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A Detailed Lesson Plan in Biology III

I. Objectives At the end of the lesson the students are expected to: 1. Understand the fundamental role of chromosomes and genes in hereditary variations. 2. Demonstrate understanding of the Mendelian principles of heredity. 3. Students will be able to complete monohybrid cross problems. 4. Understand the Non-Mendelian patterns of heredity. 5. Students will apply their knowledge of Punnett squares to real-world situations. II. Subject Matter MENDELIAN AND NON-MENDELIAN LAWS OF HEREDITY Reference: Science and technology II-Biology textbook pp.: 166-183 Materials: Laptop with LCD Monitor, Values: Enjoyment, Participate actively

III. Lesson Proper/Procedures A. learning activities Teachers Activity Good morning class.... Let us pray first.... (checking of attendance ) ...say present... Please pick up the pieces of paper under your chair So how was your weekend? Thats good! Students activity Good morning sir! (One student will lead the Prayer) (Students raise their hand and say present as the teacher calls in their name) (Students pick up the pieces of paper) it was great sir

B. REVIEW Before we proceed to our lesson, lets have a review from our past lesson What you called the long tail-like structure usually you can see in the sperm cell? This is a human reproductive parts, a sac contained testicles? This is a sex hormone produce by ovaries of the female? This is a cord that connects the embryo and the placenta? It is a watery, yellowish-white fluid secreted by the mothers mammary gland? C. Motivation For this morning our discussion will be about genetics. Before that, are you familiar with Ushers & Will I. Am Song- OMG Ok thats good, In the board I post a song related to our discussion. The title of the song GREG MENDEL & MEOSIS Song. tune: OMG by Ushers & Will I. Am So are you ready to sing and have fun today?



Yes sir!


Let us sing Greg Mendel and Meiosis Song. tune: OMG by Ushers & Will I. Am Greg Mendel Greg Mendel

He did it again, so I'm gonna let the beat drop Greg Mendel Mendel had a Mendel had a Mendel had a Chorus Mendel had a garden There's so many different pea plants They had different kinds of seeds Some green and some were yellow Then he thought, Oh my gosh, different traits He found heredity, he makes me wanna say Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, Greg Mendel Chant (Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh) He makes me wanna say Chant (Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh,) Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh Mendel made a wise decision when he chose to study peas They are either really t-t-tall or short, and droppin' low Mendel crossbred pea plants they were either tall or small Parent Generation; this is what he called them All of the plant offspring were tall, tall, tall He was so surprised he said, Wow, oh, wow Then F-Generation, pollinated themselves Tall, tall, tall, Small, But how could that be 'cause None of the parents were small Then he checked for other traits Color, seed coat, and all, and all, and all

( Student Sing )

Chorus It's dominant, recessive genes Alleles control inheritance Let's set up a Punnett Square Genetic possibilities Phenotype is physical, visible But Genetic Mix is Genotype, He makes me wanna' say Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, Greg Mendel Chant (Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh ) He makes me wanna say Chant (Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh), He makes me wanna say, Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh Meiosis is where cells will split to end with half the number Chromosomes for sex cells, egg and sperm pair with each other Every chromosome is copied, they're held together, Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, Meiosis 1 Pairs line up the middle then, spread apart Two cells form with half the number, split apart Chromosomes are double stranded-not for long This is all repeated in Meiosis 2 Centromeres split each strand into two Four sex cells have been produced Now with a chromosome, from each, first pair. Half-time Chorus Mendel had a garden There's so many different pea plants

( Student Sing )

They had different kinds of seeds Some green and some were yellow Then he thought, Oh my gosh, different traits He found heredity, he makes me wanna say Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, Greg Mendel Chant (Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh) Greg Mendel Chant ( Oh, oh, oh, oh, (oh my), oh, oh, oh, (oh my), oh, oh, oh, (oh my)) Greg Mendel Greg Mendel He did it again So I'm gonna let the beat drop Oh, oh, oh my Oh, oh, oh my, my, my, my, my, my Greg Mendel Oh, oh, oh my Oh, oh, oh my, my, my, my, my, my Greg Mendel Oh, oh, oh my Oh, oh, oh my, my, my, my, my, my Greg Mendel ___________________________________ Okay now class, What can you say about the song? ( Student Sing )

