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THE RELATIONSHIP OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION CUES AND STUDENT SATISFACTION

THE RELATIONSHIP OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION CUES AND STUDENT SATISFACTION BY: INSTITUT PENGURUSAN PENYELIDIKAN UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
BY:

BY:

INSTITUT PENGURUSAN PENYELIDIKAN UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA 40450 SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR MALAYSIA

SARAH SABIR AHMAD FARAH MERICAN ISAHAK MERICAN INTAN NAZRENEE AHMAD ROSLIZA MD ZANI

DECEMBER 2010

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION CUES AND STUDENT SATISFACTION

THE RELATIONSHIP OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION CUES AND STUDENT SATISFACTION DISEDIAKAN OLEH: SARAH SABIR AHMAD FARAH MERICAN

DISEDIAKAN OLEH:

SARAH SABIR AHMAD FARAH MERICAN ISAHAK MERICAN INTAN NAZRENEE AHMAD ROSLIZA MD ZANI

DECEMBER 2010

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Tarikh

Tarikh

:

20 Disember 2009

No. Fail Projek

:

Penolong Naib Canselor (Penyelidikan) Institut Pengurusan Penyelidikan (RMI) UiTM, Shah Alam

Tuan,

LAPORAN AKHIR PENYELIDIKAN 'THE RELATIONSHIP OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION CUES AND STUDENT SATISFACTION

Merujuk kepada perkara di atas, bersama-sama ini disertakan 2 (dua) naskah Laporan Akhir Penyelidikan bertajuk 'The Relationship of Non-Verbal Communication Cues and Student Satisfaction’ oleh kumpulan Penyelidik dari Fakulti Pengurusan Perniagaan UiTM Kedah untuk makluman pihak tuan.

Sekian, terima kasih.

Yang benar,

SARAH SABIR AHMAD

Ketua Projek Penyelidikan

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KUMPULAN PENYELIDIK

KUMPULAN PENYELIDIK SARAH SABIR AHMAD KETUA PROJEK …………………………………………………………………………………………… .. Tandatangan FARAH MERICAN ISAHAK MERICAN Ahli ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

SARAH SABIR AHMAD KETUA PROJEK

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

Tandatangan

FARAH MERICAN ISAHAK MERICAN Ahli

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Tandatangan

INTAN NAZRENEE AHMAD Ahli

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Tandatangan

ROSLIZA MD ZANI Ahli

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Tandatangan

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Praises to Al-Mighty Allah for His Blessings. First and foremost, we wish to acknowledge our

Praises to Al-Mighty Allah for His Blessings. First and foremost, we wish to acknowledge our deepest gratitude to everyone that has been involve directly or indirectly in the process of completing this research especially the proposal presentation panel; P.M Dr Zaliha Hj Hussin, Dr Mahadzir Ismail, Dr Kor Liew Kee and not forgetting the Deputy Bursary who approved our research grant En Md Noor Rashidi Che Nor.

We would also like to thank the respondents of this present study as without them, the results of this study would never have been achieved. Our special thanks also for all the lecturers and staff of UiTM Kedah who have helped us in completing this present study.

Lastly, our sincere gratitude goes to all

of

you for being understanding and

lending us help to assist us to complete this present study.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ii

LIST OF TABLES

v

LIST OF FIGURES

v

ABSTRACT

vi

ABSTRAK

vii

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Introduction

1

  • 1.2 Problem Statement

2

  • 1.3 Research Questions

3

  • 1.4 Research Objectives

3

  • 1.5 Significance of the Study

4

  • 1.6 Scope of the Study

4

  • 1.7 Definition of Main Variables

4

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction

6

  • 2.2 Customer Satisfaction in Service Encounters

6

  • 2.3 Non-Verbal Communication

7

  • 2.3.1 Kinesics

11

  • 2.3.2 Paralanguage

13

  • 2.3.3 Proxemics

16

  • 2.3.4 Physical Appearance

18

  • 2.4 Theoretical framework

20

  • 2.5 Hypotheses

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Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 3.1 Introduction

22

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3.2

Sample and Population

22

3.3 Data Collection Method 22
  • 3.3 Data Collection Method

22

  • 3.4 Data Analysis Procedures

23

Chapter 4: RESULTS OF THE STUDY

  • 4.1 Introduction

 

