN1100 DN2400 DN1200 DN2500 DN1350 DN2700 DN1500 DN3000 Tunnel and shaft solutions 29 Tunnel and shaft solutions .80 Maximum Joint De deflection (degrees) ection (Degrees) Maximum joint DN1200 DN1350 DN1500 DN1650 0.50 0.000 Maximum jacking force (tonnes) Maximum Jacking Force (Tonnes) 1750 1.50 0.70 0.90 0.10 0.30 0.60 0.40 0.80 0.10 0.10 1.000 750 750 500 500 250 250 0 0 0.00 1.00 1.40 0.00 1.40 0.80 0.10 0.60 0.20 1.750 1500 1.500 1250 1.60 0.20 0.
500 1.320 2.096 3.985 2.650 16.360 2.800 2.977 3.940 1.209 1.100 1. mass.100 2.150 19.800 2.636 2.450 1.440 1.759 2.100 1.500 2.400 2.985 2.5 2 2 Pipe mass (kg) 500 550 660 725 1.200 1.321 1.800 1.360 2.320 2.320 2.360 2.000 3.150 2.439 1.972 1.000 1.020 925 1.485 2.099 1.000 4.700 12.650 1.400 2.000 1.700 500 500 515 565 650 755 840 1.800 7.300 4. jacking load (tonnes) 100 115 135 165 225 240 280 Collar type S S S S S S S 800 900 1.050 12.350 1.974 2.350 1.5 1.220 J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J 30 Tunnel and shaft solutions .5 1.600 1.985 2.360 2.911 1.380 Max.100 2.190 1.360 2.000 1.650 1.000 1.500 2.110 1.5 1.700 6.332 1. joint packer 'Pt/Pw' (mm) 3/40 3/40 3/40 3/40 3/40 6/60 6/60 Steel collar Length 'C' (mm) 50 50 50 50 50 80 80 ID 'D' (mm) 412 462 522 588 654 752 854 Thickness 't' (mm) 1.500 1.481 2.500 5.900 2.985 12/65 12/70 12/75 12/80 12/90 16/90 16/100 16/110 16/110 16/125 16/160 16/175 16/195 16/175 16/195 120 120 120 120 120 160 160 160 160 160 160 175 175 175 175 989 1.600 1.400 2.400 2.950 16.400 2.100 2.000 1.472 100 105 110 116 125 138 150 170 162 175 200 204 250 230 250 2.985 2.626 1.000 800 900 1.700 3.611 1.500 2.320 2.400 Min.800 2. jacking loads and deflections Swiftlift® anchors T C t Pw Pt Detail D A B L Nominal diameter 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 Internal diameter 'A' (mm) 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 External diameter 'B' (mm) 430 480 540 606 672 774 876 Wall thickness 'T' (mm) 65 65 70 78 86 87 88 Effective length 'L' (mm) 2.785 1.985 2.200 1.400 2.959 2.135 2.374 2.073 3.449 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 8 6 6 8 10 10 10 10 1.800 3.5 1.050 1.783 3.400 2.220 1.400 2.Table 5 – Fixed steel collar pipes dimensions.
which provides a summary of capabilities for each of the different types of jacking pipes for different requirements and applications. The collars can be supplied by either Humes or the contractor. • Applications Butt joint jacking pipes can provide a cost effective solution for typically short length applications where only limited flexibility is required and a soil or watertight joint is not required. Figure 24 – Butt joint profile Steel collar Figure 25 – In-wall joint profile Steel collar Tunnel and shaft solutions 31 Tunnel and shaft solutions . butt joint and in-wall joint. providing the necessary shear connection (see Figure 24). This pipe is also suited to sleeve pipe applications for road and rail crossings where the annulus between the utility pipeline and conduit is to be filled with grout after installation. The steel collar is not attached to the pipe (cast with) but rather is fitted onto the pipe before installation. In-wall joint jacking pipes incorporate a concrete socket formed in the wall of the pipe. • Applications In-wall joint jacking pipes are an economical viable alternative for typically short length applications where a flexible watertight joint is required. A J type pipe should be specified in these situations. however. They are available from DN300 to DN3000 (standard range DN300 to DN2100). External recesses at each end of the pipe allow for a rolled steel collar to be located between adjacent pipes. a rubber ring located on the pipe spigot and timber packers on one or both joint faces (see Figure 25). this type of joint can have limitations in jacking load transfer.Loose steel collar pipes Humes offer two types of loose steel collar SRCP jacking pipes. In-wall joint pipes In-wall joint jacking pipes are available from DN1200 to DN3600 (standard range DN1200 to DN2100). Refer to Table 7 – Selection of jacking pipes (page 33). Butt joint pipes Butt joint jacking pipes incorporate a single wide jacking face.
