You are on page 1of 5




SECTION A (3+7+10=20 MARKS) Answer any one set (3+7+10) of questions from section A either (1,2&3) or (4,5,&6) no mixing allowed

Write about null and alternate hypothesis. A null hypothesis is a statistical hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true. The concept was introduced by R. A. Fisher. It is a statement about a status quo asserting that any change from what has been thought to be true will entirely be due to random error. The null hypothesis is specifically formulated for testing for possible rejection or nullification. Hence the name Null hypothesis. It is always expressed in terms of population parameters. Null hypothesis is tested directly the alternate hypothesis is supported when the null hypothesis is rejected A regular research hypothesis which is the logical opposite of the Null hypothesis. Thus what we conclude by rejecting null hypothesis is called alternate hypothesis. It is denoted by Ha and the null hypothesis is denoted by H0. If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk, it is taken as null hypothesis because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is alpha, which is chosen very small

(3 marks)

Write about the classification of multivariate techniques All multivariate techniques can be broadly classified into two: (i) Dependence techniques: All the techniques where a variable or set of variables is identified as the dependent variable to be predicted or explained by other variables known as independent variables. An example of a dependence technique is multiple regression. Further depending on the number of dependent variables and whether they are metric, the dependence techniques can be classified into four ways: (a)Single dependent metric variable techniques: Multiple regression is the most important technique under this classification. conjoint analysis and ANOVA though cannot be strictly classifed under this but they could also be considered. The common thing between both ANOVA and conjoint anlaysis is that the predictor variables are non metric where as multiple regression can take metric and non metric predictor variables. Anova should have metric dependent variables, whereas conjoint can also have non metric. (b)Single dependent non metric variable techniques: Multiple discriminant analysis is the most important technique besides linear probability models. In case of multiple discriminant analysis the predictor variables are metric. (c)Multiple dependent metric variables techniques: Multivariate analysis of variance is the most popular technique under this but can be used only when the measurement scale of the predictor variable is non metric, other wise canonical correlational analysis should be used. (d)Multiple dependent non metric variable techniques: Canonical correlational analysis

(7 marks)

with dummy variables could be used in this context. All the above techniques focus on a single relationship, for multiple relationships SEM is used (ii)Interdependence techniques: All the techniques where no single variable or group of variables is defined as being independent or dependent. Rather, the procedure involves the simultaneous analysis of all variables in the set. Factor analysis is the example of interdependence technique. Further depending on whether the variables are metric or non-metric, the interdependence techniques can be classified as follows: Metric variable techniques: Factor analysis is the most important techniques besides the cluster and Metric multi-dimensional scaling. Non metric variable techniques: Non metric MDS and Latent structure analysis are the important techniques under it. Interdependence techniques can also be classified on the focus or analysis criteria. If the focus is on variables then factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis is used. If the focus is on cases or respondents, then cluster analysis is used. If the focus is on objects then multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis can be used. (the other way of answering the question is to describe all the techniques in brief but avoid it as far as possible) 3 What kind of precautions should one take while preparing a research report? 1. The report should be long enough that it covers the subject but short enough to maintain the interest. 2. Report should be written in an objective style in simple language. Graphs and table should be used where ever necessary. 3. Report should be free from grammatical mistakes and should be in the format suited for the report. 4. Appendices, bibliography and index are needed 5. Report must be attractive in appearance 6. UNDERSTAND AND WRITE ON YOUR OWN 4 Bring out the significance of report writing (OR) (3 marks) (10 marks)

Research report is considered a major component of the research study for the research task remains incomplete till the report has been presented and/or written. As a matter of fact even the most brilliant hypothesis, highly well designed and conducted research study, and the most striking generalizations and findings are of little value unless they are effectively communicated to others. The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are made known to others. Research results must invariably enter the general store of knowledge. All this explains the significance of writing research report. There are people who do not consider writing of report as an integral part of the research process. But the general opinion is in favour of treating the presentation of research results or the writing of report as part and parcel of the research project. Writing of report is the last step in a research study and requires a set of skills somewhat different from those called for in respect of the earlier stages of research. This task should be accomplished by the researcher with utmost care; he may seek the assistance and

guidance of experts for the purpose What should the main text of a research report contain? The main text of the report should have the following sections: (i) Introduction; (ii) Statement of findings and recommendations; (iii) The results; (iv) The implications drawn from the results; and (v) The summary.

(7 marks)