26

  • 4.2 Profile of the Respondents

26

  • 4.3 Descriptive Analysis

27

  • 4.4 Correlation Analysis

29

  • 4.5 Regression Analysis

30

 

4.5.1

Test for Each Independent Variable to Student Satisfaction

30

  • 4.6 Summary

30

Chapter 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

 
  • 5.1 Introduction

33

 
  • 5.2 Recapitulation of Study

33

  • 5.3 Discussion

 

34

 

5.3.1

The Relationship of Non-Verbal Communication Cues to Student Satisfaction

34

 
  • 5.4 Implication of the Study

35

 

5.4.1

Theoretical Implication

35

5.4.2

Managerial Implication

36

 
  • 5.5 Limitations of the Study

38

  • 5.6 Suggestions for future research

38

  • 5.7 Conclusion

 

39

REFERENCE

41

APPENDIX A:

Questionnaire

46

APPENDIX B:

SPSS Output

50

 

BI

Frequencies

50

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BII Descriptive Statistics 52 BIII Correlation Analysis 53 BIV Regression Analyses 54 iv COPYRIGHT © UiTM

BII

Descriptive Statistics

52

BIII

Correlation Analysis

53

BIV

Regression Analyses

54

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LIST OF TABLES Page Table 4.1 Respondents Profile 28 Table 4.2 Descriptive Analysis 29 Table 4.3

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 4.1

Respondents Profile

28

Table 4.2

Descriptive Analysis

29

Table 4.3

Pearson Correlation Results

29

Table 4.4

Regression Analysis

31

Table 4.5

Summary of Hypotheses

32

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 2.1

Research Model

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ABSTRACT Students’ satisfaction has become an essence of success in today’s highly competitive world. In service

ABSTRACT

Students’ satisfaction has become an essence of success in today’s highly competitive

world. In service industry specifically the education industry, communication is vital to

determine students’ satisfaction. Past researches indicated that, most meaning of

conversational messages comes from non-verbal communication. Therefore, this study intended to examine the relationship of non-verbal communication cues to students’ satisfaction. A total of 330 respondents were sampled from all around UiTM Kedah.

They were evaluated on their perception on lecturers’ non-verbal communication behavior that would lead to their satisfaction to the services provided. The results of the study illustrate that three of the non-verbal communication cues were significant and

positively related to students’ satisfaction. Kinesics and paralanguage was rated as among

the non-verbal communication cues that provided the most impact on students’ satisfaction. However the result also indicated that there was no significant relationship

between physical appearances of the lecturers to the students’ satisfaction. Overall,

students’ in UiTM Kedah are fairly satisfied with the non-verbal communication cues of the lecturers. The present study caters for a wide spectrum of students and development professionals, especially those who are interested in non-verbal communication related

issues. It is highly hoped that the information gleaned from the present study may assist all service employees specifically in understanding better, the importance of non-verbal

communication and its effects on students’ satisfaction.

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ABSTRAK Kepuasan pelajar adalah menjadi intipati utama bagi kejayaan industri pendidikan yang kini semakin kompetitif. Sehubungan

ABSTRAK

Kepuasan pelajar adalah menjadi intipati utama bagi kejayaan industri pendidikan yang kini semakin kompetitif. Sehubungan itu, komunikasi yang efektif adalah penting dalam menentukan pelajar mendapat kepuasan yang maksima dalam proses pembelajaran mereka. Kajian terdahulu menunjukkan bahawa maksud sesuatu mesej akan lebih bermakna melalui komunikasi bukan lisan. Oleh yang demikian, kajian ini akan mengkaji hubungan di antara komunikasi bukan lisan dengan kepuasan pelajar. Seramai 330 responden yang terdiri daripada pelajar-pelajar UiTM Kedah telah dijadikan sampel kajian. Mereka dinilai berdasarkan persepsi mereka terhadap komunikasi bukan lisan pensyarah yang memberi impak terhadap kepuasan mereka terhadap perkhidmatan pendidikan yang diterima. Hasil kajian menunjukkan tiga daripada lima jenis-jenis komunikasi bukan lisan adalah signifikan dan mempunyai hubungan positif tehadap kepuasan pelajar. Kinesik dan paralinguistik dinyatakan sebagai faktor utama yang menjadi pemangkin kepada kepuasan pelajar. Di samping itu, hasil kajian ini menunjukkan tiada hubungan yang signifikan di antara perihal fizikal (physical appearances) pensyarah terhadap kepuasan pelajar. Secara keseluruhannya, pelajar- pelajar di UiTM Kedah berpuas hati terhadap komunikasi bukan lisan yang diekspresikan oleh para pensyarah. Kajian ini juga sesuai untuk pelbagai golongan pelajar dan professional terutamanya kepada mereka yang berminat dalam isu yang berkaitan komunikasi bukan lisan. Adalah diharapkan informasi yang diperolehi daripada kajian ini dapat membantu para pekerja yang terlibat dalam industri perkhidmatan terutamanya industri pendidikan memahami kepentingan komunikasi bukan lisan dan kesannya terhadap kepuasan pelajar.