194 1.676 1.Table 6 – Loose steel collar pipe range In-wall joint Nominal diameter Internal diameter External diameter mm DN300 DN375 DN475 DN525 DN600 DN675 DN750 DN825 DN900 DN975 DN1050 DN1200 DN1350 DN1500 DN1650 DN1800 DN1950 DN2100 1.388 Butt joint Internal diameter External diameter Notes: 1.163 1.920 2.500 280 363 438 518 586 653 730 790 875 951 1.452 1.198 2.096 362 445 534 616 698 781 864 946 1029 1. providing a shear connection between adjacent pipes and joint flexibility that allows for each pipe to follow the path excavated in front of the shield.200 1. transferring axial load.026 1.006 2. Table 7 opposite provides a summary of the capabilities of each of our types of jacking pipes for different requirements and applications. Jacking pipes must meet both the needs of the contractor and asset owner who is usually represented by the pipeline designer.388 1. In addition.596 1.524 1.088 2.842 2. jacking pipes may need to prevent ingress of surrounding soil.111 1. contact Humes for assistance. 3. 32 Tunnel and shaft solutions .220 2.324 1. Contact Humes for in-wall joint pipes in this range. Alternative internal diameters (and external diameters) may be available to suit project specific requirements. lubricants or grouts and provide a joint capable of withstanding internal pressure in sewerage or pressure pipeline applications. Selection of jacking pipes The most basic requirements for all jacking pipes is that they must be capable of supporting the excavation (earth and traffic loads). groundwater.756 1. Standard range is equivalent to load class 4 pipes.359 1.930 2. 2.
Tunnel and shaft solutions 33 Tunnel and shaft solutions . the annulus between the external diameter of the pipe and the excavated soil needs to be filled. Some pipe jacking contractors may be able to achieve longer lengths of individual drives in certain soil conditions. † Grout pressures need to be carefully monitored. ** Lack of joint flexibility largely controls maximum length. External pressures due to lubrication or grouting can be well in excess of ground water pressures. # The butt joint jacking pipe is suitable for short length drives in certain soil conditions if the annulus between the concrete sleeve pipe and the product pipe is grouted. ‡‡ The maximum length will be controlled by installation equipment rather than pipe capability.Table 7 – Selection of jacking pipes Jacking pipe requirements or application Standard size class Extended diameter range* Incorporation of inert thermoplastic lining External grouting Internal pressure test capability (kPa)‡ Application of internal secondary sealants Sewerage pipelines Stormwater pipelines Road and rail culverts Sleeve pipe applications Asset owners and contractors Length of jacked pipeline (m) External pressure test capability§§ Jacking force transfer Intermediate jacking stations pipes Contractors Open face shields Closed face pressure shields Lubrication along length of pipeline Fixed steel collar S type DN300 – DN700 DN800 N/A Suitable for short lengths 90 N/A J type DN800 – DN3000 Up to DN3600 Available Ideally suited 150§ Suitable Loose steel collar Butt joint DN300 – D2100 DN2250 – DN3000 DN900 > Not suitable N/A Not suitable In-wall joint DN1200 – DN2100 DN2250 – DN3600 Available Limited suitability† 90 Limited suitability Stakeholder Asset owner Limited suitability|| Ideally suited Ideally suited Ideally suited 0 – 50†† Ideally suited Ideally suited Ideally suited Ideally suited < DN1000: 0 – 150 DN1000 – DN3000: no limit‡‡ 250 Excellent Available DN900 – DN3000 Suitable Ideally suited Ideally suited Not suitable Limited suitability Limited suitability Limited suitability# 0 – 50** Suitable Suitable Suitable Suitable 0 – 50 90 Excellent N/A Suitable Ideally suited N/A N/A Good To be provided by contractor Suitable Not suitable Not suitable|||| 90 Moderate To be provided by contractor Suitable Limited suitability Limited suitability Notes: * Refer to Humes for availability. ‡ Test to AS/NZS 4058: 2007. This could be extended in certain soil conditions. Refer to jacking pipe contractor for advice for longer drives. |||| For lubrication to be effective. § Higher pressures are possible with certain diameters – refer to Humes for advice if higher pressures are required. †† Intermediate jacking stations are not available and length is mainly limited by installation equipment. This grout should also flow into the annulus between the sleeve pipe and the excavated ground. || If corrosive sewage gases are expected consider using vitrified clay jacking pipes distributed by Humes. §§ There is no published test method for external joint testing of reinforced concrete pipes. The butt joint pipe may not provide an effective sealed joint.
