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DISRUPTIVE SEMIOTICS Publications Curriculum Vitae Branding reality principle in becoming Links In the mix

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Content Analysis Social engineering, cybernetics and archaeology/genealogy of social movements Semiotics notes

Branding reality principle in becoming

http://grossolatos.blogspot.com/p/semiotics-notes.html
Atlas.ti- How to rename a type of relation (hidden menu) CHANGE THE TYPE OF RELATION THROUGH THE RELATION EDITOR and ALLOCATE A NAME in the menu text box (p348)- NOTE – FILE BUTTON IS NOT VISIBLE, MUST CLICK ON TOP ROW IN ORDER FOR FILE DROP DOWN MENU TO APPEAR IN THE HYPERLINK MANAGER

STEP 5: Generation of homologies and isotopies.(Work in progress Sep 2012) In terms of relations of homologation Hebert confines them in analogical oppositional pairs, even though the analogical status of the corresponding terms of the homological pairings may also be of other types of relatedness, such as complementarity (as Greimas and Courtes stressed), but also a metaphorical one. In fact, given our previous focus on marketing metaphoria, homological pairings are particularly useful for chaining surface discourse terms with corresponding brand image attributes or nuclear semes. Such a metaphorical connectivity is also recognized by Rastier (1989). Homologies may be established between semes, sememes and key shots, wherein they are anchored, against the background of the acceptable scope of homologation as previously described. Further details about the pro-filmic elements pertaining to the advertising text are yielded in Sec.2.1.2.1 The resulting homological pairs and ultimately the homological chain that will consist of the stringing of these pairs is equivalent to an account of a brand‟s coherence, but also of how this coherence emerges through the maintenance of communicative consistency throughout various énoncés or expressive units. Rastier notes that the sequences that are obtained through homologation (or the process of chaining/enchainement, according to Greimas) are structural units, based on logical relations of formal implications, conversions and transformations (Rastier 1971: 316). In order to construct a homologation chain it is prudent to start by reducing elements of the surface structure through a semiotic square, as a way of exploring tentative hypotheses and not as the ultimate elementary structure of signification, given that a connectionist over a binarist paradigm is pursued in this thesis. Homologations are crucial for the production of brand signification through its manifest discourse and the discernment of a brand related canonical narrative schema. The underpinning of a brand specific canonical narrative schema consists of recurrent themes1[1] through variable ad
1[1] Rastier (1989: 55) defines generic themes as «semantic classes that are manifested in the text through the recurrence of their members». He draws a sharper distinction between three semantic classes to which correspond three general themes (ibid: 55-56). The taxeme is the minimal class wherein sememes are interdefined, for example cigarette, cigar and pipe are opposed to each other at the level of the taxeme //tobacco//. Domain is a more general class that includes various taxemes. Dimension is a class of even

executions. Through recurrence as a manifestation of communicative consistency brand coherence is maintained. Further to the construction of homological chains let us now proceed with identifying (i) an isotopically recurrent theme, where «theme», following Metz (1971, 503;513), is conceived as the depth structure of a film, between various films as an inter-filmic homology between surface structure shots/sequences and nuclear semes as core image attributes, or a brand‟s semantic microuniverse (ii) a pluri-isotopy2[2] as two recurrent themes on an intra-filmic level through the establishment of a chain of homologation (and the analysis may be expanded both intensively and extensively). On a surface discursive level recurrent nuclear semes are evinced differentially as contextually enriched semes or sememes, either through visual anchors or through filmic sequences. By the same token, recurrent image attributes are contextually evinced either through the discourse of an actor or through a filmic sequence or by featuring a product-shot in various narrative programs. The visual of aproduct in a filmic syntagm serves the purpose of conferring redundancy to the text of a narrator that appears as a voice over the deployment of alternating shots: The maintenance of brand coherence as recurrent nuclear brand image attributes is effected by rendering redundant contextual (i.e.classematic) elements that are not pertinent in terms of the brand‟s canonical narrative schema. This process represents the way whereby a brand‟s semantic micro-universe and positioning is maintained diachronically throughout variable ad executions. As laid out in Ch.1 the definition of isotopy originally furnished b Greimas involced the recurrence of classemes. This methodological postulate has also been endorsed by Guiroud and Panier. However, insofar as an invariable semantic structure is incumbent on nuclear semes and not contextual semes, then recurrence should concern nuclear semes. The perils inherent in confusing the relative pertinence of nuclear wth contextual semes has already been illustrated. Classematic recurrence is amenable to the creation of stylistic isotopies (as per Eco‟s elaboration of the various isotopic typologies), however, by definition, it may not constitute the integral aspect of semic recurrence. Guiroud and Panier employ instead of Eco‟s term of stylistic isotopy the term semantic isotopy, which they distinguish from semiological isotopy, the latter being concerned with the recurrence of nuclear semes. However, by positing that semantic isotopy ensures textual coherence and cohesion (cf. GP 1979: 123-124), while allowing for disambiguation, essentially they allocate the role of maintaining textual coherence to classemes, which is a contradiction in terms. Certainly classematic recurrence is essential for the interpretive discernment of inter-filmic consistency, but not the necessary precondition for maintaining textual coherence. On another note, GP offer a connectionist-oriented portrayal of the semiologically isotopic relationships among surface discourse figurative elements and nuclear semes: Figure – Isotopies at the semiological level between surface discourse figurative elements and nuclear semes (GP 1979: 149) However, even though the authors mention in passing the role of rhetorical figures, such as metaphor and metonymy in surface discourse signification, they do not dwell further in how a text is con-figured through rhetorical figures across the various strata of the generative trajectory, a crucial interpretive gap this thesis intends to fill. Contextual variations as distantiations from the two types of degree zero constitute deflections of a brand‟s internal structure or mirroring effects of a logico-semantic simulacrum. By virtue of brand image attributes‟ ability to be fleshed out in different narrative programs or TVCs against a master brand narrative, they constitute what Giroud and Panier call «discursive configurations» (1975: 95). The inventory of possible discursive configurations amounts to a brand‟s discursive dictionary or idiolectal dictionary, as Klinkenberg puts it (Klinkenberg 1990: 95). «The discursive dictionary may be presented as a stock of themes and patterns» (ibid: 96). According to Eco (1976) isotopies do not occur simply at the thematic level or, in our instance, at the level of a
greater generality; It comprises oppositions such as //animate// vs //inanimate//. The recurrence of a generic theme is tantamount to the establishment of an isotopy. 2[2] Rastier redefined the term as poly-isotopy, while retaining the same operative meaning (Rastier 1989: 280).

semic nuclear structure3[3], but also at the level of surface discourse elements, which he calls stylistic isotopies. Thus, a brand‟s dictionary includes not only its core image attributes, but also

3[3] Rastier (2005c) defines „theme‟ as a structured ensemble of semes and distinguishes amongst five thematic classes, according to the semantic domain in which they are located, viz. generic (generic isotopies determine the „subject‟ of a text), taxemic (i.e. pipe and cigar pertaining to the taxeme //tobacco//), domain-related, champ-related, dimension-related.

THURSDAY 24 JANUARY 2012 Human trash working for the secret services copied the contents of my HDD while being asleep; in case you become the recipient of any of my thousands of files, you will recognize them (especially individually photographed books) by the pictures of thumbs featured on various pages). Examples may be found in the below books:

GreimasMaupassant http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4e0fbkoawgj00xa Greimas – Du Sens I http://www.mediafire.com/?7ty3pfkt3w2as3b Greimas – Du Sens II http://www.mediafire.com/?fw36oy0013bsvob

(1976)

Sage Handbook of Semiotics Vols.1-4 http://www.mediafire.com/?sh292bb9iwzq475 http://www.mediafire.com/?i54wi7sb070utbg http://www.mediafire.com/?w1216y471amu1eo http://www.mediafire.com/?pwzxdeizgsjwyww
Greimas: Structural Semantics: http://www.mediafire.com/?wc3jm2m9d7mztlu Perelman-Tyteca:The New Rhetoric

http://www.mediafire.com/?9pnagc98mhh52ri http://dl.dropbox.com/u/86664157/new%20rhetoric%20perelman%20%20perelman.epub Ducrot-Todorov:Dictionary http://www.mediafire.com/?c0l4hwlnlqav3ad http://dl.dropbox.com/u/86664157/ducrot_todorov%20dictionary.epub Groupe μ-Traité du Signe Visuel http://www.mediafire.com/?c8kd1pv4jsfjtd8

Groupe μ-Rhétorique Générale http://www.mediafire.com/?8wkqg6pgou3xqtt (preferably use Epub Reader for Windows that allows for file enlargement) Many more to follow, just for the sake of (i) preventing secret services trash from making money out of stolen files (their main profession) (ii) parasites in the dead state of grease (mostly dressed in black and calling themselves "original" (basically an ellipsis for 'original thieves') (iii) publicizing as far and wide as possible how 'surveillance technology handlers' (i.e. military) in crooked states (certainly under supra-state auspices, featuring 'public/private alliances) constitute direct perpetrators in organized criminal activities featuring and being sanctioned by state mechanisms (quite extensive literature and lawsuits about the above will be published shortly)

O'Halloran-Multimodal Discourse http://www.mediafire.com/view/?666tt6mebplm0s6

Analysis

Notes on Greimas's Figurative Semiotics (g_rossolatos 2012): Download them before "secret room services" steal your files (again) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?o8q4gndhz9r8reb Interesting semiotic/constructionist reading of cults http://www.slideshare.net/grossolatos/semiotic-constructionist-reading-of-cults-and-sects

Who Greimas Bourdieu

has

used

the

term

'structuration'

and

when? (1966) (1977)

contextually enriching elements. Contextual brand elements attain to enrich a brand‟s narrative structure, but, as already noted, only to the extent that they do not compromise the integrity of either uniformly recurring surface discourse elements or the underlying image structure. Remarks Syntax (structuralist operations): Morphology of signs: Rhetorical operations of transformation:

Is the construct of brand personality non-salient? Occasionally counter-intuitive research results furnish interestingly alternative viewpoints on widely shared assumptions. This was my initial „attitudinal formation‟ in the light of the recently published in Marketing Theory 12 (3) commentary by Ehrenberg and Romaniuk , „Do brands lack personality‟? The main argument that cuts across this short viewpoint is that consumers hardly associate brands with personality traits and, hence, the brand personality concept is of minimal managerial saliency. The research output on which this evidently far-fetched conclusion draws stems from meta-analyses on Y&R‟s BAV database. The questioning method used in the data-collection process about image attributes is free, as against forced choice, which authors have found to be more „robust‟. Having accounted for the moderating factor of low attentiveness during the questioning process, the authors conclude that only 1 in 10 consumers actually attribute a personality trait to a brand. By leveraging this finding they extrapolate the limited applicability of the brand personality concept to the entire consumer research discipline. A couple of points that may be launched against this perhaps precarious generalization concern (i) the fact that the associative brand/attribute procedure (in the course of a natural language, and not in a lab
Giddens (1979)

Ever wondered what is the function of "taxation" in a rhetorically constituted ontological community? Look no further- See Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's analysis of the rhetorical concept of 'phoros' (and then to how 'charges' are calculated based on Baudrillard's Symbolic Exchange and Death). Name usage and publication chains (readings on Modal Fictionalism) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?rnhu8e3j1i3vwzp

context- a distinction, which bears directly on the appropriateness of using a free choice questioning method) does not take place in the context of reflecting about a brand as person and by implication of predicating traits of that person, but in the context of conferring axiological judgments about brands, hence employing similes/metaphors when evaluating brands. It is through an inductive process of assimilation that brands assume personas and not through a deductive process, that is of thinking about brands as persons and then ascribing attributes (ii) the generalization from this finding disregards the interpretive value of the brand personality metaphor as heuristic in qualitative research, as against its explanatory value in positivistic quantitative research, and, by implication, the value of the construct in eliciting associations during an exploratory phase. The extent to which the designatum of this construct as heuristic during the exploratory phase is isomorphic to its designatum during a confirmatory research phase is questionable and the possibility of answering this question, even tentatively, is a matter of marketing epistemology, while semiotics may contribute to such tantalizing issues. Exploring brand personality with fuzzy sets http://www.mediafire.com/view/?fy1ddbxrwzp10br

George Rossolatos: From e-branding to e-brand equity (in Interactive Advertising: Dynamic communication in the information era, LIBRIS Tech 2002) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?7gxfltn2r313y3u

http://www.scribd.com/doc/110874230/George-Rossolatos-2002-InteractiveAdvertising-dynamic-Communication-in-the-Information-Era-Editor-andCoauthor-CH-FROM-EBRANDING-to-E-BRAND-EQUITY George Rossolatos: The role of interactive media in an IMC plan (in Interactive Advertising: Dynamic communication in the information era, LIBRIS Tech 2002) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ch3bsbkl5qjjkcj http://www.scribd.com/doc/110876487/George-Rossolatos-2002-InteractiveAdvertising-dynamic-Communication-in-the-Information-Era-Editor-andCoauthor-CH-INTERACTIVE-MEDIA-in-an-IMC-PLAN George Rossolatos (editor and co-author): Interactive Advertising: Dynamic communication in the information era, LIBRIS Tech 2002 PART 1 http://www.mediafire.com/view/?3k8zkd3928n5r5e PART 2 http://www.mediafire.com/view/?88s6e57akwk733z PART 3 http://www.mediafire.com/view/?3q30owtb2gbe5mu Eero Tarasti- Signs of Music: A Guide to Musical Semiotics http://books.google.gr/books/about/Signs_of_Music.html?id=CO1Ej3oJmwAC&re dir_esc=y Facebook R.I.P: Mass graves for virtual communities http://www.travelerstoday.com/articles/2969/20120907/morgan-freeman-deadlegendary-actor-becomes-victim-of-social-media-death-hoax-dies-2012-twitterfacebook-rip-morgan-freeman-rumor-false.htm http://www.facebook.com/pages/RIP-Jim-Carrey/191624890881160 Perhaps the most ridiculous paper I've read so far http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/sem.2012.2012.issue-192/sem-20120075/sem-2012-0075.xml?format=INT

Rastier's Micro-Meso-Macro semantics http://www.mediafire.com/view/?9y9xormlkypqsy3

Another 'funky' addition to the 'unconscious' conundrum Semiotics: Researching the language of the consumer subconscious added-value.com
I can't really see the clarity in the proposed approach. There is occasional reporting of insights, but no description either of the conceptual framework or the method employed in data collection and interpretation.

The signature, the author and dedoublement Experiencing dedoublement first hand: the doubly ironic movement of obtaining an autograph by Derrida on a photocopied book, which was not authored by him!