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1.1 Introduction Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Even as early as 1938, Chester Barnard had emphasized the central

1.1 Introduction

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Even as early as 1938, Chester Barnard had emphasized the central role of

communication in an organization. He asserted that the first executive function was the development and maintenance of a communication system (Barnard, 1938). Not so

long ago, Smith (1985), chairman of General Motors, mentioned that “communication

should be treated with as much thoughtful planning and attention to detail as quality,

finance, service, engineering and manufacturing.”

However, at the applied level, communication is seldom recognized as an important managerial function despite empirical evidence that good communication contributes to organizational effectiveness. As Greenbaum (1974) pointed out, most organizations fail to specify their communication policies, let alone designate executive positions to administer overall communication systems. By having an excellent communication system, students who are the customers of an education organization, will be satisfied with what they have received while dealing with the organization. Customer need to be satisfied in every single way, namely the quality of product and the service they obtain executing transaction with the organization. Customer satisfaction is determined by the overall feeling or attitude a person has about a product or service after it has been purchased or experienced. In

addition, customers are engaged in a constant process of evaluating the things or services they obtain (Fournier & Mick, 1999). In the education industry specifically, communication is vital to determine the satisfaction of the customers who are mainly the students and this will lead to the success or failure of an organization. But organization should be aware that communication is not only verbally but much more beyond that. Studies have been carried out and it was concluded that 65% of the meaning of conversational messages comes from non-verbal cues, leaving only 35% to verbal communication (Philpot,

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1983). Thus, such information will provide the basis for improvement in communication skills and contribute to make difference.

1983). Thus, such information will provide the basis for improvement in communication skills and contribute to

The education industry, no different from other service industry, has grown rapidly parallel with the increase of the country at the local and international level. In the case of Malaysia, education-related receipts have soared from RM 8.5 billion in 1998 to RM 26.2 billion in 2002 (Ministry of Finance, 2002). The importance of

education industry is further associated with its substantial contribution to the nation‟s

GDP. In 2003, of the 56.7 percent contribution made by the service sector, the

education industry alone contributed about 14.6 percent (Ministry of Finance, 2004). Since the education industry is labor intensive, its dependence on human resource is higher than other industries (Mullins, 1992).

In today‟s competitive business environment demands organizations that are

able to provide distinctive products and services. Given the significant contribution

made by the service sector to the world‟s economy, the provision of value-added services to customers who are students in this study‟s context becomes crucial. Thus, it shows the importance of fulfilling the customers‟ needs as it will help enhance the

organization as a whole.

1.2 Problem Statement

In today‟s era, as we are aware, customers‟ plays an enormous role in

determining the success or failure of an organization. Customer satisfaction has be a hot topic being discussed since the emerging of the service industry. Specifically in the education industry, students are the major customers and their needs are to be fulfilled. Factors contributing to customer satisfaction have been fairly identified and communication has been proven to be an indicator to increase customer satisfaction. Although the verbal communication in service industry and its effects on customer satisfaction has been investigated widely, the nonverbal aspects and its effects on customer satisfaction in service industry mainly education remained virtually unexplored in the marketing literature. The services characterized by considerable interpersonal contact are likely to benefit greatly from an investigation of

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the role of nonverbal communication on students‟ evaluations of service experiences. But not much research has been done on lecturers‟ nonverbal behavior despite its importance to customer satisfaction. In Malaysian context specifically, no research has been done to identify the relationship of non-verbal communication and its effect on customer satisfaction. In addition, gender differences have been explored in the West and how both genders perceive differently on the non-verbal communication of service employees has been identified. But, no research was done in the Malaysian context. Thus, with this in mind it is vital to explore the importance of service employees‟ who are the lecturers in the context of this study nonverbal communication behavior during service interactions to provide better satisfaction to the students especially in the Malaysian context.

the role of nonverbal communication on student s‟ evaluations of service experiences. But not much research
  • 1.3 Research Question

There are a few research questions that we imposed in the present study. The research

questions are:

  • 1. Is there any relationship between each of the non-verbal communication cues and student satisfaction?