Describe the various Non-Parametric tests available for the testing of hypothesis. (10 marks) Tests of hypotheses with order statistics or nonparametric statistics or distributionfree statistics are known as nonparametric or distribution-free tests. The following distribution-free tests are important and generally used: (i) Test of a hypothesis concerning some single value for the given data (such as onesample sign test). (ii) Test of a hypothesis concerning no difference among two or more sets of data (such as two-sample sign test, Fisher-Irwin test, Rank sum test, etc.). (iii) Test of a hypothesis of a relationship between variables (such as Rank correlation, Kendalls coefficient of concordance and other tests for dependence. (iv) Test of a hypothesis concerning variation in the given data i.e., test analogous to ANOVA viz., Kruskal-Wallis test. (v) Tests of randomness of a sample based on the theory of runs viz., one sample runs test. (vi) Test of hypothesis to determine if categorical data shows dependency or if two classifications are independent viz., the chi-square test. The chi-square test can as well be used to make comparison between theoretical populations and actual data when categories are used. The following test are the important tests: 1. Sign test 2. Fisher Irwin test 3. Mc Nemer test 4. Wilcoxin matched pair test 5. Rank sum test 6. One sample run test 7. Spearmans Rank correlation 8. Kendalls coefficient of concordance 1. The sign test is one of the easiest non parametric test. Its name comes from the fact that it is based on the direction (plus or minus sign) of a pair of observations and not their numerical magnitude. sign test can be used to test the hypothesis that there is "no difference in medians" between the continuous distributions of two random variables X and Y, in the situation when we can draw paired samples from X and Y. The sign test can be either one sample or two sample sign test. 2. Fisher Irwin test is a distribution free test used in testing a hypothesis concerning no difference among two sets of data. It is employed to determine whether one can reasonably assume, for example that two supposedly different treatments are in fact different in terms of the results they produce. 3. McNemar's test is a non-parametric method used on nominal data. It is applied to 2 2 contingency tables with a dichotomous trait, with matched pairs of subjects, to determine whether the row and column marginal frequencies are equal ("marginal homogeneity"). It is named after Quinn McNemar, who introduced it in 1947.An application of the test in genetics is the transmission

disequilibrium test for detecting genetic linkage. 4. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a non-parametric statistical hypothesis test used when comparing two related samples or repeated measurements on a single sample to assess whether their population mean ranks differ (i.e. it's a paired difference test). It can be used as an alternative to the paired Student's t-test when the population cannot be assumed to be normally distributed or the data is on the ordinal scale. The test is named for Frank Wilcoxon (18921965) who, in a single paper, proposed both it and the rank-sum test for two independent samples (Wilcoxon, 1945).The test was popularized by Siegel (1956) in his influential text book on non-parametric statistics. Siegel used the symbol T for the value defined below as S. In consequence, the test is sometimes referred to as the Wilcoxon T test, and the test statistic is reported as a value of T. 5. Rank sum tests are a whole family of test, but we shall describe only two such tests commonly used ie the U test and the H test. U test is popularly known as Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, whereas H test is also known as Kruskal-Wallis test. a. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is a non-parametric statistical hypothesis test for assessing whether one of two samples of independent observations tends to have larger values than the other. It is one of the most well-known non-parametric significance tests. It was proposed initially by Gustav Deuchler in 1914 (with a missing term in the variance) and later independently by Frank Wilcoxon in 1945, for equal sample sizes, and extended to arbitrary sample sizes and in other ways by Henry Mann and his student Donald Ransom Whitney in 1947 b. The Kruskal-Wallis Test is the nonparametric test equivalent to the oneway ANOVA and an extension of the Mann-Whitney Test to allow the comparison of more than two independent groups. It is used when we wish to compare three or more sets of scores that come from different groups. The KruskalWallis test is most commonly used when there is one nominal variable and one measurement variable, and the measurement variable does not meet the normality assumption of an anova. It is the non-parametric analogue of a one-way anova. A one-way anova may yield inaccurate estimates of the P-value when the data are very far from normally distributed. The KruskalWallis test does not make assumptions about normality. Like most non-parametric tests, it is performed on ranked data, so the measurement observations are converted to their ranks in the overall data set: the smallest value gets a rank of 1, the next smallest gets a rank of 2, and so on. The loss of information involved in substituting ranks for the original values can make this a less powerful test than an anova, so the anova should be used if the data meet the assumptions. 6. One sample run test is a test used to judge the randomness of a sample on the basis of the order in which the observations are taken. There are many applications in which it is difficult to decide whether the sample used is a random one or not. This is particularly true when we have little or no control over the selection of data. 7. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient or Spearman's rho, named after Charles Spearman and often denoted by the Greek letter (rho) or as rs, is a nonparametric measure of statistical dependence between two variables. It assesses

how well the relationship between two variables can be described using a monotonic function. If there are no repeated data values, a perfect Spearman correlation of +1 or 1 occurs when each of the variables is a perfect monotone function of the other. When data are not available to use in numerical form for doing correlation analysis but when the information is sufficient to rank data as first, second, third and so forth, we quite often use the rank correlation method and work out the coefficient of rank correlation. In fact, the rank correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation that exists between two sets of ranks. 8. Kendall's W (also known as Kendall's coefficient of concordance) is a nonparametric statistic. It is a normalization of the statistic of the Friedman test, and can be used for assessing agreement among raters. Kendall's W ranges from 0 (no agreement) to 1 (complete agreement). Suppose, for instance, that a number of people have been asked to rank a list of political concerns, from most important to least important. Kendall's W can be calculated from these data. If the test statistic W is 1, then all the survey respondents have been unanimous, and each respondent has assigned the same order to the list of concerns. If W is 0, then there is no overall trend of agreement among the respondents, and their responses may be regarded as essentially random. Intermediate values of W indicate a greater or lesser degree of unanimity among the various responses.


Bring out the similarities and differences between popular and technical reports (5 marks) UNDERSTAND AND WRITE ON YOUR OWN .. have five similarities and five differences for the worst case scenario ie being asked for 10 marks otherwise five points with detailed explanation Compare the role of preliminary pages and end matter in a research report. (5 marks) Explanation regarding what they are also will do with a little hint on their importance USE OF MOBILE PHONES DURING THE EXAM WILL BE TREATED AS MAL PRACTICE