Rhetorical Scrabble- Niche line extension

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Game rules Points are allocated not based on word values, but on different values allocated to tropes and schemes Each concatenation must depart from morphematic contiguity, but justified based on how lexemes are concatenated according to rhetorical figures Extra points will be awarded for complex rhetorical configurations based on different lexematic combinations Expected benefits Lexical concatenations will be listed under rhetoremes Semantic networks of rhetoremes/lexical concatenations will be uploaded on a dbase An encyclopedic network of rhetoremes will be generated

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Perspectives on self, group and personal identity Delphi technique and its role in maintaining group identities Neuro–Linguistic Programming: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience http://www.mediafire.com/?4gvgorx1rb8z5bm Mansfield: Subjectivity-Theories of the Self http://www.mediafire.com/view/?b7m2h4klk1fgnv6 Dennett: Brainstorms http://www.mediafire.com/view/?pxrhhzeyobuks2w

Badiou: Theory of the Subject http://www.mediafire.com/view/?deyr01f7aawzv5i

Hegel's theory of the subject http://www.mediafire.com/view/?u7bgy7d30kcvqdw Foundations of Cognitive Psychology http://www.mediafire.com/view/?th3q5d5yl6t282e Freud: Group psychology and the analysis of the ego http://www.mediafire.com/view/?v8jpgivbj5xmk9g Foucault: Technologies of the self http://books.google.gr/books/about/Technologies_of_the_Self.html?id=6p_cH0Dz Mb4C&redir_esc=y Foucault: The hermeneutics of the subject http://www.mediafire.com/view/?murn9uz7c8rq0xs Don Quixote and The Narrative Self (the advent of Homo quixotienses) http://philosophynow.org/issues/60/Don_Quixote_and_The_Narrative_Self

Narrative and Identity: Studies in Autobiography, Self and Culturehttp://www.mediafire.com/view/?yvc1yvl0ak5buse Autobiographical memory and the construction of a narrative self http://www.mediafire.com/view/?yc7dj4wkceen9zk

Rastier- Sense and Textuality http://www.mediafire.com/view/?vjs8a1adyvfby77 Rhetorical perspectives on film http://www.mediafire.com/view/?lpu5gaptnggqosq

Boutaud SÉMIOTIQUE ET COMMUNICATION http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ov4e3an5s7spny3 Barthes- Ancienne Rhétorique http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4pmvrb5wlqogf9m

Bruno Péquignot- Usages de l'image en sciences sociales http://www.mediafire.com/view/?y3tts1epnd9iuxj

Cicourel- Sémantique générative et structure de l'interaction sociale http://www.mediafire.com/view/?2dc53vnv1lco024

Cohen- Theories de la figure http://www.mediafire.com/view/?cvcska5srz4fd4f

Eco- Pour une reformulation du concept de signe iconique http://www.mediafire.com/view/?22wv2skjkncj3lu Fontanille- L’écriture entre support et surface : pour un dépassement de la problématique traditionnelle des écritures http://www.mediafire.com/view/?n0rm9ymr77bsl65 Sonesson- Methods and models in pictorial semiotics http://www.mediafire.com/view/?dp6zw6phvoxw1wp

MIck and Hetzel: Pursuing the Meaning of Meaning in the Commercial World: An International Review of Marketing and Consumer Research http://www.mediafire.com/view/?653dvzwkulsfwv5 Pasquier- Signe et signification des discours de marketing http://www.mediafire.com/view/?6p0jv3rvjo06v6c Fourier- On metaphor http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ypjm8h3kmag1t0w

French contributions to marketing semiotics http://www.mediafire.com/view/?53k7ph8icky7m9c

Gennette rhétorique restreinte http://www.mediafire.com/view/?66k76qvztjkytn8 Kress- Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication http://www.mediafire.com/view/?u9ol4c9e8h8w5w8

Kress and Van Leeuwen- The grammar of visual design http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ttswoay69md74rs Georges Peninou- Signes en publicité http://www.mediafire.com/view/?q5bo8ki4uichkw8

Berthelot-Instrumentalisations de la semiotique http://www.mediafire.com/view/?25oebsqv2v737s8 Metz- Au delà de l' analogie http://www.mediafire.com/view/?gpl324dnfm7grl1 Nef- Textual pragmatics http://www.mediafire.com/view/?44qq90b71xnw97y Danblon- Paradox in rhetorical proof http://www.mediafire.com/view/?he7go7f7ox6bs7o Schefer- Image: le sens investi http://www.mediafire.com/view/?c6n83bengs5ynb6 Todorov- Synecdoches http://www.mediafire.com/view/?b6dox69b7ljd3oz Cossette- Vers une grammaire de l'image publicitaire http://www.mediafire.com/view/?t8wcayzort581y5

Advances in visual semiotics (1994) http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/2699

Media discourse analysis (Van Dijk) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4r1ed68fza1bzzj

Popular stories about...stories dispelled With regard to "7 Basic Types of Stories: Which One Is Your Brand Telling?

Creatives explore humans' archetypal plots" http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/7-basic-types-stories-whichone-your-brand-telling-144164 Brand storytelling is a recurring theme in the marketing trade press. Standard approaches lay claim to archetypical structures, while occasionally evoking some sort of unconscious mechanisms that are operative behind certain themes‟ relative appeal over others (with disregard to any genealogically traceable patterns, capable of providing answers about how a theme is progressively popularized). Certainly some of the insights offered by such articles are a good read and some of them may even be taken on board while planning for brandcomms. However, the excessive focus and the limited scope of such approaches tends to be seriously misleading. In particular, what is intuitively rendered in brand lingo as “stories” and “archetypes” are offshoots of specific narratotological, semiotic and anthropological schools of thought. Jungian archetypes have not been validated as to their “archetypical” status. “Archetype” is certainly a catchy buzzword and it tends to resonate with certain groups, but it is at best lamentable to invest contingent normative patterns with the aura of a myth of origin. An intuitive reduction of the hundreds of models offered in the above disciplines for the sake of impression management neither advances knowledge not enhances its applicability; it just regurgitates common places. Then, focusing single-mindedly on the relevance of such a hazily conceived “storytelling” approach for the creative function of an advertising agency is stupendously misleading with regard to the utmost relevance of the science behind the storytelling lingo for brand management. At the end of the day, even if non-amortizable, advertising investments contribute to a company‟s most valuable assets, that is its brands. It is really worth pondering how come a company head will opt to allocate a considerable portion of a company‟s R&D budget to the application of a new technology in a field, such as production engineering, while disregarding the benefits that may be reaped by adopting a more scientific outlook towards brand equity management. As regards the scope of the potential applications of a scientific approach to managing intangibles, its restriction to the area of “advertising plot” is tantamount to blindfolded masochism. First and foremost, plot and narrative are completely different things. Moreover, plot alone will not do the job unless it is populated by signs. Perhaps you may complement your massively watered down approach to managing brand intangibles with an equally cooking-recipe-like “archetypical” approach to the plethora of expressive elements making up an ad textual surface or how transitions from surface discourse to a brand‟ s depth grammar are effected. It is at best annoying to witness such impression management tactics catapulted to scientific norms in the name of fast food archetypicalness. http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4ty3reo6i746de9

Asignifying semiotics based on Guattari's diagrams (just skip the vague/vain allusions to non-existing entities, such as 'capitalism', the rest is pretty much amenable to semiotic modelling) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?9159w00iwpuh5dt http://www.mediafire.com/view/?78f1x103q72nid3

Von Foerster, Understanding understanding http://www.mediafire.com/view/?u0vkd9dw6r2ncdl Bateson on double binds and Gordian knots http://www.mediafire.com/view/?o2ag35pejrid4di Deterrotorializing the text http://www.mediafire.com/view/?um343w71imbcuie

Jean-Marie Dru's classic on disruptive advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?263jt7o9qz81t81

Habermas's theory of pragmatics of social interaction: An application to ordinary discourse http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ybe7f94t8aclr9n http://www.mediafire.com/?6a65a441y4q8bww http://www.mediafire.com/view/?w5h1h82z82fznzm Rorty: Consequences of pragmatism http://www.mediafire.com/view/?d996vogqcjhg33f Putnam: Pragmatism and Relativism http://www.mediafire.com/view/?65pqhyhsg0hd77h

Floch's Visual Identities Bricolage and reading grids supreme http://www.mediafire.com/view/?hh9vbxka25gcgg8

Nietzsche on Low and High culture antedating Lyotard http://www.mediafire.com/view/?acx469e3wu8r7ct

Derrida on how metaphors become metaphorical http://www.mediafire.com/view/?a5speel9mkb56c7

Too much talk in the consumer research literature about "unconscious" mechanisms. Lacan's approach unparalleled http://www.mediafire.com/view/?5d3i7ywuyn0nfr4 http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ixp4f79fxj0lh9h http://www.mediafire.com/view/?p4bti9dxmei2x6h http://www.mediafire.com/view/?j41xd3d27kgwkew http://www.mediafire.com/?88vm8yh426buv8o http://www.mediafire.com/view/?rhpza30udi13fxu Laplanche and the unconscious http://www.mediafire.com/view/?wu1wm6uhhlm34hs Lacan and film theory http://www.mediafire.com/view/?t89xgkzxbda2bij Jameson on the Imaginary and the Symbolic http://www.mediafire.com/view/?yk5r7nrlr7c6756 Antecedents to cybernetic theories about the "observer"

http://www.mediafire.com/view/?oz8byenektlzbbd Seminal Nietzsche Readings Klossowski http://www.mediafire.com/view/?aam6b57xrwbeh68 Deleuze http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4k4chasgjdys85q Bataille http://www.amazon.com/Nietzsche-Georges-Bataille/dp/1557786445 Heidegger http://www.amazon.com/Nietzsche-Volumes-One-Two-Vols/dp/0060638419

Derrida galore http://www.mediafire.com/?n8l0a849pd8dzv8 Belk, Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods http://www.mediafire.com/view/?d12lc47z6ybo11u

Belk, Consumer Culture Theory http://www.mediafire.com/view/?v4wqe38i90m4bgi Philosophy and sci-fi films Plato's Cave, Descartes' Evil Genius, Neo as Christ and the Matrix; Heideggerean / Satrean existential phenomenology, Humean empiricism and Total Recall, Nietzsche's Zarathustra and Space Odyssey; Hawking and the Terminator (so much about chrononyms) and many, many more http://www.mediafire.com/view/?od64atmy3v1cp4m I would add: The Event (2003; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Event_%28film%29) and Heidegger's Ereignis (the event of appropriation- http://www.beyng.com/ ); Hot Tub Time Machine and Critchley's On Humour

Philosophy and Rhetoric http://www.mediafire.com/view/?zi1lrvcss3q48s1 rhetoric encyclopedia http://www.mediafire.com/view/?k6uony8nb1b4ty7

Handbook of applied communication research http://www.mediafire.com/view/?dp1dkut2n6i69ba Merleau Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception http://www.mediafire.com/view/?142rx40ijh10711 Hegel's Aesthetics http://www.mediafire.com/view/?urh8ah0we9398gf http://www.mediafire.com/view/?6rsl88s5siaqm9u What is the abstract schema of sacrifice and how has it been substantiated/reified in political theological, political discourse and the arts?

Bataille: Hegel, Death and sacrifice (Yale French Studies) http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2930112?uid=3738128&uid=2129&uid=2& uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101134985763 Nick Land: The thirst for annihilation http://www.mediafire.com/view/?jb3aijmjhye34k9 Keenan: The question of sacrifice http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4mm8oww2z52ds7d Human sacrifice in christian and jewish tradition http://www.mediafire.com/view/?0p6cwkz7kae7kmz The science of sacrifice http://www.mediafire.com/view/?y2u6siady183bur Beyond sacred violence http://www.mediafire.com/view/?mby4ph2o4nfybr3

Antecedents to Freud's reality principle Nietzsche's History of an Error from Twilight of the Idols http://www.mediafire.com/view/?nrqjqhspv3vy9u0

Handbook of Philosophical Logic http://www.mediafire.com/view/?o8709oykqyg3w87 Metaphysics of Everyday Life http://www.mediafire.com/view/?d642okt72333fwl

Lyotard on Underground Aesthetics http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ot6d8nf4cim4qy8

Can't you see??? Schutzian social phenomenological antecedents to occularcentric co-belonging and Foucaultian panopticism http://www.mediafire.com/view/?69fka41hw6vs6ls
Philosophical implications for branding? http://www.mediafire.com/view/?8obj75jgjt1b1vb

A trans-critique approach to the faculty of imagination http://www.mediafire.com/view/?5bebrxideahegib

Need for more Bourdieu in brand symbolism analysis http://www.mediafire.com/view/?yaikwa7elh01pca Advances in application in organizational analysis http://www.mediafire.com/?nqw84bqdb88bw52 Foucault's post-structuralist challenge Is there really a clear-cut distinction between structuralism and post-strucutralism or a latent continuity? Greimas proclaimed in the light of the definition of post-structuralism: "Then I'm a poststructuralist". Manfred Frank's historical analysis of how time-lags in the popularization of post-structuralism between the two continents were responsible for the delayed adoption of the "new" perspective are illuminating. http://www.mediafire.com/view/?1sgb1m3jsl9al9g Cassirer's Language and Myth http://www.mediafire.com/view/?en2qpyk6c54x5xp

Visual Anthropology Review http://www.mediafire.com/?5wlf771w2r9kapjhttp://www.mediafire.com/?5wlf771w 2r9kapj Deleuze on Cinema (or affect beyond re-cognition) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?2ydmuodb5qx8k2r

Searle's social ontology http://www.mediafire.com/view/?w3z8gy1gdm9u012 http://www.mediafire.com/view/?65ycc121jj02212

Psyche does not exist: The notion of soul was invented by Aristotle in De Anima
The concept of the psyche was developed by Aristotle as an epistemological schema in an instance of syllogistic aporia, in an attempt to answer questions about “something” that may be moved even in the absence of external stimuli

http://www.mediafire.com/?t6sj63w6t66a2vj

Ricoeur's Freud and Philosophy http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ft3xqyt7r4095b2

Heidegger's Poetry, Language, Thought

http://www.mediafire.com/view/?uxi2krx0cld3f76

Heidegger's Being and Time, Time and Being Chapter on Signs underexplored by semiotics Also, in the course of overcoming entrenched differences between phenomenology and structuralism, temporal ecstases and difference between authentic and inauthentic temporality of paramount importance http://www.mediafire.com/view/?48b60o1r4ao5dcp http://www.mediafire.com/view/?zreopqr5wkpqz29 http://www.mediafire.com/view/?wnt791it65yq462 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8wikR4cJ-8c On Deleuze's Difference and Repetition Materialist turn towards the ding-an-sich (and alternative take on the event of appropriation in the context of transcendental schematism). How long will it take for cognitivism to catch up with speculative philosophy? http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4aswza1r3c7agwe http://www.mediafire.com/view/?u2h4hz2ckvjp40m Are you lonesome tonight? http://www.mediafire.com/?9hovpdeibxoe968 http://www.mediafire.com/?8chuuz07sew1h6f

What's your "shape"?