  • 2. Which non-verbal communication cues is the most dominant to student satisfaction?

  • 1.4 Research Objective

A few objectives of the present study are listed here:

  • 1. To identify whether there is a relationship between each of the non-verbal communication cues and student satisfaction.

  • 2. To identify which non-verbal communication cues is the most dominant to student satisfaction.

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1.5

Significance of the Study

The present study is an applied research carries out with the intention of applying the

1.5 Significance of the Study The present study is an applied research carries out with the

result of its finding to determine the factors that are related to student satisfaction currently being experienced in service firms, mainly is the education industry. This present study is significant in providing valuable insights in terms of theoretical and managerial implication for the benefits of the education industry as well as offering useful guidance for the future study in similar service industry topic. From the literature point, the present study will examine on the relationship between non-verbal communication cues and student satisfaction to support the results of past marketing literature. In the Malaysian context, we could hardly find scientific studies that examined the non-verbal communication of lecturers. Thus, the present study and its findings will be the basis for future research.

  • 1.6 Scope of the Study

The organization being studied covers Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) in Kedah. The individual being studied are lecturers of this university. The students are those who have experience studying in UiTM in Kedah. They are from various demographic characteristics such as ages, genders, education background and family background. The topic being studied in the present study is the students‟ satisfaction on non-verbal communication behaviors provided by the lecturers of UiTM Kedah.

  • 1.7 Definition of Main Variables

There are a few main terms used in the present study. There are non-verbal

communication which includes kinesics, paralanguage, proxemics and physical appearance, customer satisfaction as well and gender.

  • 1. Non- verbal communication

Words are involve but no speaking takes place; involve only gestures and appearance;

conveys non-linguistic messages (Tubbs & Moss, 2000).

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Kinesics Kinesics, also known as body movements, serves as important vehicles for nonverbal

i.

Kinesics Kinesics, also known as body movements, serves as important vehicles for nonverbal i. communication. In

communication. In particular, body orientation (e.g. relaxed, open posture), eye contact, nodding, hand shaking, and smiling are all powerful nonverbal signals in interpersonal interactions.

ii.

Paralanguage

While verbal statements can convey states of being, listeners use paralinguistic cues, such as vocal pitch, vocal loudness or amplitude, pitch variation, pauses, and fluency, to perceive the exact state of being.

iii.

Proxemics

Proxemics refers to the distance and relative postures of the interactants. An element of proxemics that is highly relevant in service interactions is touch.

iv.

Physical appearance

An element of physical appearance that is particularly relevant to the service situation is physical attractiveness. Physical appearance includes dress code, hair do, friendliness, easily approachable and many more.

  • 2. Customer satisfaction

Customer‟s evaluation on the performance of product or service attributes compared to

the customer‟s expectation. It is a retrospective evaluation of a customer‟s experience (Fournier & Mick, 1999). In this study‟s context students of UiTM Kedah who have experience studying in the respective university are the customers.

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Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter reviews the relevant literature that forms the basis

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews the relevant literature that forms the basis of the present study. It

constitutes a review of the past literature on all variables; non-verbal communication cues, customer satisfaction and gender. Finally, this chapter depicts the theoretical framework of the present study and the formulation of hypotheses.

  • 2.2 Customer Satisfaction in Service Encounters

The importance of service encounters for the purpose of creating and maintaining

good relationships between service firms and their customers has been widely recognized (Czepiel, 1990; Gummesson, 1995). Perceptions of service encounters are important elements of customer satisfaction, perceptions of quality and long-term loyalty (Brown et al., 1994). The significance of maintaining current customers and attracting new ones is of great importance in marketing. Literature demonstrates that equal importance

should be placed on maintaining current customers as well as “recruiting” new ones.