concrete strength. The higher value is recommended when the annulus between the pipe and ground is grouted. The guide can be downloaded by visiting. The allowable jacking forces and associated maximum joint deflections are calculated in accordance with the Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia (CPAA) publication. Source: Jacking Design Guidelines. Jacking Design Guidelines.au/CPAA-Online-Shop. are subjected to both jacking forces. lowering of ground water tables and. Ensure that jacking forces are maintained within the specified limits. therefore. The jacking installation results in a recommended bedding factor between two and three that is used to determine the minimum suitable pipe class required due to permanent loads. The CPAA publication. Where the calculation includes the effects of arching due to soil cohesion extensive soil investigations should be carried out to determine the appropriate design soil properties. in aggressive soil conditions. Jacking Design Guidelines. than that of the barrel and the jacking force is transferred eccentrically across the joint.Load class Jacking pipes.html Jacking design and forces 34 Tunnel and shaft solutions . an increased risk of corrosion of pipe materials. the outside diameter of the pipe plus a margin for over-excavation). Jacking force and lateral displacement off line and level have to be recorded at regular intervals of jacking distance (not exceeding 200 mm or every 90 seconds). The jacking method of installation. AS/NZS 4058: 2007 outlines the technique for determining the permanent vertical loads acting on pipes installed using pipe jacking. If circumstances cause a jacking force/ deflection combination outside of these limits. properties of the timber packers and the deflections that can be expected at pipe joints during installation. as opposed to pipes laid in open excavations. The joint. as a rule. As such a minimum Class 4 pipe is usually recommended although in some short length drives a Class 3 may be suitable. The external earth load on the barrel is equal to or smaller than the trench load on a pipe bedded in a trench of same width as the excavation (i.e. must be considered because the joint cross-section is smaller. is very efficient from an external load point of view since the external earth load is smaller than both trench and embankment load on pipes of the same diameter under the same height of fill. hold the jacking operation and contact Humes for assistance. is a recommended guide to calculate and define jacking forces.cpaa. The Class 4 pipe to Australian Standard AS/NZS 4058: 2007 has very similar strength requirements to load classes specified for jacking pipes in European and Japanese Standards. external earth loads and life loads (permanent loads) and all of these have to be considered when specifying the pipes. The jacking pipe is installed underground into undisturbed natural ground where the soil’s natural cohesion contributes to arching over the pipe. The effect of the jacking force on the pipe barrel is small on account of the high compressive strength of the concrete. The axial load capacity of the concrete pipe is determined based on the minimum pipe wall thickness. The axial loading from the pipe jacking is not directly included in the selection of the pipe load class. www. Grouting of this annulus with a suitable cementitious grout is recommended in most installations as any voids could create a drainage path external to the pipeline which in turn could lead to soil erosion.asn. however. Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia. Timber packers are placed between the jacking faces of the concrete pipes to avoid high stresses that could result from direct concrete to concrete contact.
