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Mitosis & Meiosis Mrs.

Mente

Name________________ February 22, 2013

1. Some cells involved in the process of reproduction are represented in the accompanying diagram. The process of meiosis formed

1. cell 1, only 2. cells 1 and 2

3. cell 3, only 4. cells 2 and 3

2. Which cell process occurs only in organisms that reproduce sexually? 1. mutation 3. meiosis 2. replication 4. mitosis

3. Which cell is normally produced as a direct result of meiosis? 1. a uterine cell having half the normal species number of chromosomes 2. an egg having the full species number of chromosomes

3. a zygote having the full species number of chromosomes 4. a sperm having half the normal species number of chromosomes

4. In sexually reproducing species, the number of chromosomes in each body cell remains the same from one generation to the next as a direct result of 1. meiosis and fertilization 3. differentiation and aging 2. mitosis and mutation 4. homeostasis and dynamic equilibrium

5. Meiosis and fertilization are important for the survival of many species because these two processes result in 1. large numbers of gametes 3. cloning of superior offspring 2. increasingly complex multicellular organisms 4. genetic variability of offspring

6. Offspring that result from meiosis and fertilization each have 1. twice as many chromosomes as their parents 2. one-half as many chromosomes as their parents

3. gene combinations different from those of either parent 4. gene combinations identical to those of each parent

7. Which statement best explains the significance of meiosis in the process of evolution within a species? 1. The gametes produced by meiosis ensure the 3. Meiosis produces eggs and sperm that are alike. continuation of any particular species by asexual reproduction. 2. Equal numbers of eggs and sperm are produced by 4. Meiosis provides for variation in the gametes meiosis. produced by an organism.

8. The diagram (see image) shows a process that can occur during meiosis. The most likely result of this process is

1. a new combination of inheritable traits that can appear in the offspring 2. an inability to pass either of these chromosomes on to offspring

3. a loss of genetic information that will produce a genetic disorder in the offspring 4. an increase in the chromosome number of the organism in which this process occurs

9. Base your answer on the information, diagram, and table shown and on your knowledge of biology. A student wanted to test the hypothesis that rooting hormones will stimulate the production of new roots at a faster rate than would take place without rooting hormones. Two stem cuttings of equal length, similar to the one shown, were taken from a rose, a begonia, and a geranium plant. The cut end of one cutting from each plant was dipped into the hormone and then planted in wet sand. The other cutting from each plant was planted in wet sand without dipping it into the hormone. All cuttings were maintained in identical environmental conditions. At the end of 4 weeks, all the cuttings were removed from the sand and the lengths of the roots that had developed were measured. The results are summarized in the data table shown. The effect of the rooting hormone on the production of new roots was most likely due to the influence of the hormone on the process of

1. photosynthesis 2. meiosis

3. mitosis 4. excretion

10. The bud shown in the accompanying diagram was produced by asexual reproduction. Which process is responsible for the formation of the bud?

1. fertilization 2. recombination

3. mitosis 4. meiosis

11. Base your answer on the accompanying diagram and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the reproductive cycle of a squirrel species with 40 chromosomes in each zygote. A process that could be represented by A is

1. fertilization 2. meiosis

3. mitosis 4. mutation

12. The accompanying diagram represents single-celled organism A dividing by mitosis to form cells B and C. Cells A, B, and C all produced protein X. What can best be inferred from this observation?

1. Protein X is found in all organisms. 2. The gene for protein X is found in single-celled organisms, only.

3. Cells A, B, and C ingested food containing the gene to produce protein X. 4. The gene to produce protein X was passed from cell A to cells B and C.

13. Tissues develop from a zygote as a direct result of the processes of 1. fertilization and meiosis 3. mitosis and meiosis 2. fertilization and differentiation 4. mitosis and differentiation

14. Base your answer on the information below and your knowledge of biology. Stem Cells If skin is cut, the wound closes within days. If a leg is broken, the fracture will usually mend if the bone is set correctly. Almost all human tissue can repair itself to some extent. Much of this repair is due to the activity of stem cells. These cells resemble those of a developing embryo in their ability to reproduce repeatedly, forming exact copies of themselves. They may also form many other different kinds of cells. Stem cells in bone marrow offer a dramatic example. They can give rise to all of the structures in the blood: red blood cells, platelets, and various types of white blood cells. Other stem cells may produce the various components of the skin, liver, or intestinal lining. The brain of an adult human can sometimes compensate for damage by making new connections among surviving nerve cells (neurons). For many years, most biologists believes that the brain could not repair itself because it lacked stem cells that would produce new neurons. A recent discovery, however, indicates that a mature human brain does produce neurons routinely at one site, the hippocampus, an area important to memory and learning. This discovery raises the prospect that stem cells that make new neurons in one part of the brain might be found in other areas. If investigators can learn how to cause existing stem cells to produce useful members of functional nerve cells, it might be possible to correct a number of disorders involving damage to neurons such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and brain injuries. What is the process by which stem cells produce exact copies of themselves? 1. cell division by mitosis 3. sexual reproduction 2. cell division by meiosis 4. glucose synthesis

15. In animals, the normal development of an embryo is dependent on 1. fertilization of a mature egg by many sperm cell 3. production of body cells having half the number of chromosomes as the zygote 2. production of new cells having twice the number of 4. mitosis and the differentiation of cells after chromosomes as the zygote fertilization has occurred

16. The diagrams (see image) represent organs of two individuals. Select the sentence from the list below that best applies to the phrase. Contains a structure in which a zygote divides by mitosis [1]

1. The phrase is correct for both Individual A and Individual B. 2. The phrase is not correct for either Individual A or Individual B.

3. The phrase is correct for Individual A, only. 4. The phrase is correct for Individual B, only.