An important element for keeping current customers is to demonstrate true commitment when a service failure occurs (McCole, 2004). It is commonly known that employees‟ display of affective characteristics, such as friendliness, responsiveness, and enthusiasm, positively influences customers‟

overall evaluation of service consumption experiences and perceptions of service quality. Further, we are aware that employees‟ verbal behavior during an encounter (such as words of greeting and courtesy) affect customer perceptions of employee friendliness and consequently enhance the perceived quality of the service interaction (Elizur, 1987).

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At the heart of any evaluative process is the consumers‟ perception of the service received. Underlying the evaluation of any human exchange is a complex language of behaviors, which communicate meaning and provide a message on which evaluations are based. This language is non-verbal and part of everyday social behavior and, therefore, also a component of every interpersonal service encounters (Tubbs & Moss, 2000).

At the hear t of any evaluative process is the consumers‟ perception of the service received.

2.3 Non-Verbal Communication

Francis Bacon once said, “Knowledge and human power are synonymous.”

Knowledge is a result of the patterning of perceived information, and communication of information is perhaps the most distinctive and the single most important human activity. Through communication, culture shapes the structure of human thought and behavior. The way we experience the world can be said to be in many ways molded by communication. A non-verbal communication is one that communicates without word. Non-

verbal messages are an important part of the communication process because they provide added information the receiver can use in interpreting what is said. The extra information can add to or detract from the meaning of a message (Krizan et. al., 2005). Non-verbal communication is composed of the messages we send without or in addition to words. These messages have a strong impact on us as receivers. Often, action speaks so loudly that they drown out spoken words. This happens because we use non-verbal communication symbols as a means to determine what sender really feels and the degree of importance the sender attach to the message and to us (Means,

2004).

Means (2004) also said that spoken or written symbols make up of verbal part of a message and are accompanied by non-verbal symbols. However, a non-verbal message may not have a verbal counterpart. Nonverbal symbols which include body language, appearance, touch, space, time and voice exist in written and oral communication as well as in the environment. Research indicates that when verbal and non-verbal symbols conflict, the receiver usually believes the non-verbal messages.

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An analysis of interpersonal communication is incomplete without considering beyond the mere use of language alone, for communication is not conducted entirely in words. Meaning is encoded in and transmitted by virtually every human behavior. The meaning of any verbal communication is not to be found either in the words or the accompanying actions, but rather in the relationship of each to the other, and both in the context on the situation in which they occur (Means, 2004). One of the vital functions of non-verbal communication is to provide information or what Bateson (1980), in his book, Mind and Nature: A Necessity Unity refers to as “news of difference”. Non-verbal communication increases the potential for conducting this “news of difference” by directly offering information for comparing the spoken words with the speaker‟s state of mind and experience. Non- verbal communication thus becomes a yardstick against which words and intentions are measured. Most successful executives favor verbal rather written modes of communication because it enables them to read body language and tone of voice, that is, to utilize non-verbal channel simultaneously. Many studies have pointed to the need for successful managers to be skilled in interpersonal relation because the ability to motivate others, to resolve conflict and to promote cooperation in an integral part of successful performance at that level of responsibility and function. How can knowledge of the non-verbal communication cues enhance business success? It is through comparing non-verbal communication to other modes of communication. There are eight features of media which can be compared and selected for maximum effectiveness according to purpose. These features are:

An analysis of interpersonal communication is incomplete without considering beyond the mere use of language alone,
  • 1. The senses of stimulate

  • 2. The opportunity for feedback

  • 3. Control of pace

  • 4. Message codes

  • 5. Multiplicative power

  • 6. Power to preserve message

  • 7. Power to overcome selectivity

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8.

Power to meet specialized means

8. Power to meet specialized means In terms of these criteria, face-to-face communication, which is heavily

In terms of these criteria, face-to-face communication, which is heavily weighted with non-verbal information, stimulates the greatest number of senses, and provides more complete information than any other mode. It provides opportunity for rapid feedback and for control of pace; it offers a multiplicity of message codes (in face-to-face communication, a high proportion of all information is non-verbal and is communicated on many levels in many ways); it provides the power to overcome selectivity (the interactants cannot change the communication channel), and it has the power to meet specialized needs. The only deficiencies seen in this comparison are the power to preserve the message and to replace it. However, these are probably less potent factors in motivating, persuading, or influencing people toward a specific desired outcome. Past research in sociology and communication indicated that individuals learn from early childhood how to use nonverbal behavioral signals as a communication vehicle (Palmer & Simmons, 1995). In fact, the manner in which individuals learn to communicate nonverbally is similar to how they learn a vocal language. Once having learned to communicate nonverbally, individuals consciously and unconsciously integrate nonverbal cues into conversations, using them to convey specific social meanings such as intimacy, immediacy, involvement, and dominance (Burgoon,

1991).