We developed an Evolutionary Model which requires a generative dimension and the use of genetic algorithms to develop appropriate rules and strategies in order to produce a rule-based system which learns on the basis of feedback from the city's inhabitants. The structure of the model is specifically tailored to the scale and nature of the local social, environmental, historical and future situation (Virilio). http://www.mediafire.com/view/?3q4hj171wijay25

Van Dijk's turn to situational microsociology and bottom-up engineering (Saussure's Talking Heads revisited) http://www.mediafire.com/view/?l26azlmd09jk6pc

Visker on Lyotard's The Inhuman Condition http://www.mediafire.com/view/?gg8vhq75jzn3nvy

On Hjelmslev's theory of the sign: A Janus-like perspective in two directions (Sep 2012)

«The sign is an entity generated by the connection between an expression and a content» (Hjelmslev 1969: 47). Content and expression are designations of the functives that contract the sign function. «The sign function is in itself a solidarity. Expression and content are solidary- they necessarily presuppose each other» (Hjelmslev 1969:48). For Hjelmslev and the same holds for structuralism in general, content does not designate some sort of extralinguistic referent (in an atomistic sense), but the necessary correlate of expression qua functives in a sign function. In order to add further strength to this point, Hjelmslev employs the term «purport», an allegedly cryptic notion, which has been multifariously interpreted in the relevant literature. Despite the occasional inconsistencies in the employment of the term, it was primarily introduced in the Prolegomena in order to designate that «amorphous thought mass» that constitutes the substance of a form. The author explicitly refrains from framing the concept in psychological or philosophical terms, while opting for retaining its ambiguity (even though disambiguation is a key principle of the glossematic theory). The reason why it is introduced is to point out the fact that even though in different languages the content of an expression may be rendered in different linguistic chains, the

substance of the content as a sort of phenomenological intentional appropriation of the object to be described is the same, while varying in form. Thus, purport is the common denominator among various languages or the uniform content substance underpinning different forms of articulating content. «It is like the same handful of sand that is formed in different patterns […] it has no possible existence except through being substance for some form or another » (Hjelmslev 1969: 52). The relationship between content form and content substance, as purport, is arbitrary, yet substance depends on form for its morphing as such. In order to clarify the distinction between form and substance, as used by Hjelmslev, it might be useful to think of it in terms of two phases (for the sake of the argument and without implying any causal relationship between them), where in phase 1 one has an amorphous thought about a phenomenon, without being capable of articulating it, but having the purport or intentionality of articulating it. Once having acquired linguistic competency, he progressively manages to frame it in a conceptual form, thus articulating an initially amorphous thought substance into a coherent conceptual form. It should be noted en passant that Greimas‟s mode of appropriation of the initial conception of the substance of content by Hjelmslev is somewhat confused insofar as he ascribes to it a quasi-categorical status, even though ostensively alluding to this allegedly nebulous process quite eloquently through the employment of the metaphor of «depth of a web» [fond de toile, Greimas 1966: 106] in stark contradiction to its «amorphous» character (a nebula that conjoins the outside with the inside in the vein of the Peircean notion of „synechism‟). Thus, when he asserts that «substance of content constitutes this depth of the web, articulated into a small number of categories of the human mind, to which elements of the perception of the external world are added in order to render signification manifest» (Greimas 1966: 106), he seems to be conflating the form of content or the crystallization in concrete conceptual terms of an initially nebulous thought content with substance. The conceptual form may differ among languages, depending on the arbitrary demarcation points used for framing the phenomenon conceptually (see the example on colours classification in Hjlemslev 1969: 53, also used by Greimas in 1966:26; also see Eco 1976), but

the very intentionality or purport of framing as the substance of the form of content is uniform. By analogy, Hjelmslev splits the plane of expression as the other functive in a sign function into form and substance, where expression substance or purport is equivalent to the «phonetic zones» of a language as elementary, pre-articulatory, in terms of meaningful form, expressive units and expression form the ultimately articulated into words purported substance. Thus, the sign, as the in-between of the sign function encompassing as functives the planes of content and expression, «is a two-sided entity, with a Janus-like perspective in two directions, and with effect in two respects: outwards towards the expression-substance and inwards towards the content-substance»

(Hjelmslev 1969:58).

Brand equity exploration with Atlas.ti (Sep 2012) I am currently building a semiotic model of brand equity by drawing (in some respects) on Atlas.ti's analytical capabilities; very handy software, with exporting capability to SPSS and especially for discerning emergent patterns among data (over and above working with an a priori code scheme). Significant area for development in terms of modes of connection among elements. http://www.atlasti.com/index.html

Semiotic approach to nostalgia branding- interesting read http://www.mediafire.com/view/?8yde118q9otiw0t and the classic Retro Branding (exemplary literary piece, as much as insightful historiographical branding analysis) by Brown

http://www.amazon.com/Marketing-Retro-Revolution-StephenBrown/dp/0761968512

Ιs it the "crisis" or the outcome of excessive brand maturity? Strategies for mature brands
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ojmj4nd0u9yp57c

Media and Account planning Account planning
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?x0lzddkonb77boc What's the extent of model use among practitioners? http://www.mediafire.com/view/?blr4alx37jwu5x3

Media planning
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?x0lzddkonb77boc

Semiotic analyses of Foster's, Absolut and M&S Absolut http://www.mediafire.com/view/?34547gvbatl22zb Foster's http://www.mediafire.com/view/?4dkiddc7mosk2c6 M&S http://www.mediafire.com/view/?0j2urfcb7fvqg0s

Seminal papers on brand equity Global equity tracking http://www.mediafire.com/view/?9z6irdgdktffjev Ambler-Vrakatsas - How to manage brand equity
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?8628326zcb5n50b

An Approach to the Measurement, Analysis, and Prediction of Brand Equity and Its Sources
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?m0xgvg393w9h637

Brand Finance Global Intangibes Tracker
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?xcr8k25v267dudv

BE as a signalling phenomenon
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?3cjvl2yweivro16

The multidimensionality of brand knowledge
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?7p1r2wx2s3o1czs

The economics of consumer knowledge
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?lv24l3nfr4730g8

Biel- The hardness of the softer side of branding
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?qmb4qngmt67fc5p

Understanding, Measuring, and Using Brand Equity
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?5k4bu8e089bdzx7

Advertising and brand equity
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?61wj2ewpr979pzy

A Consumer-Orientated Framework Of Brand Equity And Loyalty
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?6j1w5mh17766mhm

Managing the factors which drive equity and determine behaviour
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?acc37p2nt779qad

Brand equity - a lifestage model
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?o6186qczv6fba44http://www.mediafire.com/view/?o6186

qczv6fba44 Converting image into equity
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?xkgh2bl99wkge94http://www.mediafire.com/view/?xkgh2

bl99wkge94 Copy-Testing and Brand Equity: What's the Connection?
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?dnv7dj9msu5344m

Understanding Core Brand Equity: Guidelines For In-Depth Elicitation of Brand Associations
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?2gacd11bdxrf69x

Measuring brand equity - a consumer-led approach
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?e2pdzajfzwawgyw

The Qualitative Dimension of Brand Equity
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?y62i6ddkcs2cn9n

+47 RECENT RESEARCH PAPERS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF BE http://www.mediafire.com/?9utj8w57glmb2aa

"Measuring advertising by the effect on sales is the second myth whose time to depart has come. That being so, one should assess advertising against changes in brand equity rather than changes in sales" . THUS SPOKE AMBLER IN 1998. ANYONE LISTENING IN 2012???
http://www.mediafire.com/view/?y21pk67aov66e1y

Tracking studies don't lie. And donkeys do fly. http://www.mediafire.com/view/?15210n3nn2e78n4

MARKETING ACCOUNTABILITY EXTRAVAGANZA As repeatedly noted, lack of metrics is not an issue, rather what is at stake is robust methods for multi-source synthesis http://www.mediafire.com/view/?lolrb35m15fjiqu http://www.mediafire.com/view/?t9v4jtccscyrxjr http://www.mediafire.com/view/?xx8dke9i4zaqn2l

ARF Review of Brand Keys research http://www.mediafire.com/view/?z96th38ur1a77u1 McDonald Mktng accountability http://www.mediafire.com/view/?54a96107lcaa8ba Accounting for intangibles: Value creation in the knowledge economy http://www.mediafire.com/view/?tozzu730w98c99d BEWARE THE SILVER METRIC http://www.mediafire.com/view/?dty1vlomlj6aoom Marketing and the bottom line http://www.amazon.com/Marketing-Bottom-Line-2nd-Edition/dp/0273661949 Bennetton Brand-Valuation

http://www.mediafire.com/view/?nrgod9orz1da9vt

Journal of Intellectual Capital: Intangibles: A synthesis of current research http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1506479 IPA THE INTANGIBLES REVOLUTION http://www.mediafire.com/view/?zof1kgcfsk1x373 Proposed model for measuring returns on brand investments Valuing Returns on Brand Investments and Brand Extensions http://www.mediafire.com/view/?corg6xdiajftfco

Is marketing mix modelling a panacea? Apparently not! Here are some of the pitfalls...
http://marketingscience.blogspot.gr/2005/06/mix-modelling-muddles-marketers.html The same goes for SEM issues and opinions on structural equation modelling http://www.mediafire.com/view/?841bo4ckbb5yry9 SEM and statements regarding causality http://www.mediafire.com/view/?5979pobzu555c69 Using Structural Equation Modeling in Causal Relationship Design for BalancedScorecards http://www.mediafire.com/view/?83a6gh0lpda8row

In fact, to what extent and in what fashion may statements about causal interaction be made among marketing phenomena?
Statistical models and causal inferences

http://www.mediafire.com/view/?laaw81q9p6dy9v2 Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences: Measuring Variations (Methods Series) http://www.amazon.com/Causality-Causal-Modelling-Social-Sciences/dp/1402088167

Amidst an engaging dialogue between connectionism and binarism, an ontological realist account seeks to do away with brand associations? What are the odds? The reality of brands: Towards an ontology of marketing

http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3487720?uid=3738128&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7 0&uid=4&sid=21101142794777

RETRO IRONY AND «ORIGINAL» INAUTHENTICITY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZAKwpdgTZI

This is not a Bardot archetype, this is cacectype. Drawing on a libidinal textual economy of fetishized close-ups and a bricolage of simulacra of ensnaring fleetingness, a truly iconic brand lands an ironically self-defeating string of artifacts from the «original» museum of inauthenticity, where anchors are tired of…anchoring.

DEODORANTS ADVERTISING CASE STUDY George Rossolatos, June 2012 Old Spice advertising

Ad script

Establishing shot: Close-up to the spokesperson - establishment of authority Wide-angle camera POV to the ensuing sequence [full shot]: Hello ladies, where can you go when your man smells like me? Close your eyes and I will show you [PAUSE] Can you feel it? The sand between your toe-toes. I do! Sequence 2 [FADE OUT-FADE IN; lap-dissolve]: Surprise, you‟re on a mountain peak; what little sweet sha-la-la‟s you love to hear. Sequence 3 [FADE OUT-FADE IN; lap-dissolve]: Firework colors, turn our world upside down [bridging shot]. Sequence 4 [FADE OUT-FADE IN ; lap-dissolve]: I hope you like water, because when neck-deep in the sweet waters of friendship and trust. You see, when your man smells like the fresh scents of Old Spice… Sequence 5 [FADE OUT-FADE IN ; lap-dissolve; focus-pull; voice tone and pitch manipulation]: …you can go anywhere…Unless, of course, you prefer to stay…in. Closing shot [superimpose]: Whistling sonic marker & Brand logo & [punchline] Smell like a man, man.

Multimodality in focus

The dominant modality in this commercial is verbal. Visual and sonic signs are supportive and function as supplementary anchors to the verbal narrative that is deployed by the key actor. The following sound effects (SFX) are employed by sequence: Natural environment SFX (Sequence 1), Goat SFX (transition from Sequence 1 to Sequence 2), Haarp SFX (Sequence 2), Air SFX (Sequence 2), Fireworks SFX (Sequence 3), Natural water SFX (Sequence 4), Violin SFX (Sequence 5). The sonic marker of whistling (8 whistlings) enhances orally the brand‟s signature.

The surface discursive structure of the ad text

The text appeals to a male audience through appeal to an inter-gender dialectic and through appeal to emotions. It dramatizes the negative experiences associated with odorous armpits, that is avoidance of public places, through a reversal strategy that avoids direct representation of the negative aspects of odorous armpits (i.e. extreme close-ups to the concerned body parts), while opting for an explicit stress on the positive aspects of non-odorous armpits (i.e. freedom of movement). The narrative capitalizes on peer-pressure exerted by women towards men in the context of an inter-gender dialectic, by addressing men as seen through the eyes of women (and men who are not sympathetic towards odorous armpits). The reversal strategy pursued at the level of exposition of a negative experience is also manifested at the level of stereotypes. As against portraying females as the object of desire of males, males are portrayed as the object of desire for females. Old Spice assumes the character of object of desire by appealing to the positive emotive associations potentially formed by a female audience in the absence of the negative experience of odorous armpits. Thus, the rhetorical technique of antanaclasis[1] employed in the punchline in the closing sequence «Smell like a man, man» plays on the double entendre of the lexeme «man», where in the first instance it connotes the Old Spice prototypical representation of man, as desired object for women by virtue of not

[1] Antanaclasis: a repetition of word or phrase whose meaning changes in the second instance.

being associated with the odorous concept of man, whereas in the second instance it denotes the non-Old Spice concept of a man with odorous armpits, which is in line with stereotypical representations about the hormone producing male species.

The brand‟s signification is established through a relay function, where the meaning of each sequence is suspended, until closure is effected through the closing sequence.

Hybrid Mythopoetic/urban sociocultural natural co-text

The ad text is anchored in a mythopoetic context of variable ontological intensity. Sociocultural oppositions are progressively dissolved in the brand‟s discourse that effects a coincidentia oppositorum. The myth, in Levi-Strauss‟s terms, affords to resolve the anxiety stemming from mismanagable and tantalizing oppositions, by furnishing a space, where these oppositions dissolve in a higher order. This is reminiscent of the Synthesis phase in the Human GDA model. The mythopoetic context is edified on a cosmological discursive order, where «man» (in the second sense) passes through the four elements of nature (earth, air, fire, water) in order to be «reborn» in the sublating discursive order instituted in the text of Old Spice. The inter-textual anchoring of the Old Spice ad text in the discursive order of a cosmological account affords to invest the brand with deeply laden associations. These

associations are facilitated by a fusion of the cosmological account with an urban setting, as suggested by the closing sequence, that reinstates the mythic elements in an urban predicament. The deployment of the brand‟s myth is enacted against the background of prototypical representations in the form of master visual signifiers that function metaphorically as follows:

Earth (the beach setting of the second sequence)

The visual of the goat, symbol of fertility with theological connotations (i.e. Satan, Lucifer, the goat-faced pagan god Pan), connected with earth and matter and tied up with the lexeme «surprise» (matter as pure chance) which is succeeded/sublated by the Apollonian (as suggested by the visual sign of the Haarp) spirit, in line with the Dionysian/Apollonian dialectic put forward by Nietzsche in the Birth of Tragedy.

The classical oppositions are sublated by the brand‟s mythic structure, which gives rise to a third perspective or a hybrid discourse, wherein the «old concept» of an odorous man is dissolved into a new world of desired and non-odorous men. Thus, drawing on Fairclough‟s model (text-discourse-socio-cultural) the emergence of a new sociocultural order, which values men as objects of desire for women, is coupled with a new value system that replaces the old concept of odorous man with the new concept of man, equipped with the «fresh scents of Old Spice». From a CDA point of view, this ad text also portrays lucidly the process whereby a dominant discourse is instituted. This new cultural order is brought about textually through the institution of new metonymical relationships, such as sand for smell, which evokes synaesthetically the repulsive feeling of smelly armpits, by playing on the consonance between sand and smell, thus instituting audiovisually a conjunction in absentia, also facilitated by the rhetorical question «Can

you feel it in your toe-toes»? (sand in your toes generates a feeling of inconveniece and so does a nasty smell).