__________________________________ Sir, the song is all about Gregor Mendel and his different pea plants found in their garden. He noticed why the pea plants different physical appearances some green and some were yellow, the shape of the seeds have round and wrinkled, and they have small and tall pea plants. he do an experiments and observation and then he thought all the pea plants have diff. traits and he discover hereditary... It is very important the hereditary traits come from our beloved parents.

That was a very good explanation; you know what class simply tells us something that it very important the works of Gregor Mendel the Words HEREDITARY and we also thank our parent why we have a beautiful, handsome faces, and healthy body because of her hereditary traits that we acquired. Everybody had just sung very well, its now time to proceed to our discussion about Mendelian and Non-mendelian laws of heredity. Presentation of the Lesson A. Discussion Okay, classes as you have said earlier, Gregor Mendel he discovered the hereditary traits from the parents to offspring by using his experiment the pea plants from their garden. Before that, we should know first who is Gregor Mendel and his contribution in the field of Genetics. (Students listen attentively) MENDELIAN AND NON-MENDELIAN LAWS OF HEREDITY Here is a PowerPoint presentation regarding our subject matter. Follow me as I read it. B. Analysis 1. The gene for red hair is recessive to the gene for black hair. What will be the hair colour of a person if he inherits a gene for red hair from his mother and a gene for black hair from his father? 2. A child has blood group O. If the father has blood group A and mother blood group B, work out the genotypes of the parents and the possible genotypes of the other The color of their hair is black because the genes of their father much dominant rather than their mother. The gene of the mother is recessive only.

The blood group characteristic in humans is controlled by three set of alleles, namely, IA, IB, and i. The alleles, IA and IB, are equally dominant whereas allele, i, is


C. Generalization Differentiate the three Mendels law of genetics? 1. The Law of Dominance: In a cross between contrasting homozygous individuals, only one form of the trait will appear in the F1 generation - this trait is the dominant trait. 2. The Law of Segregation: during the formation of gametes, alleles responsible for a trait separate; this allows for recombination during fertilization. 3. The Law of Independent Assortment: alleles responsible for different traits are distributed to gametes (and thus the offspring) independently of each other. What is the difference between recessive traits to dominant traits? -Well Dominant traits will always be expressed or shown, while recessive traits will be hidden by the dominant trait unless both parents have the recessive trait then it will be shown. E.g. Blonde hair and Blue eyes are both traits that are recessive, while black or brown hair and brown eyes are dominant traits. D. Application ACTIVITY: DIRECTION: Read and understand carefully the problem. Solve the problem on sexlinked genes.

recessive to the other alleles. The individuals with genotype, IA IA and IA i, have blood group A whereas the individuals with genotype, IB IB and IB i, have blood group B. The persons with genotype IA IB have blood group AB while those with blood group O have genotype ii. Hence, if the father has blood group A and mother has blood group B, then the possible genotype of the parents will be Father Mother A IA or IA i IB IB or IB i A cross between homozygous parents will produce progeny with AB blood group. A cross between heterozygous parents will produce progenies with AB blood group (IAIB) and O blood group (ii).