An examination of past research focusing on nonverbal communication in the sociology, psychology and communication fields helps us to understand better how service customers are likely to process employees‟ nonverbal communication. Advocated to explain the interpersonal communication process within the psychology literature, the modified Brunswickian lens model suggests that a sender‟s emotional status and other traits are externalized or expressed in distal indicator cues (i.e., characteristics of the sender‟s nonverbal behavior) (Scherer, 1982; Burgoon et al.,

1990).

The receiver, following his or her observation and internalization of the cues, makes an attribution about the nature of the sender‟s traits or states, such as

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competence, composure, or persuasiveness. This model indicates that during the communication process, individuals process nonverbal cues in conjunction with the accompanying verbal message. Indeed, listeners (or customers) are likely to attend to and elaborate on the nonverbal cues before actually comprehending the verbal communication. According to Cicca et al. (2003), nonverbal communication had been considered theoretically from a variety of perspectives. The relational perspective suggests that meaning construction between interactants provides the context for interpersonal communication. In other words, when we meet others interpersonally, our primary task is to communicate who we are, particularly our attitudes toward relevant objects in the environment. Interactants infer similarity to their partner from both verbal and nonverbal cues. If similarity is detected, it is experienced as reinforcement to our own attitudes and often results in increased interpersonal attraction (i.e., making friends, gaining acceptance). Further, people have perceptual filters for relationship building, particularly for physical appearance cues. These filters help us reduce uncertainty about the other and reassure us that this person is "like me" or "acceptable to me." We thus monitor our communication partner's nonverbal cues to be sure that this is someone with whom a relationship is possible. Clearly, not every interaction evolves into a relationship, yet humans retain the need to be liked and included by their peers. Further theoretical focus has delved into the outcomes of unexpected or a typical nonverbal behavior. Expectancy violations theory suggests that people hold expectations for what is typical of interaction (nonverbally). These expectations are grounded in culture, relationship, and situational parameters. When an interactant broaches those expectations, it prompts arousal in the communication partner and focuses attention on the violation. If the violator holds greater reward valence (e.g., well-liked, physically attractive, powerful), the decoder will be more likely to accept the violation without consequence (i.e., communication continues). However, if the violator holds less potential reward for the decoder (e.g., stranger), some type of compensation would be expected by the communication partner. For example, in the case of a space violation it could mean moving away or even mentally derogating that

competence, composure, or persuasiveness. This model indicates that during the communication process, individuals process nonverbal cues

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violator. In any case, breaches of nonverbal behavior are taken seriously by interactants and accumulate to account for a great deal of impression formation (Cicca et. al., 2003). Given this theory of expectancy violations, it becomes apparent why employees who have nonverbal communication deficits are not accepted by their peers. They have difficulty receiving and decoding nonverbal behaviors and, therefore, are unable to adjust their own nonverbal behavior accordingly. Because the communication partner's expectations were not met and behavioral adjustments were not made, the communication partner is likely to exit the conversation.

violator. In any case, breaches of nonverbal behavior are taken seriously by interactants and accumulate to

2.3.1 Kinesics

The first communication cue is kinesics that measures the body movement is a vital cue in a non-verbal communication. Although each body movement probably does not have its own unique meaning, several body movements tend to convey similar meaning. For instance, research suggests that the cues of casual smiling, light laughter, forward body lean, open body posture, and frequent eye contact are perceived as conveying intimacy and non-dominance the characteristics commonly associated with friendliness and courtesy. On the other hand, kinesics such as stoic facial expressions, either staring or avoiding eye contact, backward lean of body, and closed body posture are perceived as conveying dominance, unfriendliness, and emotional distance (Burgoon et al., 1990; Mehrabian & Williams, 1969). Research has shown that eye contact, as a certain aspect of kinesics, is particularly important with respect to its effect on perceptions and interpersonal relations. While perceptions of a communicator‟s credibility become more favorable with more frequent and appropriately longer eye contact, perceptions of distrust increase with the absence of eye contact (Hemsley & Doob, 1978). Further, eye contact has been linked to increased likeability, believability (Beebe, 1980), and satisfaction (Ketrow & Perkins, 1986). A study focusing on the role of nonverbal cues in banking service transactions found that a greater usage of eye contact by bank tellers resulted in higher customer satisfaction with the service provider and with the service firm (Ketrow & Perkins, 1986).