Cultural oppositions

Friendship/trust vs Danger/Alienation On a sentential level, «sweet waters of friendship and trust» (sequence 4) connote the constrained territory demarcated by the brand‟s discourse, a befriending discursive territory, as against the salted, cruel, open sea of wilderness and alienation. The brand promise «You can go anywhere» is constrained in the brand‟s discursive territory, while consumers‟ values orientation is effected by the rhetorical topography instituted by the brand‟s internal grammar in the brand‟s ad text. If the brand promise were to be perceived literally, then it would lead to a contradiction in terms, as suggested by the disjunction in absentia that emerges by reading the brand promise «anywhere» through its posited opposite, that is as venturing in the salted seas of wilderness and alienation. This is a clear incidence of suppressing contradictions as a reading-through the logical implications of the key terms posited in the ad text.

Inside/Outside The values with which the inside/outside dialectic is invested are bifurcated. The disjunction in absentia instituted through the sweet waters metaphor suggests that outside of the brand‟s discourse lies danger. The monologue of the closing sequence suggests that with Old Spice you can go anywhere, which «anywhere» in fact consists in the rhetorical loci sanctioned by the brand‟s discourse, which discourse culminates in a coincidentia oppositorum, where the primary elements of creation are sublated in the immanentized cosmogonic account. The closing utterance «unless, of course, you prefer to stay … in» constitutes a

calculated and tantalizing ironic subversion of the intended meaning, insofar as the seeming opposition «outside/inside» collapses into a self-appropriating tautology. The meta-linguistic typology of tautology is manifested on a corporeal level through the descriptor «toetoes» in the opening sequence. The lexeme «toetoes», appearing in a

performative utterance that is anchored in a tropical beach videme, is suggestive both of the Toetoes Bay (the easternmost of three large bays lying on the Foveaux Strait coast of Southland, New Zealand, the others being Te Waewae Bay and Oreti Beach ), but also, synecdochically, of the «whole» as sublating tautology, where oppositions collapse («toe‟toe-» as elliptical tauto-logy, as not yet being whole, as an anticipatory structure of a wholeness that is yet to come, that is revealed at the closing sequence of the ad text that constitutes the auroral moment of the text‟s closure unto itself, thus repeating the selfreferential conditioning of the text as the «closed openness» demarcated by the brand‟s discourse).

Lynx advertising

Ad script

New Lynx Excite. Even Angels will fall.

Multimodality in focus

The dominant modality in this commercial is visual. The oral modality (a cover version of Air‟s song «Sexy Boy») is employed as background music investment, but with a transposition of music genre from pop electronica to choir music (in line with the thematic structure of the commercial). The verbal modality is employed in the closing packshot, which effects a meaning closure on the narrative.

The surface discursive structure of the ad text

The commercial portrays a group of women in the form of angels falling from the sky on a popular sub-urban location (rather like a village setting). The «fall» has been instigated by the Lynx deodourant fragrance, which has been sprayed onto a male biker‟s

body. The female angels renounce their sanctity by smashing their nimbus, march towards the biker (in a catwalk style) with a voluptuous look, and give in (as an implicature) to the carnal pleasures promised by the Lynx brand. The biker, half naked in the closing sequence, directs his gaze towards the sky in utter dismay, while linking the angels‟ fall with the Lynx effect.

The mythopoetic co-text of the Lynx ad text

The text apparently capitalizes on the theological myth of the fallen angels and the perennial dialectic of good vs. evil. However, it gives a new twist to the myth. Whereas in the original version angels fell because they disobeyed the will of God, in the Lynx version angels fell because they were attracted to the new Lynx fragrance. Additionally, whereas angels in the original text are sex-less, in the Lynx narrative they are females. This pictorial representation of angels plays on the double entendre of angel, as a sexless, winged mythopoetic entity, and as used in «natural language», that is as a metaphor for a person of exceptional beauty. The ad text‟s narrative opens up a hybrid, third way of interpreting the concept of angel, by fusing theological with urban metaphors. Additionally, as with the case of Old Spice, there is a reversal of stereotypes, where the male is posited as the object of desire and females as predators. The myth of the «fall» is resemanticized in the context of the brand‟s discourse, while effecting a parallel shift of the causal driver behind the fall, from God to Lynx. This metonymical transposition attains to effect a «benefits-transfer», through reversal, from God to the person who applies Lynx to his body, that is to man. Man becomes God by applying Lynx, to which even angels are lured. Paradise is lost only to be regained in the immanent world of carnal desire. Thus, from a CDA point of view, a new

sociocultural ethos is instituted through the ad text‟s inter-textual import of the notion of «sanctity», as a conversion from transcendental to immanent values (the smashing of the nimbus), and particularly at the bodily level. Lynx celebrates Nietzsche‟s death of God, by replacing God with man, a fragranced man to whose attraction even angels can‟t resist. In terms of discursive type (drawing on Bahktin‟s intra/inter discoursal levels), the ad follows up on preceding employments of the Angel visual metaphor in ad texts from brands, such as Philadelphia cream cheese, Lancia cars and Victoria‟s Secret fragrance.

Right Guard advertising

Ad Script

Opening sequence [located in a movie-theater, where a couple is watching a horror movie]: Male actor sitting on movie theater seat, holding pop-corn, next to his girlfriend [camera angle focusing on sweaty armpit POV]

Sequence 2: [sound from the film] Aaahhh… Sequence 3: Girlfriend repeating the same sound, while turning away from boyfriend in disgust [close-up on girlfriend‟s reaction]

Sequence 4 [Speakage]: Start your day right.

Sequence 5 [Speakage]: With new Right Guard extreme [packshot]

Sequence 6 [Speakage]: a first 48 hour anti-perspirant with antibacterial super-molecules that fight body odour at its source for 48 hours. [Product/ingredients frames]

Sequence 7 [Speakage]: Extreme protection, extreme confidence [shot: boyfriend with two girlfriends].

Sequence 8 [Speakage]: New Right Guard extreme 48-hour protection against body odour [packshot/ claims superimpose].

Multimodality in focus

The dominant modality in this commercial is verbal, supported by visual. The occasional employment of SFX attains to add a hyperbolic twist to the key elements of the narrative, such as the exclamation «Aaahhh» in Sequence 2.

The surface discursive structure of the ad text

The commercial is rooted in a functional advertising style. It employs a mixed emotive/rational route to persuasion about the benefits of the brand, by capitalizing on background expectancies in a boyfriend/girlfriend relationship. Sequences 1-3 focus on the emotional reactions of uncomfort and disgust generated in the face of sweaty and odorous armpits and the feeling of alienation this experience is likely to cause between the members of a couple. The narrative strategy follows a typical line, which focuses on the dramatized portrayal of a problem associated with a particular consumptive experience, followed by the solution in the context of the brand‟s discourse. The solution is substantiated through appeal to the tangible ingredients included in Right Guard, which are presented in a literary form (so-called «marketing ingredients»), in this case with the employment of the lexeme «antibacterial super-molecules». The rational benefit stemming from using Right Guard is 48 protection against body odours, while the emotional benefit rests with counteracting the aforementioned alienation. This claim is augmented hyperbolically by the employment of the descriptor «extreme» and by positing a homology between «confidence» and «protection».

Confidence opens up connotatively to the ability to attract females, which is extended from the key male actor‟s regaining his girlfriend‟s confidence, who sits on his left-hand side, to attracting a second female, sitting on his right-hand side.

Inter-textuality, discursive orders and sociocultural analysis in focus

A CDA reading of the sociocultural predicament in which this ad text is located might suggest that the specific employment of white, heterosexual, middle-class actors is an indirect legitimation of a dominant stereotype, which excludes other possible structural couplings among social actors. The same holds for legitimating tacitly a movietheater night-out as a dominant entertainment outlet, as against, for example, a visit to a circus performance. Furthermore, in terms of latent presuppositions underpinning the narrative, females are represented as ex positio gatekeepers of a cultural order that regulates the contours of a practical ethos, in terms of practices pertaining to caring-for-oneself, as amply illustrated by Foucault in The History of Sexuality. A biological phenomenon pertaining to a hormonal imbalance is appropriated culturally, thus marking the normative requirements that underpin acceptable inter-gender interaction among social actors. The dramaturgical effect of a prototypical representation of male hyper-fertility, as suggested through the pictorial metaphor of potentially copulating with two, rather than one, females, also challenges a monogamous stereotype and invests the brand with a complementary promise of promiscuity, thus opening up the notion of „extremity‟ polysemically to a sexual dimension. This double entendre engraved in the lexemes «confidence» and «protection», which functions at the same time denotatively on the functional level of anti-odour protection and connotatively on the sociocultural level of sexual promiscuity, attractiveness and success, affords to invest the brand with the requisite emotional rewards, thus augmenting its relevance. In terms of discursive stylistics, the brand‟s narrative leverages the cinematic discourse type, while creating a continuity in Sequence 3 between the plot features of the movie («Aaahhh») and the female actor‟s respective reaction. This inter-textual transfer

of manifest plot elements attains to anchor the negative emotional experience evoked by the brand‟s discourse in a familiar discursive order, thus enhancing its relevance, credibility and appeal.

Similarities and differences amongst the three ad texts

Pursuant to the analysis of the last three sub-sections that were aimed at laying bare how a brand‟s discourse is formed at the three levels of text, discourse and sociocultural co-text, as well as how a brand‟s discourse co-creates a cultural order through the institution of new moral maxims, let us conclude by comparing and contrasting the three ad texts across the three levels. All texts employ rhetorical techniques, but in various forms and with variable intensity. Metaphorical language is predominant throughout, however the three texts employ schemes and tropes in different ways and against the background of different objectives. Old Spice employs antanaclasis as a key scheme in its punchline, Lynx employs reversal in order to appropriate a dominant theological discourse, Right Guard employs hyperbole in order to enhance the dramaturgical experiential effect accompanying the negative experience of body odours. Old Spice leverages mythopoetic structures in terms of cosmological models in order to anchor the brand‟s discourse in deeply laden cultural archetypes, and the same holds for Lynx, which capitalizes on theological discourse in order to effect a transition from God to Man. Right Guard leverages patterns of social interaction in order to add credibility to its message. Inter-textuality and genre cross-fertilization lie at the heart of the three brand discourses. This inter-textual embededness of the three ad texts, from a Human GDA point of view, attains to create a hybrid discourse, a third way, where elements from dominant cultural archetypes are re-semanticized syncretically on a new synthetic level. Last, but not least, all three brand discourses either uphold a given sociocultural order or transform it according to their intended positioning. Old Spice re-creates the boundaries of social space and freedom of movement by positing the limits of «outside»

as lying within the confines of the brand discourse‟s internal grammar. Lynx rejoices the «death of God» in an act of angelic defiance and inaugurates the celebration of carnal pleasures. Right Guard augments its brand promise by appeal to sexual promiscuity.

WALKERS SUNBITES PACKAGING CASE STUDY Feb 2012 In the context of the progressive premiumization of the crisps category, Walkers Sunbites repackaging initiative that took place in November 2011 may be conceived as an advancement in the crisps category‟s aesthetic codes. The free-form design structure of the pack that is reminiscent of children‟s drawings, yet with a clear artistic touch that sets it apart from a random juxtaposition of visual signs attains to anchor the sub-brand in a more lifestyle oriented territory, as against a unilateral reliance on product-centric benefits, relating to fat contents, baking process, shape and thickness of the crisp and flavor. The four variants that make up the sub-brand‟s portfolio are distinguished by their soft colors and visual elements that complement the key visual of the sun, which attains to transfer overcoded connotations to the sub-brand, as a source of energy and vitality. The stylistic approach of the key visual, which substantiates metaphorically wholegrain goodness as the functional substratum of the sub-brand, is reminiscent of Innocent Smoothies‟ stylistic approach, which by now has managed to carve a distinctive territory in consumers‟ associations as a «what you see is what you get» product offering, whose simplicity and no surprises approach in terms of manufacturing process is reflected in the design structure. Furthermore, the new packaging approach evinces a multi-segment orientation, regarding its prospective appeal to key segments in the crisps category. Over and above the apparent appeal to the health-conscious segment, which, based on Mintel‟s 2011 Snacks category report accounts for 20% of the entire market, it is relevant, from a gender point of view, to the female segment, which is more concerned about calories‟ intake and ingredients than the male one, also attested by the overall design approach. Further attestation of the sub-brand‟s targeting primarily a female audience is yielded by the TVC that accompanied the relaunch, which features a grandmother and a niece as key actors, while portraying the brand‟s persona as being equally appealing on a transgenerational basis. By leveraging brand association transfers on an age basis (i.e. grandma to niece), the brand personifies its heritage and authority. At the same time, it manages to justify its appeal to the over 55 segment, which is even more concerned with health issues. By virtue of its almost cosmetic design it is also suitable for conspicuous consumption, as

well as suitable for in home conspicuous display, but also for occasions, such as consumption during lunch breaks in the office. Moreover, the employment of refined descriptors in the variants‟ positioning statements, such as «sumptuous match», «succulent oven roasted onion» enhance their relevance to more upscale consumers. However, threat of diffuse positioning. Another structural element of the pack design that merits emphasis is the FOP featuring the experiential benefit statement «Try moments of extraordinary pleasure» underneath the variant descriptor, which constitutes a relative innovation for the category at hand. By effecting a closure on the manifest elements of the brand‟s architecture, not only at the level of ingredients and functional benefits, but also at the level of experiential benefits, it underscores its intended positioning as a lifestyle brand on the pack and not merely by extension in the context of advertising comms or promo mechanisms (i.e. McCoy‟s darts competition, which emphasizes the brand‟s male positioning). However, this subtle move should be further elaborated in such a manner as to feature different experiential claims for different variants, as against a uniform statement, which, in a sense, undercuts the strategic value of its employment. In terms of subtler association transfers, it features the Walkers mother-brand logo elegantly on the top left corner, disproportionately sized to the subbrand name, which features prominently on the upper half of the FOP. In this manner, the subbrand appropriates the mother brand‟s heritage and authority, but discretely and in a transitory fashion, as its intended positioning that is targeted to the above mentioned audiences is not fit for any of the existing subbrands in Walkers‟ portfolio, also apparently in an attempt to minimize cannibalization. Further opportunity for building a lifestyle myth on the BOP.