That is higher than the values stated for other types of current jacking material. Watertightness is also tested at an external pressure of 6 bar. ZPWN 295 is an internal manufacturer standard of STEINZEUG-KERAMO. Abrasion values encountered in the tests are approximately 0. in contrast to what is often suggested in data sheets for competitive materials. with guaranteed watertightness at 2. including the angular deflections and radial loads specified in the standard. in conformance with EN 295 and ZPWN 295.0. STEINZEUG-KERAMO guarantees a value of at least 100 N/mm². which provides a high level of security against penetration of soil slurries and bentonite. including sulphuric acid at pH 0 and NaOH at pH 14. The resistance of the vitrified clay material and seals is tested using chemicals. which means that they are guaranteed to be watertight at 0. The depth of abrasion remains limited to 0. Abrasion does not accelerate even with extended load cycles. the longitudinal compressive strength of the surfaces that transfer the force between pipe sections must be at least 75 N/mm².5 mm after 100.2 mm to 0.25 mm in the ZPWN 295 standard. Compared with the large wall thicknesses of vitrified clay jacking pipes.000 cycles. High abrasion resistance Vitrified clay has high abrasion resistance. Tunnel and shaft solutions 35 Tunnel and shaft solutions . The glazed outer surface of the pipe strongly reduces friction between the pipe and the surrounding soil. which is equally true for the glaze and the rest of the wall.EN 295. that represents a negligible loss of wall thickness. Features and benefits Watertightness The joints are tested in accordance with EN 295. Corrosion resistance Vitrified clay material is resistant to all types of chemicals over the entire wall thickness. It allows very high jacking forces to be used. which is much lower than the typical abrasion values of 0.000.8 mm after 400. According to the EN 295 standard. They are also tested in accordance with ZPWN 2951 and ATV A142. High mechanical strength Vitrified clay jacking pipes generally have greater wall thicknesses than corresponding standard vitrified clay sewer pipes. although this capability is only partially utilised in practice. 1. fittings and joints for drains and sewers .5 bar.08 mm. Strength in the length direction is the most important factor for jacking pipes.3 .Vitrified clay pipes Humes vitrified clay jacking pipes are manufactured by STEINZEUG-KERAMO (STEINZEUG Abwassersysteme GmbH) and inspected in accordance with the European standard for vitrified clay pipes.4 bar. that results in high crown pressure ratings and high resistance to ground and traffic loads.000 load cycles measured using the Darmstadt test as specified in the EN 295 standard or the maximum value of 0. because they must withstand the high jacking forces necessary to overcome the resistance of the cutting face and the external pipe surface. such as up to 400.
vitrified clay pipe requires very little maintenance. As vitrified clay scores very high with respect to all the requirements that must be imposed on sewer pipes. Here again. Temperature resistance Pipes and seals are tested at up to 70 °C. vitrified clay scores considerably better than many other types of material. The important properties mentioned above do not degrade over time.Resistance to high-pressure cleaning Right: Vitrified clay jacking pipe installation The requirement included in the ZPWN 295 standard is met (resistance with regard to a standardised maintenance cleaning test at 120 bar and a deblocking test at 340 bar). vitrified clay pipes have very long service lives. 36 Tunnel and shaft solutions . This is especially true for jacking pipes. Long service life After being properly installed. Vitrified clay pipes can tolerate even higher temperatures. because they are structurally over dimensioned for their subsequent use and optimally bedded in the ground.