Hemophilia, a sex linked trait, is a disorder in which the afflicted persons blood does not clot very slowly. As a result, even small cuts result in extensive or prolonged bleeding. How is the gene for hemophilia inherited? Examine table 1. it gives the possible combinations of sex chromosomes for this trait and the corresponding phenotype for each combination TABLE 1-Genotypes and phenotypes involved in inheritance of hemophilia. GENOTYPE XHXH XHXh XhXh XHY XhY PHENOTYPE Normal Female Normal Female/ Carrier Hemophiliac Female Normal Male Hemophiliac Male

2. A carrier female (XHXh) is crossed with a normal male (XHY) a.) Determine the expected genotypic & phenotypic ratios among the offspring. b.) What percentage of female offspring is normal? c.) What percentage of hemophiliac? d.) What percentage of the male offspring is normal? e.) what percentage is hemophiliac 3. A carrier female (XHXh) is crossed with a hemophiliac male (XhY) 4.Using the ff. information mentioned complete the ff. table (Student perform the activity)


O PART II DIRECTIONS: 1. Given this across, RrYy x RrYy, Fill-up the Punnet Squares with the correct answer. And answer the guide question. 2. Identify the traits of the peas seed if the shape round or wrinkled and the coloryellow or green. Draw inside the diagram. R R r R




y r

(Student perform the activity)

Y r

R-Round Seed r- Wrinkled Seed Y-Yellow Seed y- Green Seed 3. Describe the Genotype and Phenotype of the offspring. 4. Compute the percentage of each genotype and phenotype GUIDE QUESTION: 1. How many phenotypes are there? Genotypes? 2. Describe the phenotype and genotype of the ff. A.) RR x Yy C.) Rr x yy B.) Rr x Yy D.) rr x yy 3. Give the phenotypic and genotypic ratio of the dihybrid cross.

(Student perform the activity)

IV. Evaluation DIRECTION: I. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Gregor Mendel was: A) An English scientist who carried out research with Charles Darwin B) A little known Central European monk C) An early 20th century Dutch biologist who carried out genetics research 2. Which of the following statements is true about Mendel? A) His discoveries concerning genetic inheritance were generally accepted by the scientific community when he published them during the mid-19th century. B) He believed that genetic traits of parents will usually blend in their children. C) His ideas about genetics apply equally to plants and animals. 3. Mendel believed that the characteristics of pea plants are determined by the: A) Inheritance of units or factors from both parents B) Inheritance of units or factors from one parent C) Relative health of the parent plants at the time of pollination

4. An allele is: A) Another word for a gene B) A homozygous genotype C) A heterozygous genotype D) One of several possible forms of a gene 5. Phenotype refers to the ______ of an individual. A) Genetic makeup B) Actual physical appearance C) Recessive alleles 6. When the genotype consists of a dominant and a recessive allele, the phenotype will be like ________ allele. A) The dominant B) The recessive C) Neither 7. Assuming that both parent plants in the diagram below are homozygous, why would all of the f1 generation have yellow phenotypes?

A) Because the f1 genotypes are homozygous B) Because yellow is dominant over green C) Because both parents passed on yellow alleles 8. The idea that different pairs of alleles are passed to offspring independently is Mendel's principle of: A) Unit inheritance B) Segregation C) Independent assortment 9. In the diagram below, what accounts for the green pea seed in the f2 generation?

A) On average, 1 out of 4 offspring of heterozygous parents will be homozygous recessive. B) The yellow allele is dominant over the green one. C) The f1 generation parents are homozygous yellow. 10. The idea that for any particular trait, the pair of alleles of each parent separate and only one allele from each parent passes to an offspring is Mendel's principle of: A) Independent assortment B) Hybridization C) Segregation 11. A pure-breeding plant with red flowers is crossed with a pure-breeding plant with white flowers. The offspring all have pink flowers. What type of inheritance is involved here? A) Co-dominance B) Multi-gene phenotype C) Incomplete dominance II. A father of four children has blood type A. the mother has blood type O. explain why three of their children have blood type A while are child has blood type O. V. Assignment 1. What is the difference between DNA and RNA? 2. What are the two classes of nitrogen-bases and identify the nitrogen bases are found in DNA and RNA? Find the meaning of the following A. genome B. protein synthesis C. transcription D. translation E. mRNA F. tRNA G. rRNA

References: Any BIOLOGY book or search through internet.

Prepared By: Boneo, Ian B. BSED III