Some of the oldest tricks in the book http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-business-coach/200809/in-terms-impressionmanagement-team-obama-is-kicking-team-mccains-but http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpYEJx7PkWE Popular marketing misconceptions n.1 (a) That semiotics is the same as narratology (b) As an extension of (a) that narrative approaches to branding are restricted to... PR (c) That semiotic approaches to narrative are about "telling stories" (d) That semiotics is a one-size-fits-all approach or that anything goes when it comes to "applying" different perspectives (e) That semiotic models lack "validity" (in the statistical sense)

All time favorite book: http://www.amazon.com/Remote-Viewing-Secrets-A-Handbook/dp/1571741593 And the soundtrack: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTXb1VmzIx4

May 25/26th http://semiofest.com/?page_id=65 The 11th World Congress of Semiotics Time: October 5 – 9, 2012 Location: Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China http://www.semio2012.com/ Organizers: Organizers: Ricardo Nogueira de Castro Monteiro - Universidade Anhembi Morumbi (Brazil) castromonteiro@me.com Kristian Bankov - New Bulgarian University (Bulgaria) kbankov@nbu.bg George Rossolatos - University of Kassel (Germany) grosolatos123@myway.com Semiotics Applied to Marketing Communication and Consumer Culture Since the 1990s, Semiotics has increasingly been applied as a tool to analyze from commercial communication to market research and consumer culture in general. Differently from other branches of semiotics research, Semiotics Applied to Marketing Communication - more and more internationally referred to simply as "Applied Semiotics" - has made itself visible not by an expressive academic production of books and articles but rather by private presentations and reports confined to the limits of Business-to-Business (B2B) relations, due to the widespread practice in the corporate world of imposing confidentiality clauses. Nonetheless, Applied Semiotics has developed a considerable repertory of analytical and methodological tools with many important contributions, such as working simultaneously with concepts and methods developed by the different schools of semiotics (e.g.: French, Italian, American and Russian), developing strategies to analyze syncretic texts in supports that run from conventional to the so-called new media (internet, mobile phones and/or tablets), finding almostpedagogical solutions to express complex semiotic concepts to a lay audience and, last

but not least, producing a considerable amount of knowledge by direct request of society, thus establishing a very positive and healthy dialog between the academic, corporate and social world. The present round table intends to confer more visibility to Applied Semiotics research, exposing some of its analytical, methodological and conceptual contributions as much as reporting its commercial efficiency as a tool on Marketing research and the Consumer culture in general. Please send abstracts and papers in Word doc or pdf attached to an email to the Round Table organizers (castromonteiro@me.com ; kbankov@nbu.bg ; grosolatos123@myway.com). The abstracts must have no less that 200 and no more than 500 words (including references) and the paper must be delivered in 15 to 20 minutes (including discussion). The RT is held in English. The following information must be send together with the submission: Round Table: No. 52 Name: Country: Affiliation: Professional / positional / academic title: Paper title: Mobile phone: Email: Deadline: June 30, 2012. Notification: July 15, 2012. REGISTRATION 1. RATES OF REGISTRATION FEE Participants of the IASS Congress in Nanjing are expected to remit the registration fee to the organizing committee. The deadline for registration fee reception is August 31, 2012. In order to encourage early registration and attract young students, different rates are offered as follows: Now-Jun 30: US$250; July 1st- August 31: US$300 Half-fee (Students): US$130; US$150 2. PARTICULARS ABOUT THE REMITTANCE Bank to remit the fee to: THE INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL BANK OF CHINA Bank address: NO 122-1 NINGHAI ROAD NANJING CHINA Beneficiary‟s account: 4301011419001081051 Beneficiary‟s name: NANJING NORMAL UNIVERSITY As for remittance information, please write: IASS NANJING CONGRESS REGISTRATION (FULL FEE) or IASS NANJING CONGRESS REGISTRATION (STUDENT FEE) SWIFT code:

US$: ICBKCNBJJSP Euros: ICBKCNBJNJG 3. CANCELLATION If you want to cancel your attendance, we are grateful if you could notify us of your intention as early as possible. We are sorry to charge you the cancellation fee, which is 30% of your registration fee if you inform us of your cancellation before July 2012, 50% in July and August, and 100% after August. ● For registration and abstract-presenting, please contact the vice secretary general of the Preparatory Committee: Haihong Ji: semio2012@hotmail.com ● For presenting proposals for organizing new session activities, please contact the secretary general of the Preparatory Committee: Yongxiang Wang: nshdyxwang@163.com

Prof. Kristian Bankov www.bankov.net Vice-rector for international affairs and public relations and Head of the Southeast European Center for Semiotic Studies at New Bulgarian University 21 Montevideo str.; office 126 Tel: +359 2 8110126 Fax: +359 2 8110171 1618 Sofia BULGARIA

COCA-COLA AND THE LOGIC OF GENERAL COMMUTATION The 60s slogan and long-lasting music variations on the key theme "Things go better with Coke" are still hard to beat! Viva the logic of general commutation! http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/BaudrillardSimulacra_and_Simulation.pdf

What do Kraft and Coca-Cola have in common?

Deleuze!
Coca-Cola liquid content = Deleuze's supple structures Kraft's Mondelez = ... Monde Deleuze http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2012/mar/22/krafts-road-tomondelez http://www.reelseo.com/coca-cola-secret-formula-revealed-liquid-content/ Deleuze and space (striated vs supple) http://books.google.gr/books?id=ErYaa2Co65cC&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=deleuze+supp le+striated&source=bl&ots=cxQrH6onDq&sig=eLckprTCWfFVvWFaTPX2FxAGjLY& hl=el&sa=X&ei=II2ZT539OXe4QS_hZzFBg&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=deleuze%20supple%20striated &f=false

Old news in new hats, but still interesting www.brandcartography.com

Preview of L.Oswald's 'Marketing Semiotics' (Oxford University Press 2012) review... "Grandiose claims regarding the value of binarist approaches to the organization of brand signification, such as «the binary analysis of cultural data provides a window onto the myths and archetypes that structure the collective unconscious» (Oswald 2012, 13), coupled with an unfortunate obfuscation of the constructionist underpinnings of structuralism with metaphysics and a complete absence of any coherent model of brand equity, contrary to programmatic declarations, certainly do not constitute an advancement compared to traditional structuralist semiotic approaches, such as Floch‟s (2001) and Semprini‟s (1992), whose work must be thoroughly reviewed prior to venturing in this field of research. Furthermore, it is doubtful whether the author has even read the original texts, judging from the utter lack of page references. It is really annoying to raise claims about writing within a structuralist tradition, where the only reference to structuralism is an unreferenced citation of the used-to-death semiotic square, albeit presented in an acontextual manner vis a vis its theoretical contours, the source of which is not even matched correctly in the Bibliography. All in all, a patchwork with unclear theoretical leanings and orientation that is significantly demanding in coherence"

Deconstructing marketing series- TNS Semiometrie: what’s the buzzword? It‟s not news that a considerable portion of consumer behavior literature is watered down psychology (inasmuch as a considerable portion of psychology is watered down philosophy). Applied consumer research models tend to rest on even more watered down assumptions for the sake of complexity reduction and moreover of avoiding the risk of incomprehensibility on behalf of clients. Hard as it may be to discern a fine dividing line between a conceptual model that does not deviate greatly from the basic premises of the underlying theoretical approach(es) and a conceptual model that constitutes a lamentable distortion of existing theories, there are instances where the alleged application of theoretical perspectives has no actual bearing on the perspectives‟ basic premises. In the case of Semiometrie, viz a method for «probing the subconscious», not only it fails to address coherently any psychoanalytic perspective (eg Freudian, Lacanian, Kleinian, Guattarian), but the very objective(s) which the method aims to address are in utter discrepancy with the method: The stated objectives consist in «identifying subconscious associations», in a «statistical

attempt to boil language down to its constituent parts», by asking consumers simply to rate their «warmth level» towards 210 selected words, most often used in common parlance. Through this method of data collection, accompanied by a principal components analysis, the objective is to «probe the subconscious mind». Unfortunately, this does not point to any sort of subconscious mind, but to the prevalence of common places or loci communes through increasing levels of abstraction and to how these common places are reflected in the semantic contiguity of commonly used words. Is this semiotics? Hardly so and this is not the first case of abusing semiotics. The primary issue lies with the decontextualization of signifiers; semiotics‟ power rests precisely in its paying extra careful attention to the context of discourse, in parallel to the discursive vehicles employed on each occasion, as well as the syntax of their combination. In the case of Semiometrie signifiers have been decontextualized from any discursive setting, and that would not complicate things much (at least in the context of applied marketing research, if not for a similar academic endeavor) weren‟t it for the employment of highly abstract signifiers alongside indexical ones. Then there is an issue of considerable selectivity in terms of the discursive elements employed. Semiometrie is highly logocentric as it excludes images and sounds from the armory of discursive units, even though the impact of the latter classes of signs on the attainment of emotive brand/consumer bonds may be disproportionately high. In terms of framing the relevant question for gauging the desired response consumers were asked to rate their «warmth» towards each word on a -3-+3 scale , while the extrapolation of dimensions was effected through principal components analysis. This points to significant methodological issues insofar as attempting to elicit an emotive response to an abstract and moreover decontextualized concept by reducing it to a numerical scale is like asking someone to state how much s/he loves you by giving a score (which is highly likely to lead to grotesque responses)- this is not a case of stating warmth vis-a-vis a brand, but without any referential framework whatsoever. In addition, the sheer number of attributes that were scored poses limitations to the reliability of the data, as the attention span should deteriorate after a while (even at the minimal levels required for gauging a spontaneous «warmth level»). In terms of blending Freudian psychoanalysis with the method, that shouldn‟t be an issue if it was attempted as an interpretive add-on, as the the model‟s designers seem to prudently undertake during the initial phase of the model‟s validation. However, this does not seem to be the case in the methodology‟s expose in the respective Admap article, where a promise to deliver «deeper insights» is substantiated through appeal to psychoanalytic buzzwords. First, desiring mechanisms usually do not surface in a consciously reflexive predicament, such as asking someone to state his «warmth» towards a concept but indirectly (eg projective techniques), while the object of desire may never surface as such, but transformed through condensation and displacement (which poses significant constraints in the potential for universalizing concepts by pointing out their semantic contiguity and the very fit of using principal components analysis if such psychoanalytic concepts were to play an integral part in the method‟s design and interpretive scope). Therefore, not only such a method does not attain to lay bare any repression mechanisms that act on desires, thus laying bare desired objects, but the highly adhocratic ways whereby such mechanisms function do not allow for desire to emerge as an area of investigation in such a responsive predicament. Second, a quick and

hazy allusion is made to a very limited number of popular Freudian concepts, without defining and qualifying how these relate to the output of the semiometrical method. Moreover, the authors conflate the subconscious with the unconscious, which is blatantly misleading, both in Freud‟s terms, but also in terms of the applicability of the Freudian concept of the unconscious (which gave place topographically during the second revision to the id- eg refer to «Beyond the Pleasure Principle») to the output of semiometrie. Freudian concepts are used ex post facto more as buzzwords aimed at impressing an unwary audience, without having informed either the conceptual model‟s or the research method‟s design in the first place. The semantic contiguity that was gauged indirectly with the employment of PCA is not identical to «cultural archetypes» (in a Jungian sense- and perhaps Censydiam‟s attempt to operationalize Jungian concepts should also be benchmarked to this end, and J.Aaker‟s seminal paper on Brand Personality). The method is more affiliated to cognitivist attempts in a behavioral psychology paradigm, but not psychoanalysis. It is a fair attempt at exposing semantic contiguities and plotting them on value axes, but this oeuvre has nothing to do with the stated objectives. Semiometrie admap semiometrie interpretive add on

this is more like it (just skip the leftist crap, unless you still reside in a metanarrative regime) rhetoric of the uncosncious semiometrie questionnaire barbara stern deconstruction and consumer research

Deconstructing marketing series- Disentangling the marketing accountability paradox: a systems theory metaepistemological approach to holistic marketing management Why is the concept of marketing accountability paradoxical?

Because of major discrepancies in the nature of expectations on behalf of different stakeholder groups from the employment of the concept of marketing accountability; (i) myopic focus of investors on fiscal year returns vs long term potential (ii) brand equity is essentially about long term sustainability and not about short term superior returns (a .com enterprise may yield amazing returns within one year and plunge into oblivion the year after next year; from an opportunity cost of capital point of view it would make sense to watch out for fast growing startups in emerging markets (where brand equity is hardly an issue), rather than established industry players with minimum sales increases year on year (where brand equity does not necessarily correlate positively with superior returns) (iii) marketing actvities‟payoff levels and payback periods extend far beyond the actual expense period.

They are essentially amortizable investments, rather than simple periodic expenses. If this is the case then their outcomes (eg increasing brand value) should be treated in the same fashion as accruals. This is not acceptable by the international accounting standards, therefore there is a clear paradox between what marketing is expected to do and what it

actually does, that is between yielding at the same time superior short term results and creating a sustainable competitive advantage. This remark forces us to focus anew on Porter‟s definition of competitive advantage, as an essentially systemic concept, referring to how parts of a system (competencies and core competencies) interact in such a manner as to differentiate a brand/company from another not just against the background of individual operational facets and proprietary know how (which may be copied) , but in the context of self-amplifying relations among competencies . It is more about how operational facets and competencies relate that yields competitive advantage(s) and less about which competencies one should focus on. The same holds for marketing accountability. It is not concerned primarily with inventing a wholly new set of metrics that will untie the gordian knot of accountability, but about how marketing variables interrelate in such ever ramifying manners as to yield competitive advantage(s). Then, there is obfuscation as to the univocity of the meaning of marketing accountability – it is a highly intuitive concept. Current conceptual and concomitantly methodological approaches to the concept of marketing accountability constitute either novel renditions of extensively researched concepts (such as ROI, brand and customer equity) , processes (such as marketing planning) and methodologies (such as simulations and marketing mix modelling). Is marketing accountability equivalent to brand valuation? Certainly not, marketing accountability should not be viewed as a series of discreet concepts/objectives/metrics, but as a process of highly interdependent, in fact interlocking levers , the outcome of which is a brand value. Marketing accountability is a way of managing effectively and efficiently information inflows and outflows with view to attaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Concepts such as brand equity constitute stock concepts or temporary crystallizations of information flows; in reality market and consumer dynamics change every second and it is the role of systems theory to encapsulate the trajectory and the level of oscillations brought about by the variable intensities of information flows. What does holism mean, why marketing accountability is a holistic concept, hence the employment of the term holistic marketing management when referring to the process of which the outcome is marketing accountability , and whether and to what extent is holistic marketing management (at least from a marketing accountability perspective) feasible in practice? Systems theory is perhaps the only way of conceptualizing the complexity of the pathways among marketing accountability variables at play, their interdependency and interconnectedness. It also shifts emphasis from, without underplaying the importance of, the number and complexity of individual metrics, to the ways whereby metrics interact (linear, nonlinear, chaotic???). It is hardly of any use to construct a linear model for simulation purposes if the relations among the relata with which the processual concept of marketing accountability is concerned do not form and/or ramify in a linear manner in the first place. A systems theoretic approach is pointing to synergies and self amplifying effects (and their negative) of marketing activities as a result of knowledge about the interdependency of system inflows and outflows, rather than to «what works» in terms of , for example, the historical media split in a product category and the attempt to generate efficiencies by changing the relative priority of certain vehicles in a media mix. It is not (at least primarily) about optimizing decisions in compartmentalized fields of marketing know how, but in not losing sight of the very foundational impact of recursive inflows on