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Ruben (1988) in his book Communication and Human Behavior said that movement of body, head, arms, legs or feet termed kinesics plays an important role in nonverbal communication. Gestures, as well as other cues, may either be purposeful; messages which are intended to achieve a particular purpose, or incidental and unintended. Some gesture are used as substitutes and complements for language, such as when, upon being asked a question, we shake our head back and forth while saying

Ruben (1988) in his book Communication and Human Behavior said that movement of body, head, arms,

“no”. In other instances we use gestures in place of words. A shrug of the shoulders,

for instance, is used to indicate confusion or uncertainty and a frown with slow horizontal back-and-forth motion of head to indicate frustration or annoyance. Means (2004) suggested that body language include facial expression and body gestures. Interpreting body language is surprisingly complex, because a single motion can have many different meaning. For instants, a frown shows negative feelings and a smile shows happy feelings. On top of that, eye provides most revealing facial expression such as excitement, boredom, concentration and confidence. Proper eye contact would show friendliness and interest. Besides, Means (2004) also said that a gesture is the use of arms and hands to express ideas or feelings.

In service situations where customers typically have encounters with different employees, they are likely to have a lasting impression that the firm and its employees are customer-oriented if those employees greet the customers with a smile. If the

service employee‟s smile is accompanied by eye contact, the impact is even greater.

While smiling will create the perceptions of warmth and friendliness, employees‟ eye contact will give the impression that they are sincere about their interest in their customers. As an example, airlines typically have their crew greet customers while boarding and unboarding the aircraft. It is imperative for employees to smile at and have eye contact with each customer (Sundram & Webster, 2000). The display of interpersonal warmth (i.e. showing interest in and acceptance and approval of other people) is logically associated with service employees. It is particularly important for service employees to show warmth toward customers because such behavior serves as the basis for building satisfying relationships. Although interpersonal warmth can be communicated via both verbal and nonverbal cues, studies in clinical psychology note that warmth is more effectively

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communicated through nonverbal channels. In an investigation of a variety of vocal and kinesics nonverbal cues, smiling emerged as the most effective indicator of interpersonal warmth (Bayes, 1972). Tubbs and Moss (2000) in their book proposed that human face is so mobile that it can effortlessly register boredom, surprise, affection, and disapproval, one after another in a few seconds. They suggested further that we constantly read expressions from people‟s faces. In fact, facial cues are the most important source of nonverbal communication. Morreale et al., (2001) said that kinesics focuses on how people communicate through movement and postures, gestures and the face and eyes. They also said that the six basic and universal emotions people display facially are anger, fear, disgust, surprise, happiness and sadness. Kinesics typically includes facial expression particularly eyebrows, forehead,

communicated through nonverbal channels. In an investigation of a variety of vocal and kinesics nonverbal cues,

eyes, mouth, postures and gestures. Thus, hand movements, a surprised stare, drooping shoulders, a knowing smile, and a tilt of the head are all part of kinesics (Gamble & Gamble, 2002). Thill and Bovee (2001) said that face is the primary site for expressing

a person‟s emotions; it reveals both the type and the intensity of the person‟s feelings.

Eyes are especially effective for indicating attention and interest, influencing others, regulating interaction and establishing dominance. In fact, eye contact is so important that even when word sent are positive, averting gaze can lead the audience to perceive a negative one. Sundram and Webster (2000) said that in all service situations, the use of frequent eye contact accompanied by other complementary nonverbal cues will help enhance perceptions of trust, believability, and sincerity. On the other hand, service employees should never use nonverbal cues that communicate dominance, unconcern, and superiority, such as scant or piercing eye contact, finger pointing, and closed body posture as it will lead to dissatisfaction of customer to the services provided.

2.3.2 Paralanguage The second communication cue is paralanguage that is an indication for vocal tones that is use in communication show different interpretation when construed. For example, a communicator might use a verbal statement to convey confidence, e.g., “I

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