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C E N T R E
Week 3 15 January 2013
Comprehensive Information on Complex Crises
INSIDE THIS ISSUE
Economic Development Governance & Rule of Law Security & Force Protection Social & Strategic Infrastructure
This document provides an overview of developments in Afghanistan from 11 December 2012 – 14 January 2013, with hyper-links to source material highlighted in blue and underlined in the text. For more information on the topics below or other issues pertaining to events in Afghanistan, contact the members of the Afghanistan Team, or visit our website at www.cimicweb.org/cmo/afg.
►Clicking the links in this list will take you to the appropriate section.
Large shipments of gold are being carried on flights out of Kabul airport. Private investors are struggling to exploit mineral resources due to security issues. President Hamid Karzai and a high level delegation visit the United States. Large areas of land have been illegally confiscated over the past years. Afghanistan drug problem is having direct impact on regional politics and security. Afghanistan will have a self-sufficient air force by 2016. Olive tree industry in Nangarhar province undermined due to lack of water. 133 children die every day in Afghanistan due to diarrhoeal diseases. ties.
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Construction sector suffers Economic Development from the upcoming email@example.com Rainer Gonzalez ► of foreign troops. Afghan women use mobile phones to achieve literacy. fghan and American officials are concerned that large shipments of gold, in the form of roughly-hewed bars, are being carried on commercial flights out of Kabul International Airport (KIA), packed into hand luggage and jacket pockets, reports The New York Times. Officials report that a courier was found carrying almost 60 pounds of gold bars valued at USD 1.5 million. Authorities suspect that gold shipments could be a new method of cash smuggling and money laundering. In 2011, Afghanistan’s central bank reported nearly USD 4.5 billion was spirited out the country through KIA, stuffed in suitcases, packed in boxes, shrink-wrapped onto pallets or even hidden in food trays aboard Pamir Airways flights. Officials suspect that the apparent growth in gold shipments to Dubai is tied to illicit activities such as opium smuggling, corruption and Taliban taxation schemes. In addition, there are indications that Iran could be acquiring gold (along with dollars and euros) in Afghanistan, to circumvent Western sanctions. Without knowing how much gold is leaving, it is impossible to calculate the value of the operation; a recent report estimates USD 14 million in gold left Afghanistan via KIA during the last two weeks of October. Several days after this report came to light, the governor of Da Afghanistan Bank, Noorullah Delwari, called such claims untrue and said The New York Times failed to provide evidence, according to Wadsam.
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The Chinese consortium that won the concession for a mine in Bamian province is struggling to exploit the untapped mineral resources due to security issues, reports The Wall Street Journal. For decades, locals have sought coal in the unregulated mines of Bamian. In order to facilitate the Chinese consortium’s mining efforts, the Afghan government expelled these miners several months ago. As a result, many of the evicted miners have joined the Taliban in exchange for a pay check, severely worsening the security in the area. According to the Bamian governor, Habiba Sarabi, the project has destabilised one of the safest provinces in Afghanistan, arguing that “If people do not have jobs, the insurgents will get these people.” One miner, who claims to be earning USD 30 per day from the Taliban, says “When the government kicked us out from the coal mines, we had no other choice except to join the Taliban.” Fur-
thermore, the miners were the main source for obtaining coal in the freezing mountainous region, and since their removal, the availability of coal has plummeted, aligning the population with the insurgency. Local government officials and miners allege that between 5,000 and 10,000 jobs have been lost in the area. The Afghan government continues to reassure Afghans and investors that the country will not suffer economic consequences after 2014, according to Wadsam. Dispelling allegations of an economic crash after the troop withdrawal presented by Western media, President Hamid Karzai urged Afghan entrepreneurs to take advantage of investment opportunities offered by the Afghan government. He said: “Clearly the US and its allies are spreading such propaganda to merely promote their interests in security deals with Afghanistan. And we seek our own benefits.” Currently, 95 per cent of Afghan economy is made up of foreign aid. In this regard, the Afghan Ministry of Finance is drafting a bill to incorporate financial incentives to increase investment in the next two years, says Wadsam. The bill includes the exemption of certain taxes and the ability to purchase lands at discounted prices. Another Wadsam article reports that businessmen are reluctant to hold their money in bank savings accounts. Mohammad Qurban Haqjo, Head of the Afghan Chamber of Commerce and Industries (ACCI), say that due to lack in trust of financial institutions in Afghanistan, many businessmen keep their money in safes inside their shops. The US Department of State spokesperson, Victoria Nuland, announced that the United States is considering handing over fifty per cent of its aid to Afghanistan through the Afghan government upon the government’s demonstration of significant progress in anticorruption measures, informs Wadsam. Nuland urged the Afghan government to meet the commitments it made at the Tokyo conference, where the international community pledged USD 16 billion in aid between 2012 and 2015. Nonetheless, the Afghan Ministers of Defence and Finance, Bismillah Mohammadi and Hazrat Omar Zakhilwal, welcomed recent US commitments but publicly expressed doubts regarding their implementation. Zakhilwal claimed that only up to forty per cent of the aid pledged by the United States has been spent in Afghanistan. The rest was channelled out of the country through contractors and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Zakhilwal added: “The government’s stance is that the lion’s share of aid be expended through its budget on priority projects to improve state organs on the one hand and cut project cost on the other.” A number of other economic development issues, which emerged during the past two weeks, are summarised below. A recent report by the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) revealed that there is more than USD 200 million in Department of Defense fuel purchases for the Afghan army that is untraceable due to officers improperly destroying documents, reports the Stars and Stripes web portal. The SIGAR report did not find evidence of criminal activity, but did find that the destruction of documents “happened within days of a US Central Command directive forbidding managers from destroying financial records related to the war in Afghanistan”. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkey signed a trilateral memorandum of understanding on facilitating trade and economic cooperation during a summit convening in Ankara, reports Wadsam. Uzbekistan has obstructed more than 2,000 tonnes of Afghan dry fruit exports heading to Russia, highlights Pajhwok Afghan News. Reportedly, the Uzbek authorities have held a train laden with the fruit at Hairatan port and request the products to be dispatched by cargo ships at an additional cost. During the last week, prices of gold and fuel, excluding diesel, rose in Kabul markets, reports Afghanistan Times. Wood prices increased by three per cent and petrol prices remained stable at AFG 55 while diesel decreased from AFG 61 to AFG 60. A kg of liquefied gas was being sold at AFG 70, an increase of AFG. The prices of other commodities such as flour and sugar also increased. Traders say that these upturns are related to cold weather and road blockades, which have hampered supplies to the capital.