marketing outflows. Will this make marketing more accountable? Certainly, against the background of marketing‟s mission, not in an attempt to discover equivalences between marketing and accounting concepts, which is unattainable, insofar as marketing is concerned with consumer behavior and no accounting proxies exist for concepts such as the level of episodic or semantic processing of an advertising message on behalf of different consumer segments or the depth of a main message‟s inscription, which constitute key systemic links in the process. Therefore, the paradox also resurfaces as a difference in referential planes between a deterministic/merchanistic outlook favored by the accounting mode of discourse and the supple space of consumer behavior. Keller distinguishes between sources and outcomes of brand equity. Within an accountability paradigm both must be managed as they are by definition interdependent. The issue lies with extrapolating about outcomes based on dynamically shifting sources. In addition, marketing investments aim at leveraging vehicles for shaping up the sources of brand equity. However, the consumer does not enter a formal contractual agreement with a brand. He can experiment with other brands or skip a purchase cycle. This is in stark contradiction with accounting discourse. For example, one can assess the financial performance of a company based on indices such as credit days and bad debt. In accounting terms one can control the output of a sales activity in terms of the time period within which receivables will be collected. However, in the case of consumers noone can blame a consumer as a «bad debtor» for not repurchasing, insofar as he is not committed by a contractual agreement with the brand. Thus, instead of coining stock concepts that constitute outcomes of marketing activities as management of information outflows based on inflows it makes more sense to think effectively about the interconnectedenss of information flows in the first place. This also poses significant questions about the transferability of key learnings in academic research and calls for a metaepistemological reading of selective literature. Marketing cases and decision making are highly adhocratic, contextual and situational. Research that is geared primarily towards validating the epistemological validity and reliability of a model, rather than endorsing the situational complexity of marketing decision making is highly prone to error, not as a systemic function of a modelling exercise, but as a failure to incorporate situational complexity in the face of essentially non comparable cases. On a methodological level accounting for marketing accountability from a systems theory approach also calls for the employment of a soft systems methodology. The key difference between a soft systems methodological approach and usual analytical approaches consists in that the former necessitates an experimental design or a micro model of situational marketing decision making by taking into account subtle nuances in consumer behavior and the management of sources of brand equity and reintegration of outcomes in the sources of brand equity. Brand equity from a consumer based perspective is about meaning inflections, semantic and pragmatic nuances and literary tropes, not about stock concepts such as a battery of image attributes. This is the conceptual gap between differentiation as an outcome and a stock concept and the flows that were effectively managed in producing it. It is about opening up concepts situationally in order to account for their subtle nuances. For example, brand equity studies that produce little or no differentiation among competitors

or competitors with too much halo in their image scorings or pursuant to normalization of image data an area of differentiation that is either too narrow to build on for a dominant player or an opportunity for small player to leverage a value territory for which it does not possess the requisite resources. it is not only what we know about that important segment‟s brand purchase and usage behavior, but about how risk in decision making about investments in communicative vehicles geared towards effecting sustainably beneficial behavioral changes in that segment may be minimized by following a soft systems methodology in situational decision making regarding interlocking information inflows and outflows that make up the dynamically shifting mindscape of that segment, on which brand sales depend. From an accounting based brand valuation point of view, one of the (least favorable) approaches used for financial brand valuation is the residuals approach, viz comparing the residual value of a brand compared to an unbranded alternative. From a consumer based point of view this would rather translate into the residual value of an economizer segment (eg overly focused on price as a key purchase decision criterion) vs a brandrelated value (functional/emotional/social etc) driven segment. Coming back to the discursive issue and the need for applying a metaepistemological perspective in how epistemological models in multivariate models aiming at simulating the outcomes of marketing activities are constructed in order to unearth the complexity in branding dynamics from a consumer centric vs product centric point of view, wherefrom stems the need for applying a systems theory approach to managing the sources of brand equity as information flows, an adjacent, yet inextricably linked research area, is how key performance indicators aiming at measuring the outcomes of marketing decisions tend to mask the aforementioned nuances by focusing on measures that more often than not constitute the outcome of management lingo or managerial communicative currency that is intuitively made sense of without necessarily the managerial members using this lingo having a robust knowledge base of the dynamics involved behind the attainment of these outcomes, which creates not just an immense semantic gap between what is measured and the measurement criterion, but , even more importantly, an immense pragmatic gap in terms of tactile business results or the bottom line. It is precisely due to the fact that marketing decisions concern the management of external environment and consumer dependent factors , which per se involves the management of risk and uncertainty in marketing decisions, that in order to speak of the effect of marketing decisions on the bottom line one must primarily delve into the ways the consumer and competitive reality addressed and co-shaped by marketing decisions changes dynamically. This approach to marketing accountability does not aim either at criticizing dashboard metrics approaches or the usefulness of topline composite metrics. On the contrary, it aims at filling gaps in the process to the achievement of true marketing accountability and the justification of how marketing actions affect the bottom line, by laying bare the complexity of the subject matter which marketing decisions are called forth to tackle. The difference is equivalent to that between corporate strategic plans and operational strategic plans and between operational strategic plans and tactical plans. The difference is also between tactical operational plans and tactics. A systems approach to marketing accountability will seek to demonstrate that there is no such difference as strategically important outcomes and tactical outcomes, but a vast network of interlocking tactical activities. Outcomes concern temporary snapshots of tactical interlocking pathways or

decision making configurations with no necessary predictive value. For example, it is highly unlikely that a snapshot of the historical evolution of market share, which constitutes a time hallowed topline performance indicator of marketing effectiveness performance (especially in mature or maturing markets) may predict accurately future performance unless a system of interlocking dynamic consumer decision making processes as a result of marketing activities is in place in such a manner as to portray the subtle nuances that take place in a real market setting. Should the focus be on internal marketing productivity and decision support systems? Not in themselves as that would reinstate the problem at a mirco level. What is entailed by the opening up of performance related concepts and the portrayal of the ways whereby their dynamic interaction may yield positive performance outcomes, hence increasing the potential for justifying the contribution of marketing decisions to the bottom line? A shift from displaying the interaction among topline metrics to displaying the interaction among proliferating intermediate metrics. Differences to traditional balanced scorecard approaches: in a corporate strategy making map the improvement of a manufacturing process might result in more appealing packaging or a superior to competition and not easily copied product formula, which might result in greater perceived value, which might result in greater customer satisfaction, which might result in higher repurchase rate, which might result in more sustainable market share. Now, what would happen if, due to marketing communications issues, either as a result of poor copy/creative strategy and/or execution or poor media strategy or suboptimal investment behind individual media, such a perception failed to crystallize among consumers? This example aims at demonstrating the urgent need for putting the very notion of causality under the microscope. On a surface level reading we may infer intuitively that it is not the investment in the manufacturing process per se that causes changes in a consumer brand knowledge structure, but the effectiveness of a market productivity system. It is the interlinkages and self amplifying relational pathways among discrete systemic variables making up the brand knowledge structure in consumers‟ minds that is causing the satisfaction outcome. Therefore, a macro modelling approach would not by itself be capable of addressing the plethora of intermediate metrics as ways of accounting for the systemic linkages among marketing concepts reflecting consumer decision making and marketing reality. Therefore, on a metaepistemological level the notion of causality in generating accounts of marketing accountability (telling stories) must be primarily addressed. Secondarily, and equally important to the notion of causality, notions such as «reflection» or the extent to which marketing concepts reflect the reality of consumer decision making and market dynamics needs to be brought under scrutiny. Is it simply a matter of producing a better fit among variables and data, thus risking dropping otherwise salient (yet from a non statistical point of view) variables or nuances from the picture or of adopting a soft systems methodology in order to account for facets that would elude a modelling exercise? For example, a high degree of intercorrelation among independent variables in a multiple regression exercise would fail to point to the differential impact of discrete independent variables on a dependent variable. An example from the field of brand equity might be the relative impact of country of origin brand associations on brand preference for a category where country of origin constitutes a key value driver. A plethora of perceptual associations regarding a country may be elicited from consumers in the context of a focus group and their relative importance mapped out and a distinction may

be made among core and peripheral values and even that three descriptors of such associations emerged as the most defining. Now assume that the intercorrelation among these associations in shaping up the overall perception of a country in a modelling exercise was so high that it would be impossible to judge, based on the output of the modelling exercise, which single association was particularly important in driving the overall perception. However only one such association should be emphasized in the context of the positioning statement, the copy strategy and the selection of creative elements. Unless the correct one of these three associations is chosen, communicative effectiveness (from a strictly advertising strategy point of view) will be either ineffective or suboptimal. Therefore, within this simple and restrictive setting of marketing decision making one would be tempted to view the causal nexus of realworld outcomes as a result of marketing decisions in a manner such as «country of origin perceptions have a causal relationship with brand preference in category X, the fact that brand Y originates from country X is a potential differentiating factor for brand Y, credible and relevant differentiation is also a key driver and causative factor of brand preference, therefore capitalizing on country of origin brand associations is likely to result in brand preference for brand Y». It seems that the decision making crux now rests with selecting which specific brand association from the short list of three is the optimal one to leverage for positioning and communications purposes. Now, unless a formal decision support system for options evaluation in the above example is in place it is highly unlikely that the involved stakeholders in the concerned decision making predicament will remember the causal chain of syllogisms and assumptions that led to a particular decision of endorsing an option among many, which implies that the subtly nuanced systemic pathways making up a complex consumptive phenomenon will have been forced into oblivion. A formal systems approach to accountable marketing decision making would allow for reevaluating the syllogistic links in the causal chain that led to a particular decision taking into account how market and consumer dynamics work in the real world. Let‟s also assume that the brand was in fact rolled out based on a collectively intuitive decision , perhaps coupled with some further qualitative insights, about the selection of one brand association, and that the brand failed. Now, would that be an outcome of a wrong selection or of some underexplored assumptions along the decision making process ? Unless the decision making process was thoroughly mapped out , then noone will be capable of evaluating the outcome of the launch, in terms of performance measurement. Therefore, accountability is largely dependent on the way whereby a hermeneutic horizon was blocked in the process of marketing decision making, and the openness of this information (particularly important for sensitivity planning and scenario analysis purposes) A key reason why strictly accounting based methods of brand valuation are inappropriate as proxies of marketing productivity and concomitantly as proxies of brand equity which is the outcome of the level of marketing productivity is that ceteris paribus an ABC approach could be implemented on the various components and processes leading up to the outcomes of marketing activites. For example, one would be capable of splitting up a marketing budget not only by marcomm vehicle, daypart, demographic group etc, but by salient activity or behavioral outcome with which each marketing activity is concerned, such as, for example using the amply used metaphor of the purchase funnel, 250k allocated to awareness, 150k allocated to consideration of alternative brand value

propositions, 100k allocated to effecting the purchase, 200k allocated to repurchase and 100k allocated to long term loyalty. Even if such allocations were feasible , for example by aggregating expenses according to marketing objective and if one wished to stretch oneself beyond the speculative, inward looking planning platform, to create more robust measurements by linking such activity based outlays with respective attitudinal/behavioral shifts from market research and allocating a dollar value per 1% change in the concerned metric, one would still miss out on the intermediate metrics/outcomes dollar value, in the context of the aforementioned causal links chain in the context of the components/processes making up the brand knowledge structure and the outcomes of brand equity from a consumer based perspective. For example one would have to further qualify/break down the cost of increasing repurchase levels, two steps down the line of a purchase funnel, by breaking it down into intermediate brand knowledge components/processes and consumer decision making aspects particularly operative between the purchase/repurchase stages, such as the contribution of solidified brand value components and their being perceived as more relevant, credible and differentiating than during the initial stages of pre and post initial purchase as well as the relative contribution of each of these three interlocking, yet of variable intensity qualifying factors in the way whereby an advertising message attains to create a more lasting impression, thus leading to a repurchase, viz the level of differentiation, the level of appeal, the level of credibility. Metrics used in this stage in the purchase funnel , such as shifts in image scores, in likeability, in intention to recommend, in overall brand preference would need to be addressed anew to the sources of brand equity in order to determine the relative causative power of each of the above and, based on such historical mappings, to be capable of making more informed decisions, if not to predict the outcomes of future marketing activities. With regard to the above example, what were the consumer decision drivers behind repurchase with regard to the sources of brand equity vs competitive value propositions? Was the repurchase rate increased because of an increase in the relevance of the offering, its credibility, its differentiation and how much of each? An iterative and constant consideration of the sources of brand equity and the qualifying factors affecting their relative strength in purchase and usage decision making across the purchase funnel is crucial in order to qualify marketing and advertising objectives by taking into account subtle consumer and market based nuances, while enhancing marketing accountability. This process is laden with all sorts of delays in terms of the time horizon within which results from mktng activities materialize, not to mention adstock/brandstock effects, spillover effects, carryover effects, wear out, etc. Notions of causality predominant among practitioners; If there is no strict notion of cause and effect between marketing activities and behavioral outcomes how can we talk about marketing accountability in the first place? Marketers‟ most valuable assets are consumers not brands; brands depend on consumers for their existence and not the other way round. Sustainable competitive advantage from a consumer based brand equity point of view consists in generating and maintaining consumer mindshare. Therefore, the issue of generation and maintenance of brand value is by definition concerned with intangibles. It is how segments are defined and how value propositions moulded that creates sustainable brand value. There is nothing tactile apart from the actual product and the monetary transaction. The rest, which is marketing‟s mission, consists in a web of intangible assets to be managed, wherefrom stems the need

for a soft systems methodology. It is also important to analyze the different typologies of causality and explain how their qualification is important in making sense of the relevant contribution of each intermediate metric as intermediate accountability criterion in a systemically interacting plenum of mktng actions/effects – the notion of cause is more or less used in an unqualified manner throughout the mktng literature, however philosophical distinctions in theories of causality (eg necessary cause, efficient cause, sufficient cause, final cause etc) demonstrate that not only the degree but the level of causal contribution of an intermediate metric is crucial in determining the desired outcome, eg value creation. Causality is largely used in a highly deterministic manner, however in practice the plethora of intermediate consumer behavior metrics that must be taken into account in order to determine whether there is any impact of mktng actions/investments on desired outcomes, rest with different levels of causality. For example, questions such as intention to buy or willingness to recommend are usually adopted as proxies for a brand‟s adoption/diffusion rate. Answers to such questions may be broken down according to psychodemographic criteria and the growth potential of a brand among discrete segment members may be quantified. It is also well-known that the response rate to such questions should not be taken at face value for making sales projections, but rather such metrics are used for their relative value, that is for comparing among competing value propositions. Therefore, by themselves, such metrics may not be used for modelling brand value, but only as practical, yet hazy and fuzzy proxies in launch/no launch decisions, usually by benchmarking them against some sort of normative criteria. What is lacking is a way of conceptualizing the level of such metrics‟relative contribution to the system of marketing metrics, leading up to calculations of brand value and sales potential, which may be qualified only by taking into account their causal status (eg as drivers or facilitators), for the attainment of a desired marketing objective. The difference between highly deterministic accounts of cause/effect relationships between hard and soft sciences lies in that whereas within the confines of the former it may established through repeated observations that the same outcome will occur every time a set of necessary conditions apply, in the case the latter, which is the case with the social science of marketing, we are more concerned with relative probabilities of certain behavioral shifts occurring as an outcome of applying efficient causes as conditionals for their occurrence. Therefore, we may not speak about necessary causality in the same manner as we might do in some hard sciences, but of a set of efficient causes as probabilistic conditionals for effecting a set of desired outcomes. The more intermediate steps in key behavioral outcomes are mapped as the perceptual route to value creation in the context of a probabilistic model where the least strong link may incur disastrous oscillations to the systemically interlinking whole unless being accounted for in the model, the more the likelihood that the outcome of value creation will be sustainable. The problem is that in the supple space of consumer behavior modelling exercises such as structural equation modelling are by definition bound to miss the mark of real market dynamics, not just due to the mismanageable number of variables involved and their partially recursive/partially non-recursive interactions, but primarily due to their inherent inability to take qualify distinctive levels of causality among intermediate stock concepts and metrics ensuing thereupon. Therefore, what we should be primarily concerned with is how to setup a topography of sufficient causes whose self