This coupling is highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive soils (acids. Type 1 and Type 2. Two different types of stainless steel couplings are used. This is advisable for long jacking distances and when jacking forces exceeding the specified limits are anticipated. chlorides and halogens). • The packing ring. • The sealing capabilities of the coupler due to its special design not only guarantees joint integrity. • Pipes are sawn and milled at both ends to yield parallel end faces. DN400 to DN1200 with Type 2 stainless steel coupling • The moulded rubber seal is integrated in a milled groove. spigots as for larger dimension jacking pipes permit a The trenchless mode of construction Figure 26 – Typical vitrified clay pipe jacking set up At the present time two remote steered methods for the construction of underground sewers are in use. The precision ground safe internal working pressure of 2. which transmits the jacking force is made from elastomer for diameters up to DN300 and forms a unit with the moulded sealing ring. special sand Tunnel and shaft solutions removal equipment is used. These two methods are described below in accordance with ATV bentonite suspensions are used. • The packing ring. which transmits the jacking force. is made from particle board and is prefitted to the coupling. DN200 to DN300 with Type 1 stainless steel coupling • The moulded elastomer seal is integrated into the ring. • Pipes are sawn at both ends to yield parallel end faces. • Intermediate re-usable jacking stations can be used with diameters of DN600 and above. • The spigot ends are milled. This ring increases the permissible jacking force and provides additional protection in case of poorly controlled steering motions during jacking or when angular deflections occur due to variations in soil conditions. In general this 37 Tunnel and shaft solutions .4 bar.Product range The entire range of vitrified clay jacking pipes DN200 to DN1200 are fitted with a stainless steel coupling which has a high chrome and nickel content and a relatively significant molybdenum content. The drive for the cutting head and for the steering cylinders are located in the jacking shield. • For diameters DN600 and above a clamping (prestressing) ring is fitted at each spigot end. The intermediate jacking stations are coupled to the spigot ends of the pipes and recovered in the receival pit or an intermediate shaft. but ensures full protection from the ingress of matter during the jacking process.
6.Figure 27 – Joint profiles for DN200 to DN300 pipe with Type 1 coupling Detail 2 2 e bk dz d1 d3 dM dk dzi l1 sk Jacking direction Table 8 – Dimensions for DN200 to DN300 pipe with Type 1 coupling (refer Figure 27 above) Max.990 990 1. 4.5 103 10 241 205 350 80 60 250 250 322 +0 -1 360 +0 -6 48 +3 -0 342. jacking force* Min. 2. The ground spigot ends (d3) are trimmed ca. Bending tensile strength = 14 N/mm2.8 1.8 2.000 120 125 Notes: 1.5 d zi ± 0. Supplied with wooden pressure transfer ring according to EN 312 P5. * Permissible jacking force for automatic recording and control. 2 x 2 mm. 5. crushing load Pipe dimensions DN Internal d1 ±5 Coupling Length l1 ±1 Pressure transfer ring b dz ±1 Average weight Pipe end d3 Pipe body dM e dk ±1 k ± 0.8 1. 3. 38 Tunnel and shaft solutions .5 106 10 320 257 810 110 105 300 299 374 +0 -1 406 +0 -10 48 +3 -0 395. Compressive strength = 100 N/mm2.2 s k ± 1.0 106 10 372 309 1.5 za ± 0.5 d kN kN/m kg/m mm 200 199 244 +2 -2 276 +0 -6 990 990 1.990 49 +3 -1 267. safety factors 2 and 1.