amplifying interaction leads up to sustainable value creation, while taking into account the relative causal status of each sufficient cause. If marketing investment may not account for all sufficient causes, this, based on that intermediate cause‟s relative weight and causal status with regard to the «next» one, will entail a diminished probability that a brand value proposition will be sustainable (based on the time frame within which its sustainability must be maintained according to a company‟s strategic objectives- to be dynamically reevaluated). The usefulness of applying Kaplan‟s&Norton‟s strategy maps to business value creation applied in the field of brand strategy as perceptual topography maps should also be considered. A map and flow diagrams must be produced for each competing brand in the market in order to demonstrate (i) how the chain of brand value creation emerges as a dynamic interplay among self amplifying sufficient causes or intermediate metrics and the behavioral/attitudinal phenomena in the perceptual topography they seek to measure (ii) to discern sources of competitive advantage from the ways whereby intermediate metrics interact in an interdependent systemic whole . A systems approach to marketing accountability with the employment of soft systems methodology is not primarily concerned with coining new concepts and more comprehensive/all encompassing metrics/ dashboards, but with providing a synthesis rationale of multisource marketing input with view to transforming brand teams into dynamically evolving learning organizations, with an added emphasis on the interrelatedness of multisource input metrics and information inflows with the ultimate aim of incorporating the «butterfly (or beatle, ant, whatever) effects» of marketing decisions across a dashboard of marketing metrics. Marketing accountability underdefined speaking-in-numbers-the-language-of-bottom-line-business-riskey-et-al-iir-february-2006 Given that marcomms constitute more often than not the largest area of marketing investment it is easy to conflate marketing accountability with greater controls on ROI. However, from an accountability perspective ROMI does not manage to capture the dynamically shifting sources and outcomes of brand equity and the relative contribution of each marcom vehicle in building , maintaining and renewing the brand knowledge structure. Methodologies such as Integration‟s MCA constitute great strands in the attainment of the IMC vision, as they manage to quantify the relative impact of each comms vehicle in an IMC plan to the bottom line, however it does not take into account their relative contribution in building and maintaining brand related associations and commanding price premium(s). From an accountability perspective a concept of ROMA (return on marketing assets) would be more proximate to the long term brand building impact of comms plans, as against ROMI, as it takes into account the cumulative effect of brand capital. IMC is part of marketing accountability and certainly the implementation of a robust methodology, such as MCA, may maximize effectiveness, efficiency and synergies in the context of touchpoints management, but it does not address the cumulative effect of brand capital, the management of which lies at the very kernel of marketing accountability. In order to achieve this objective the notion of causality and how intermediate metrics interact as reflections of a market reality need to be scrutinized in as detailed fashion as possible. Otherwise one risks leaping from topline to topline metric without taking into account the multifaceted phenomena of consumer purchase and usage decision making, media consumption, affective/emotive aspects of brand choice and preference, in short what takes place underneath the intermediate topline

metrics, as would be reflected in a more expansive outlook on intermediate processes and respective metrics.

Deconstructing marketing series- on icons, myths, archetypes STOP HARASSING ME

mythological branding nike

MillwardBrown_IconicBrands_Sep07 what is the "brain's mental workspace"? Biscuits libidinized – give me your heritage What‟s long and thick and you are expected to exchange it as a token of affection? Correct, a pack of biscuits; well, not just any biscuits, but a pack loaded with transgenerational heritage floating in libidinal economy. Heritage branding has long been a favorite strategy for established players, especially where no particular differential functional benefits may save the day. But how far can a brand stretch perceptually when it comes to colonizing consumptive occasions and affective states? Certainly dramatization has its own limits and occasionally it is burdened with the onerous task of pointing to the limits of potential consumption occasions and exchange settings, especially when it comes to group consumption; but not in the context of a heritage branding commercial. It may be argued that there is a structural homonymy between the three portrayed indulgent collective experiences and a product that stands for indulgence, and even more that the portrayed festivities are indicative of a Dionysian excess, also

structurally coupled with potentially increased consumption, so what is at risk? Simply, embedded category usage habits; it will take a while (if ever) to trigger mnemotechnically (not to mention risking being perceived as contrived) those associations pertaining to a collective attack on a ball of biscuits while at a party or when you handed a pack to your beloved one as a token of affection while at a fun park. Sad as it might be to have it otherwise, the story continues, as the ending frame suggests; it certainly does, the signage is in neon, it‟s still in the 80s, there are still two generations to cover, including vjing and holographic projections. Talking about brand reinvigoration with a pending "re". MPISKOTA PAPADOPOULOU NEW MOVIE Another reading suggests that it is pure genius, it manages to uncritically reflect an overdetermining identity-in-excess value territory, thus sign-posting not just an entire category, but a category's limit as excess (weren't it for the funpark exchange) http://books.google.gr/books?id=e0s5YfGO0hsC&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=nietzsch e+dionysian+excess+bataille&source=bl&ots=fZtwtdQd0B&sig=X1pOSlo0icTXGCCsz 8IvMJIzE4w&hl=el&ei=SvWiTbO3GoX3sgaNyp2LAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=res ult&resnum=5&ved=0CC8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=nietzsche%20dionysian%20exces s%20bataille&f=false http://books.google.gr/books?id=fr0NAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Exceeding ly+Nietzsche&source=bl&ots=AdMeCN6Gqg&sig=f0wbEzOcXZPrO5gFyS6fRkwMXQ&hl=el&ei=Yv2iTaaSF4_Jswa3ytjAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q&f=false Here's an excellent heritage branding example from Hovis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4tFzuFGUOI

Deconstructing marketing series- ineffective ad effectiveness case studies What do the following 61 EFFIE ad effectiveness case studies from a random country have to do with ad effectiveness? Nothing... effiecases Here's an excellent ad effectiveness IPA case study from Famous Grouse FAMOUS GROUSE AD EFFECTIVENESS STUDY

Deconstructing marketing series: Do copywriters use communication theories? Who's gonna know anyway? copywriters implicit theories of communication

Deconstructing marketing series- As if all cross media planning issues have been resolved by now...

...social media suddenly became a panacea Better Media Planning for Integrated Communication

Deconstructing marketing series- exemplary attempt at an extended taxonomy of rhetorical figures in advertising Rhetorical Operation Figure definition Repetition Schemes Rhyme repeats sounds at ends of words/phrases (e.g., “We all adore a Kia-Ora.”) Alliteration/chime repeats the same consonant sound in the initial position in three or more subsequent words or the majority of the words with alliteration (e.g., “Brown Bag Bonus from Dole”) or in the key words with chime (e.g., “Fight Your Fear. Introducing Fosamax”). Assonance repeats vowel sounds within a majority of the words in a phrase or sentence (e.g., “Sam‟s has Crab Apples” or Program flea control‟s “One dose. Once a month.”). Anaphora repeats the same first word or phrase (e.g., Naturalistics cosmetics‟ “Natural Beauty. Natural Ingredients. Natural Glow.” or Ford Mustang‟s “It runs quick. It runs deep.”). Epiphora repeats the last word(s) (e.g., “Did You Know Gentle Naturals® Care / Is Always Effective Care?” or Home Pride‟s “You don‟t have to butter it, jam it, or toast it to taste it.”). Epanalepsis/chiasmus ends with the same word(s) with which it began (e.g., Bud Dry‟s “Why ask why?” or Alpha‟s “Your first computer dealer is just as important as your first computer”). Anadiplosis/epizeuxis starts a clause or phrase with the last word(s) of the prior clause or phrase (e.g., “Kids & Fashion®. Fashion for kids from Oilily.” or “Now... „facial soft‟ -Soft-Weave”). Polyptoton uses different forms of the same root word in the same sense (e.g., Armstrong tires‟ “The fat get fatter” or Downy fabric softener ball‟s “Catch the ball that catches the rinse cycle.”). Parallelism/isocolon/parison uses parallel construction in similar length phrases that often repeat a number of words (e.g., Silentite windows‟ “The beauty you crave -- The comfort you want.” or Carnation evaporated milk‟s “Delicious enough for parties. Simple enough for every day!”). Reversal Schemes Transposition/antimetabole reverses the word structure of a phrase in another phrase (e.g., Scouting for All‟s “All for one and one for all.” or “As long as Firestone keeps thinking about people, people will keep thinking about Firestone.”). Antithesis contrasts opposite or counterpoised words, often in parallel structure (e.g., Gerber Baby Powder‟s “You can put it anywhere and it won‟t go everywhere.” or Lady Speed Stick‟s “Protects you like a man, treats you like a woman.”).

Hyperbaton/anastrophe reverses the usual word order within a sentence or phrase for emphasis (e.g., “Next time, buy a bigger car and less expensive.” or “Hamm‟s -- a beer refreshing.”). Substitution Tropes Hyperbole deliberately exaggerates for emphasis (e.g., “-- ate PowerBar® -- finished grueling 10k 12 miles ago.” or “A howitzer with windshield wipers. The new Buick Skylark Gran Sport.”). Euphemism substitutes a softer, milder, less direct word or phrase for a more course, harsh, or unpleasant one (e.g., Carefree‟s “I want that fresh feeling every day.” or ScotTissue‟s “I had a dreadful experience last winter -- that started with impure toilet tissue.”). Rhetorical question/hypophora asks a question for effect (e.g., to assert or deny a claim) rather than to receive information. An answer follows with hypophora (e.g., “Doesn‟t your family deserve the best? Of course they do. That‟s why Eggland‟s Best should be the only egg for them.”), but not with rhetorical question (e.g., Charmin‟s “Looking for a more gentle touch?”). Epanorthosis makes a claim to call that claim into doubt (e.g., Campbell‟s “A ligher, authentic- tasting risotto prepared by a grandmother from Sicily. Ok, Boise.”). Ellipsis/aposiopesis deliberately omit words. The omission is readily implied by the context with ellipsis (e.g., “57 varieties are made by Heinz, only 5 by Hunts.”), but the audience must discover or self-generate missing information that is not readily implied with aposiopesis. Often aposiopesis is used to impress the audience with a vague hint at something unmentionable or too awesome to put into words (e.g., “Soup from a can is okay for lunch, but....”). Metonymy designates an object by something closely associated with it-- a particular instance, property, characteristic, or association (e.g., Coca-Cola‟s “The pause that refreshes” or “PLJ cares so naturally for your beauty!”). Synecdoche substitutes a part for a whole (e.g., “blossoms” for flowers), the material for the product (e.g., “tins” for canned goods), a particular for a general category (e.g., “bread” for food), or a general category for a particular (e.g., “creatures” for spiders). Examples: USA Funds “We offer a helping hand to students and parents....” or Toyota‟s “They‟re being built in your backyard.” Onomatopoeia substitutes words that convey a sound for descriptive words (e.g., Mazda‟s “Zoom- Zoom” or Dunlop golf balls‟ “They click.” or Noxzema “Boom. Buzz. Ahhh.”). Anthimeria substitutes one part of speech for another (e.g., Movado Eliro watch “Gift him with a thinner, more elegant model to wear at your wedding....”). Periphrasis substitutes a proper noun for a related characteristic or a descriptive word for a proper noun (e.g., “If you‟ve got the wheel...we‟ve got B.F. Goodrich.” or “Be a Pepper. Drink Dr. Pepper.” or Kellogg‟s Corn Flakes‟ “A plateful of health.”). Idiom substitutes a particular, common phrase for a culturally invariant meaning. The meaning does not derive from the individual words but the combination of words forming

that phrase (e.g., Blue Water Network‟s “Is Toyota a wolf in sheep‟s clothing?) Destabilization Tropes Metaphor compares two unlike things to imply that the qualities of the second object should be attributed to the first object, even though these qualities are not literally applicable (e.g., Schiff vitamins “Your body is a living engine.” or “STP is cough medicine for your car.”). Simile makes an explicit comparison using “like” or “as” to attribute connotations and meanings of one object to another (e.g., PlayStation‟s “To him, it‟s like a dozen longstemmed roses”, “Camel is as good as the sea is wide” or Canadian Tire‟s “Give like Santa. Save like Scrooge.”). Personification attributes human qualities to an inanimate object (e.g., “Now when Pyrex Ware finishes work, it dresses for dinner,” Chevrolet Equinox‟s “Form makes sweet love to function,” or Pond‟s body lotion‟s “Make your face jealous.”) Synesthesia uses an experience from one of our five senses to describe something from a different sense (e.g., Kent cigarettes‟ “Brighten up your taste!” or Cover Girl Lipstick‟s “Color me soft.”). Allusion refers to persons, places, myths, songs, and so on that the audience will recognize. Unlike resonance (see below), it does not require the ad visual to create an alternate meaning (e.g., FTD holiday flower selections‟ “Let heaven & nature sing” or “Similac‟s “He‟s not getting all the nutrition he needs, and it‟s not because the dish ran away with the spoon.”). Parody mimics the language, style, or ideas of another for comic or satiric effect (e.g., PMS Escape dietary supplement‟s “No males were harmed in the testing of this product” or “Do you, Canada Dry‟s Sparkling Water, promise to sparkle, bubble and stay zestful, till last sip do you part?”). Homonym puns use a word that has different meanings (e.g., Nature Made Herbs‟ “Are you happy with your St. John‟s Wort?” or Fisher Peanuts‟ “Who‟s the nut that left out the MSG?”). Antanaclasis puns repeat a single word, but with different meanings each time (e.g., Rogaine‟s “For every woman growing anxious about thinning hair, there are thousands growing it back.” or “People on the go...Go for Coke.”). Syllepsis puns changes a word‟s meaning as it modifies different words or clauses (e.g., Toyota Tercel‟s “If you‟re itching to own a new car, scratch here.” or “Breeze through the summer with an Emerson Electric window fan.”) Paronomasis puns use words that sound alike but are different in meaning (e.g., “All Maid-Rite menu items are made to order,” Quaker Oats‟ “Waist not. Want not.” or Wigler‟s Bakery‟s “Look deep within our ryes.”). Loud puns alter a cliché or common phrase‟s meaning by the obvious substitution of another word (e.g., Honda Odyssey‟s “Home is where the Honda is.” or Kellogg‟s Smart Start cereal‟s “Breakfast is as breakfast does.”).