700 6.475 +0 .24 +0 .218 1. dm on this side dz d1 d3 dM dk dza dzi Particle board Prestressing ring6 l1 Sk Jacking direction Table 9 – Dimensions for DN400 to DN1200 pipe with Type 2 coupling (refer Figure 28 above) Pressure transfer ring bk ±1 Pipe dimensions Internal d1 DN Pipe end d3 +0 -1 Coupling Length l1 ±1 Max.18 +0 . Compressive strength = 100 N/mm2. 2.000 3.984 1. 5.981 65 65 70 70 70 70 80 536 640 731 837 931 1.2 dz ±1 dza ±1 dzi ±1 kN kN/m kg/m mm 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 400 498 599 695 792 1. * Permissible jacking force for automatic recording and control.422 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 130 130 143 143 143 143 163 16 16 19 19 19 19 19 518 624 713 816 911 413 513 615 715 823 2. jacking force* Min.208 1.15 + 18 .230 1.12 + 12 .700 5.056 1.397 1.400 160 140 120 140 128 120 114 240 295 350 434 507 855 990 + 12 . Tunnel and shaft solutions 39 Tunnel and shaft solutions . 3.12 + 15 .18 984 1.350 3. Supplied with wooden pressure transfer ring according to EN 312 P5. 6.5 +9 -9 528 632 723 827 921 1.981 1.100 3.6.30 +0 .249 +6 -6 + 7.300 3. For diameters DN600 and above a prestressing (clamping) ring is fitted at each spigot end.7.36 1.15 +0 .Figure 28 – Joint profiles for DN400 to DN1200 pipe with Type 2 coupling Bevel dm min. The ground spigot ends (d3) are trimmed ca.5 .981 1.981 1.275 1.277 Notes: 1.077 1.12 +0 . Bending tensile strength = 14 N/mm2.981 1. 4. 2 x 2 mm.24 +0 . crushing load Average weight Pipe body dM e ±2 dk ±1 sk ± 0. 45° e Rubber seal bk Max.984 1.408 556 661 766 870 970 1. safety factors 2 and 1.
000 mm Inspection chamber with vitrified clay invert Table 10 – Dimensions for adaptor pipe for DN200 to DN600 pipes (refer Figure 29 above) Pipe dimensions Internal d1 Pipe end (normal strength) d3 +0 -1 Pipe end (high strength) d3 +0 -1 Pipe body dM Length (mm) l1 ±1 DN mm 250 300 400 500 600 250 299 400 498 601 +3 -3 +5 -5 +6 -6 Average weight (kg/piece) 105 125 240 295 305 299 355 486 581 687 318 376 492 609 721 360 406 556 661 766 +0 -6 +0 -10 +0 -12 1. Then.5 -7. 1.000 mm 1.0 m long jacking pipes with a coupling on one end and the other end milled to the external diameter of the pipe to which the adaptor is to be connected.000 1.vitrified clay jacking pipe to a vitrified clay so eted pipe is provided by the use of an bush to equal out the different diameters.000 +7.000 1.000 1.5 +9 -9 +0 -15 +0 -18 40 Tunnel and shaft solutions . They consist of 1.000 1. Adaptor pipe for DN200 to DN600 pipes The adaptor pipe is used for connection of vitrified clay jacking pipes to open trench vitrified clay pipes normal/ high strength class or access chambers. Figure 29 – Adaptor pipe for DN200 to DN600 pipes bk e = 180 mm Coupling type 1 or 2 Figure 30 – Connection of adaptor pipe to access chamber Grinded on a length e = 180 mm BKK ring P ring dz dk d1 d3 dM d3 of the jacking pipe d3 of the standard vc pipe (normal or high strength) dM 1. w Connection to standard pipes and access chambers Right: Milled end of adaptor pipe and socketed end of standard pipe Three different components are used to connect vitrified clay jacking pipes to standard vitrified clay pipelines and access chambers.
Type A – One end sawn flat and the other with a steel coupling. Left: M-seal with bush ring 3. Type B – Both ends are sawn flat.slaes M htiw enibmoc oT . 350 mm to 500 mm pipes. M-seal and bush ring Another way of achieving the transition from a vitrified clay jacking pipe to an open trench vitrified clay socketed pipe of different external diameter is by using an M-seal and bush ring. Sawn flat spigot Bush ring Figure 32 – Short length pipes bk e Type A dk d1 dM Type B d1 dM Type C d1 d2 l1 l1 l1 Tunnel and shaft solutions 41 . The bush ring is used to equal out the outside diameters of the two pipes. The M-seal is a metal banded flexible coupling providing a watertight and reliable connection between the jacking and trench pipes.x x x x x 9931 ot 003 Tunnel and shaft solutions -fid retemaid edistuo ot gnidrocca sepyt hsuB . Type C – One end sawn flat and one spigot end.secneref 2. 190 Jacking pipe 12 length pipes are available to suit various applications and Figure 31 – M-seal and bush ring M-seal 85 Standard vc pipe An M-seal and bush ring is used to connect these three types together. Short length pipes Connection of vitrified clay jacking pipes to access chambers can also be achieved using short length. Three different types of short installation methods.
TRS profile Figure 33 – CMP profiles TR profile 42 Tunnel and shaft solutions . 3 mm and 3. CMP is manufactured from Z600 galvanised grade 250 steel in two state-of-the-art profiles TR and TRS. • Large diameter pipes eliminate the high installation cost of multi-plate structures. • On-site manufacture accommodates order variations and additions.6 mm. 2 mm. and wall thicknesses of 1. Applications • Culverts under haul/temporary roads • Mine and conveyor portals • Safe access to mines and construction sites • Escape tunnels • Conduit casing • Ventilation shafts and air flow columns Features and benefits • Large diameters and long lengths manufactured economically on-site minimising freight cost. and frees up haul roads on mine sites. 2.5 mm. • Humes’ design team ensure customer’s requirements are met. • Large diameter culverts can be laid in live condition (running streams). • Humes’ unique profiles optimise load bearing capacity.1 m. • Installed CMP has high load bearing capacity. lock seamed corrugated metal pipe and is available in pipe diameters up to 5.5 mm. dedicated coupling bands are supplied providing a secure fit. Both of these profiles have higher load bearing capacity than similar corrugated sinusoidal profiles with TR outperforming 68 x 13 and TRS outperforming both 125 x 25 and 75 x 25.Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) Top: CMP on-site manufacturing Bottom: CMP used in a culvert application Humes Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) is a helically wound. • Where pipes are to be joined. It is designed in accordance with Australian Standards AS 1761-1985 and AS 1762-1984 Helical Locked Seamed Corrugated Steel Pipe.
000 Wall thickness (mm) 1.5 20.5 9.5 11.550 2.0 18. Notes: • Calculations are based on base material steel thickness.5 13.5 x x x x x x x 27.5 x x x x x x x 38.100 Wall thickness (mm) 1.0 33.5 19.5 40.5 13.0 14.0 15.100 2.5 26.5 28.950 2.700 2. • For minimum cover requirements please contact Humes for assistance.5 31.5 15. • * Denotes unsuitable due to flexibility factor greater than 0.0 * * * * * * * 2.0 37.5 28.550 2.250 mm/N.350 1. • * Denotes unsuitable due to flexibility factor greater than 0.5 31.0 26.5 16.0 30.050 1.5 18.5 35.0 11.5 17.200 1. • x Denotes not practical for manufacture.5 18.5 19.6 ++ ++ ++ ++ 40.0 11.5 21.0 ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ 47.0 30.5 25.0 24.200 4.5 28.5 18.0 25.5 Notes: • Calculations are based on base material steel thickness.5 10.100 2.600 3.850 3.0 x x x x x x x 21.5 14.5 13.5 * * * * * * * * 2.0 27. • x Denotes not practical for manufacture.0 19.950 2.0 23.5 40.5 25.5 12.5 17. • ++ Denotes height of fill greater than 50 m.5 16.5 * * 3.0 * * * * * 2.5 15.500 1.0 36.850 3. • Soil density 19 kN/m3.650 1. Tunnel and shaft solutions 43 Tunnel and shaft solutions .Backfilling CMP is a flexible pipe which replies on soil structure interaction to maintain its structural stability.050 1.5 23. Table 11 – Maximum cover (m) for TR profile Nominal internal diameter (mm) 300 375 450 600 750 900 1.5 20.0 19. ie without galvanising.0 21.5 15.5 25.0 * * * 3.5 34.350 1.5 17.650 1.5 20.0 23.5 16.5 22. Tables 11 and 12 below list the maximum cover for each of the CMP profiles.0 9.500 4.0 x x x x x x x 33.800 1.250 mm/N.5 18.5 29.5 * * * * * 2.0 40.400 2.0 8.5 12.5 14.000 3.0 33.0 27.6 x x x x x x x 16.250 2.5 x x x ++ ++ ++ ++ 45.0 10.800 1. ie without galvanising.5 36.0 44.5 16.0 17.5 22.300 3.250 2.500 1.5 22.5 12.5 10.900 4.0 24.0 29.0 * * * 3.5 22. • For minimum cover requirements please contact Humes for assistance.0 34. • Soil density 19 kN/m3.800 5.0 30.5 12.400 2.0 x x x x x x x ++ 49.5 17.0 22.5 26.5 Table 12 – Maximum cover (m) for TRS profile Nominal internal diameter (mm) 900 1.700 2.200 1.0 20.0 14.