Resonance is a verbo-pictorial pun that alters a cliché or common phrase‟s meaning by juxtaposing it with an image (e.g., Pepto-Bismol‟s “Recommended for dog bites” with a picture of a halfeaten hot dog or “Hit the bar for lunch” with a picture of a Balance nutrition bar). Paradox appears to be contradictory, but contains some truth (e.g., Oldsmobile Alero‟s “Only by hugging the road tightly can one truly let go.” or McDonald‟s Breakfast Bagel‟s “Even with the hole, it‟s a complete breakfast.”). Oxymoron uses two seemingly contradictory terms together (e.g., “Kidorable makes the ordinary extraordinary” or “Chateau Victoria Hotel is a world of casual elegance.”). Irony implies the opposite of what is said through a mismatch between the words used and either the communicator‟s character or the nature of the subject (e.g., “Sure you could live without Yellow Pages (or without newspapers or automobiles or clocks)” or Winston‟s “Forget flowers. Say it by putting the seat down.”). Litotes intensifies an idea or implies the contrary through exaggerated understatement (e.g., Peter Island Hotel‟s “Peter Island offers nothing.” or Hockey Canada‟s “Relax, It‟s Just a Game.”). by B.A.Huhmann Deconstructing marketing series- Marketing accountability and the question of metrics The availability of metrics is certainly not the primary question; here's an elementary list Marketing Metrics - The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance For interactive media metrics visit http://www.iab.net/insights_research/mmms For the state of the art in holistic approaches to IMC management http://www.warc.com/Pages/Store/ProductInfo.aspx?SectionID=8&ProductID=3354&Ta bID=3 for the pathbreaking Datamine project by IPA visit http://www.ipa.co.uk/Content/IPA-Datamine-project and for the "challengers" segment, here's interesting new findings from the multi-media effects comparison front http://www.msi.org/publications/publication.cfm?pub=1824

Deconstructing marketing series- ad cybernetics cybernetic communication model of advertising Deconstructing marketing series- Marketing accountability and the question of metrics

The availability of metrics is certainly not the primary question; here's an elementary list Marketing Metrics - The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance For interactive media metrics visit http://www.iab.net/insights_research/mmms For the state of the art in holistic approaches to IMC management http://www.warc.com/Pages/Store/ProductInfo.aspx?SectionID=8&ProductID=3354&Ta bID=3 for the pathbreaking Datamine project by IPA visit http://www.ipa.co.uk/Content/IPA-Datamine-project and for the "challengers" segment, here's interesting new findings farom the multi-media effects comparison front http://www.msi.org/publications/publication.cfm?pub=1824

Deconstructing marketing series- if you can’t stand the metaphor get out of…Kitchen http://www.amazon.co.uk/Marketing-Metaphors-Metamorphosis-ProfessorKitchen/dp/1403998612 Discourse unit on patrol http://www.discourseunit.com/ Great ideas on social media from Leo Burnett (Frankfurt) group http://culturalfuel.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/techcheck_q2_2009_f.pdf

Did it ever occur to you to cooperate repeatedly with useless account planners... ...while you had to do all the account planning work yourself? If yes, here's the perfect present http://books.google.gr/books?id=zE1rwlYAIUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=advertising+account+planning&source=bl&ots=tkKz TMhE_u&sig=dzjwuhwXzcXxP-LfVgrV8emsgc&hl=el&ei=xvYITPj2CYSNOOz78M4P&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&r esnum=3&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

Some methodological remarks on TNS sponsorship evaluation research tool : how gap analysis may untie a gordian knot sponsorship-research 1. Occasionally, and in this methodology, attitudinal brand equity is used as a proxy descriptor for brand image. As is well-known, brand equity must not be confused with brand image, as it may lead to significant strategic disorientation ; also, affinity is occasionally used interchangeably with attitudinal equity, even though they are markedly different. In the majority of brand equity modeling techniques price elasticity is factored in the equation (which still resides in the field of attitudinal, rather than behavioral measures). Basically, the factoring of price in equity modeling is one of the key differences (alongside the technical complexities of modeling itself) that set apart brand equity from simple brand image studies (and thanks to which the produced value line that cuts across brands on a map may be shifted in simulation exercises, while varying price levels among brands). Also, superior image perceptions do not necessarily translate into higher market performance, hence it might take a risky leap of faith when establishing causality relations between the produced metrics and their interpretation. 2. Another reason why standalone (ie cut off from an IMC tracking perspective) sponsorship research with regard to gauging the sponsor/event fit strength may be wanting is that different brands may be leveraging different events to a considerably variable extent. Thus, Brand A may be using sponsorship as part of an integrated campaign, but not as the flagship medium of the campaign, whereas Brand B may be leveraging the sponsored event as the flagship of its integrated marcomms, with extensive AtL coverage. Especially in the case of directly competing brands (ie same category), it would be distorting to claim that higher scores that might result in the case of Brand B in the face of heavier AtL support than Brand A are indicative of a better sponsor/event fit, as, ceteris paribus, Brand A‟s fit deficit is highly likely to be attributable to lower integrated support (this might be further complicated by the degree to which the very creative elements of the program resonate positively with the event‟s audience). The above picture is further complicated by brands that incorporate different sponsorship vehicles in their annual brandcomms (eg cinema, sports, concerts), where the perceptual spill-over effect among vehicles must be accounted for (even on the negative, as, in tandem with the diminishing returns in attention span as a TV campaign wears out, a sponsor‟s presence in an event may go unnoticed – especially in a co-sponsorship settingin the face of overexposure to the brand‟s sponsorship activities; perhaps this is also an opportunity for considering a way of transfusing an effective frequency metric for sponsorship activities). 3. Another thing that is missing from the picture is the level of perceptual fit between brand and sponsored event. Indirectly gauging the level of fit based on the suggested quadrant analysis may be distorting, as, in terms of questionnaire and data gathering method, no association as to the above is necessarily processed by consumers during the interview stage. Thus, claiming that a latent association manifests itself during the production of cross-tabs is highly likely to imbue significant interpretative bias in the data. I think that this missing third parameter in the evaluation of the technique‟s interpretive validity is key to making investment decisions, as well as decisions about continuing or not a sponsorship program. I designed such a metric in the context of a

leading soft drink‟s Olympics sponsorship campaign, termed the Sponsorship/Brand fit Index. Essentially it constitutes a gap analysis based on the with/without principle between multi-attribute image perceptions without the sponsorship and with the sponsorship, which returned quite insightful and actionable results once repetitive waves were benchmarked against the pre-sponsorship base.

On the occasion of another new Harry Potter launch

http://www.sfxbrown.com/sole-authored.htm http://www.grossolatos.com/POSTMODERN_MARKETING__2003.html brown-3 brown-postmodern-multiplex postmodern-integrated-marketing holbrook-on-postmodern POSTMODERN-MARKETING-BROWN postmodern-research Transnational-consumer-cultures-and-social politics-of-representation

HAM in action- associative networks for brand image analysis Perhaps the best mapping method for a quick snapshot about opportunities for differential positioning; however be extra careful while interpreting the map's nodes and links http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123317149/abstract

also see http://www.grossolatos.com/PERCEPTUAL_MAPPING_2009.html

From simple advertising message recall to depth of message inscription: How to quantify a missing link in advertising effectiveness As is well-known among brand savvy marketers the recording and close monitoring of ad message recall in the context of an advertising effectiveness tracking survey is a musthave. However, when it comes to quantifying the depth of inscription in a segment‟s memory, which works as an indispensable qualifier and major determinant of the level of a campaign‟s memorability , then first level descriptive stats won‟t do the job. As a meta-analytic approach to determining the depth of main message recall based on data gathered from longitudinal tracking surveys I designed the Episodic/Semantic Index in an attempt to quantify that qualifying difference between an aggregate score that is normally yielded from tabulating raw percentage data gathered from open-ended questions and what it practically means for decision making when it comes to discontinuing or adding further fuel to an ad campaign, based on effective brand associations that are built over time. The composite index, which draws on the relevant literature on episodic/semantic memory (eg http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/advertising/316202-1.html ), yields crucial insights on the effectiveness of a campaign, especially once regressed against media pressure (actual GRPs back-weighted to 30‟‟ spot equivalents, the same one would do in an awareness index modeling exercise). In combination with qualitative insights about the various executional elements of a campaign, the episodic/semantic index can yield a useful benchmark for monitoring the ongoing impact of a campaign‟s main message, as well as gauge its memorability in off-air periods. The degree of episodic memory is used as a proxy for the various elements recalled in an ad-content recall section, whereas the degree of semantic memory is used as a proxy for correct main message recall (basically the commercial‟s tagline). On a methodological level, here‟s how it works: - First, you select correctly semantically processed statements from the main message recall section of the tracker and produce a single score - Then you identify correctly episodically processed statements from the ad content recall of the tracker and produce a single score - Category averages are produced for both episodically and semantically processed

statements and straight after that inter-brand indices - Finally, having imported the cross-category comparative aspect into the above index generation procedure you return to an intra-brand level and produce a ratio per brand by dividing the semantic index by the episodic index, which constitutes the episodic/semantic ratio, or the depth of inscription of brandcomms in a segment‟s memory For the sake of clarity in cases where multiple executions are aired in the same timeframe you may want to append a note on the relevant contribution of each campaign‟s elements in the production of the above indices, thus shedding further light on the level to which a variation of an executional strategic platform contributes to effective and longterm brand associations or even, in case a previous campaign has been discontinued, gauging what mnemonic traces are still operative.

How the tried and tested “health + indulgence” positioning can go astray Having just tried the recently launched Nutri Cookies it came as a shock how key product (not even brand) value drivers may go completely unnoticed in the development stage. Even a rookie would know that if a parity attribute (or cluster of attributes) is a “must have” for a new brand launch, you don't mess with it. In this case, “crispiness” is something a category user would be hardly likely to trade-off for the sake of augmented healthy benefits. Yes, the packaging is right, both in terms of foil texture that emits

premiumness and appealing graphics (save for the sa me old honey bowl shot, which has been used to death across the globe and the now worn-out ingredient branding approach on the back-of-pack), the commercial is inviting (not standout, but inviting), but why pay a price-premium for a product that might as well be concrete porridge? Unless during the pre-launch trial phase special sensitive teeth segment users were recruited or product texture becomes soaky shortly after shelfplacement, shelf space might as well be allocated to something crispier.

THE SCIENCE OF CRISPINESS

CRISPINESS Developing advertising with qualitative market research http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ddjf2exxvkyuweb Advertising_Media_Planning http://www.mediafire.com/view/?buf5j1m8mma55dx ad age advertising handbook http://www.mediafire.com/?2ezeb70d0bw2o15 Ads_to_Icons__How_Advertising_Succeeds_in_a_Multimedia_Age http://www.mediafire.com/view/?g86a1597m7yz4w8 Advances_in_Advertising_Research_1__Cutting_Edge_International_Research http://www.mediafire.com/view/?dvgcgr7ktkn0zqc Advertising and Consumer Psychology 2007 ACP 2007 Proceedings http://www.mediafire.com/view/?ewc1qkctdkli272 ADVERTISING EFFECTS LONG TERM QUANT http://www.mediafire.com/view/?n8pw6b5igfd52ba Advertising__A_Cultural_Economy http://www.mediafire.com/view/?5q6nau0gm0naamm Advertising__ IMC http://www.mediafire.com/view/?1x9i327udz8vc02 Advertising_and_the_Mind_of_the_Consumer http://www.mediafire.com/view/?nda3v0dbmmp113m Always_On__Advertising__Marketing_ http://www.mediafire.com/view/?zad2oi3wwdpghoj Analyzing rhetorical devices in print advertisements http://www.mediafire.com/view/?e5cl1fuajg7zs7o Persuasive_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?6zba3eg14z2pbc9 Branding_Unbound__The_Future_Of_Advertising__Sales__And_The_Brand_Experienc e_In_The_Wireless_Age http://www.mediafire.com/view/?cw3hxr0cfu2ylh2 brown__Marketing_Apocalypse__Eschatology__Escapology_and_the_Illusion_of_the_E nd http://www.mediafire.com/view/?nhq580m97gkpg23 CIM__Excellence_in_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?003o78jji2fibfn Consumer_Behavior_and_Advertising_Management http://www.mediafire.com/view/?np5235ach32ck4g Creating_Images_and_the_Psychology_of_Marketing_Communication__Advertising_an d_Consumer_Psychology http://www.mediafire.com/view/?kxmk7o1r124jqa7 DAGMAR__Defining_Advertising_Goals_for_Measured_Advertising_Results http://www.mediafire.com/view/?kv0rdqwg3f373lv Cook Discourse_of_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?kazpa4icy5cmh6j Durand rhetoric and advertising image

http://www.mediafire.com/view/?lt2ahu46tbk5dz5 Humor_in_Advertising__A_Comprehensive_Analysis http://www.mediafire.com/view/?x1mbbhtwt49rt9r jones When_Ads_Work_New_Proof_That_Advertising_Triggers_Sales http://www.mediafire.com/view/?571kd9cifu4og5p Learning_from_Winners__How_the_ARF_David_Ogilvy_Award_Winners_Use_Market _Research_to_Create_Advertising_Success http://www.mediafire.com/view/?rku5xmmufk403ma Media_Handbook__A_Complete_Guide_to_Advertising_Media_Selection__Planning__ Research__and_Buying http://www.mediafire.com/view/?p595ly32nhl1f9u metaphors in advertising discourse http://www.mediafire.com/view/?25ad8j26s67f083 New_Directions_in_International_Advertising_Research__Advances_in_International_ Marketing http://www.mediafire.com/view/?nd2ac09g4ncni86 Ogilvy_on_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?yfyc4pjbro4k06b Persuasion_in_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?iybu493cym60xqx Persuasive effect of visual metaphors in advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?14jr28kwx8060zx Powers_of_Persuasion__The_Inside_Story_of_British_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?2ak9dkxkqfbfart Religious_Dimensions_of_Advertising__Religion_Culture_Critique_ http://www.mediafire.com/view/?it40zbj6755vcup RHETORICAL FIGURES IN TV ADVERTISING http://www.mediafire.com/view/?9pih7pkenew92c8 rhetorical narratives advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?j245cjfjdc82o1y Scientific_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?yy6bmt4rh2x4kda Sex_in_Advertising__Perspectives_on_the_Erotic_Appeal__Routledge_Communication _Series_ http://www.mediafire.com/view/?zxw5rjobd6vhfrw Tested_Advertising_Methods http://www.mediafire.com/view/?fa9pknvp522ptpo The_Adweek_Copywriting_Handbook http://www.mediafire.com/view/?dcry46mfe0gc1hg The_Language_of_Advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?keahwgewrs41bez visual argumentation in political advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?p6c1v1wcxp2yt9f Visual Metaphor in Advertising Is the Persuasive Effect Attributable to Visual Argumentation or http://www.mediafire.com/view/?fgyfldqcg5cn504

Visual Rhetoric and Global Advertising Imagery http://www.mediafire.com/view/?7ouqf61f2z46hrp ΙPA Excellence in advertising http://www.mediafire.com/view/?8efm0rizmewb3m4

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