pipe jacking and ventilation shafts Segmental shafts One piece shafts Mine portals and reclaim tunnels Precast arches Box culverts Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) Traffic and utility tunnels Segmental tunnel linings Steel reinforced concrete pipes – jacking Vitrified clay pipes – jacking Escape tunnels and shafts Precast arches Box culverts Steel reinforced concrete pipes Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP) Stormwater Sewage transfer and storage Bridge and platform Walling Potable water supply Irrigation supply Traffic management Cable and power management Rail Livestock management 44 Tunnel and shaft solutions .Precast solutions Top: Precast arches Middle: HumeDeck® modular bridge system Bottom: Headwall Tunnel and shaft Access.
Contact information National sales 1300 361 601 humes.com.com.au email@example.com Head Office 18 Little Cribb St Milton QLD 4064 Ph: (07) 3364 2800 Fax: (07) 3364 2963 New South Wales Canberra Ph: (02) 6285 5309 Fax: (02) 6285 5334 Grafton Ph: (02) 6644 7666 Melbourne Ph: (03) 9360 3888 Fax: (03) 9360 3887 Tasmania Launceston Ph: (03) 6335 6300 Fax: (03) 6335 6330 Queensland Brisbane/Gold Coast Ph: (07) 3866 7100 Fax: (07) 3866 7101 Bundaberg Ph: (07) 4152 2644 Fax: (07) 4152 5847 Rockhampton Ph: (07) 4924 7900 Fax: (07) 4924 7901 Sunshine Coast Ph: (07) 5472 9700 Fax: (07) 5472 9711 Toowoomba Ph: (07) 4694 1420 Fax: (07) 4634 3874 Townsville Ph: (07) 4758 6000 Fax: (07) 4758 6001 Fax: (02) 6644 7313 Kempsey Ph: (02) 6562 6755 Fax: (02) 6562 4235 Lismore Ph: (02) 6621 3684 Fax: (02) 6622 1342 Newcastle Ph: (02) 4032 6800 Fax: (02) 4032 6822 South Australia Adelaide Ph: (08) 8168 4544 Fax: (08) 8168 4549 Western Australia Gnangara Sydney Ph: (02) 9832 5555 Fax: (02) 9625 5200 Ph: (08) 9302 8000 Fax: (08) 9309 1625 Perth Tamworth Ph: (02) 6763 7300 Fax: (02) 6763 7301 Ph: (08) 9351 6999 Fax: (08) 9351 6977 Northern Territory Victoria Darwin Echuca Ph: (03) 5480 2371 Fax: (03) 5482 3090 Ph: (08) 8984 1600 Fax: (08) 8984 1614 .
As the specifications and details contained in this publication may change please check with Humes Customer Service for confirmation of current issue.National sales 1300 361 601 humes. We accept no responsibility for any loss or damage resulting from any person acting on this information.au A Division of Holcim Australia This brochure supersedes all previous literature on this subject.com. Users are advised to make their own determination as to the suitability of this information for their own specific circumstances. Swiftlift is a registered trademark of ITW Construction Products Australia Pty Ltd. © August 2012 Holcim (Australia) Pty Ltd ABN 87 099 732 297 . Plastiline is a registered trademark of Holcim (Australia) Pty Ltd. This document is provided for information only.com. Humes is a registered business name and a registered trademark of Holcim (Australia) Pty Ltd. STEINZEUG KERAMO is a registered trademark of STEINZEUG Abwassersysteme GmbH.au info@humes.
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