Governance & Rule of Law
Eray Basar ► firstname.lastname@example.org
fghan President Hamid Karzai and a high level delegation left Afghanistan on 07 January for a visit to the United States to meet the US President Barack Obama and other officials, reports Khaama Press. During the visit, vital issues such as the security transition, equipment for the Afghan security forces, peace talks and several other political and economic issues were discussed. President Karzai is also due to visit the head of the National Directorate of Security Asadullah Khalid who was hospitalised in the US after being injured by a Taliban attack in early December. Before his official US visit, President Karzai met with several mujahedeen leaders in the presidential palace. Mujahedeen leaders reportedly asked President Karzai to discuss his agenda with his American counterpart “considering the national benefits of Afghanistan”. The Afghan High Peace Council responded positively to the release on 31 December of eight Taliban members imprisoned in Pakistan, reports Al Jazeera. The Council, which is tasked to conduct peace negotiations with the Taliban, evaluated the move by Pakistan as supportive of the peace negotiations. Al Jazeera correspondent Bernard Smith said “[i]t’s been seen as an indication that Pakistanis have taken on board the idea of promoting stability here in Afghanistan”. Afghan officials believe that freeing Taliban members could be a positive step towards persuading the Taliban fighters to accept peace negotiations. Mohammad Masoom Stanekzai, a senior member of the High Peace Council, said that the Afghan government aims to transform the Taliban into a political movement and recognised the crucial role of Pakistan in helping the US and Kabul governments bring stability to Afghanistan. In related news, a Ministry of Defence spokesman announced on 04 January that the Afghan authorities released 250 prisoners formerly held by the US, 15 January 2013 Page 2
reports Associated Press. This move was also motivated by the hopes of leading to reconciliation in the long-lasting conflict in the country. Taliban leadership are changing their stance on the Afghan war and peace negotiations, reports the Daily Beast. Once fiercely refusing to begin any negotiations before foreign forces leave Afghanistan and to negotiate with Afghan President Karzai’s “puppet regime”, Taliban leadership are now reconsidering a change of strategy on a wide array of issues. Zabihullah, a senior Taliban leader in the Quetta Shura (ruling council’s political committee), informed that the insurgency is reconsidering the peace talks, the hostility towards the former Northern Alliance, their rejection of the Afghan Constitution and even participating in the next presidential and National Assembly elections. According to Zabihullah, the Taliban are already in talks with the predominantly ethnic Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara Northern Alliance, which is largely in opposition to the Karzai government and in favour of an Islamic state. Zabihullah adds that the group is willing to accept the Afghan Constitution and democratic elections with some changes to the electoral law. Several lawmakers in Afghanistan accused deputy presidents Mohammad Karim Khalili and Marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim of misusing the state budget, reports Khaama Press. According to the lawmaker Shukria Barekzai, the rents of the two deputies for their homes and guest houses are approximately USD 12,000 a month. Moreover, they are also billing their office, security and guest house expenses to the government, totalling up to USD one million annually. Barekzai also said that high level officials are building their residences by using the state budget despite that the presidential office allocated adequate money for such construction. Members of the Wolesi Jirga (the lower house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan) remain divided in their decision to summon the eleven ministers who failed to expend a majority of their development budgets in 2011, reports Pajhwok Afghan News. Although the lower house earlier voted to summon the ministers, they later split their decision. Arguments began to escalate among the parliamentarians in the past three weeks regarding the summoning of ministers of defence, interior, commerce, economy, counternarcotics, energy and water, education, urban development, mines and higher education and information. Eighty members of the assembly had already signed the necessary papers for summoning the aforementioned ministers. Speaker Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi ruled that ministers should be summoned but the process still requires the parliament members to complete a prescribed form. However, according to the representative from Kandahar Hamidzai Lalai, parliamentarians would not complete the form “because the Administrative Board would sell them to the ministers”. Their attempts to have these documents completed triggered reaction. Large areas of land have been illegally confiscated in Afghanistan over the past years and many of the land-grabbers are noted as “powerful figures”, reports Tolo News. A member of the Special Commission for Studying and Analysing Government Activities, Saleh Mohammed Saljooqi, said that “1.25 million acres of land are confiscated across the country. According to our findings, most of the land is confiscated by powerful figures” and added that “the government is responsible to examine the matter”. He also said that these people are identified; however, the constitution does not permit the disclosure of their names without a court decision. A number of other articles related to governance and rule of law appeared this past week, including those summarised below. The Afghan government reportedly denied the demands of the Taliban attendees at the Paris Conference which concluded on 21 December, reports Khaama Press. Taliban members said that they oppose the current government and constitution of Afghanistan and sought the establishment of a transitional government and revision of the constitution. The Taliban delegation also said that they would only agree to start peace negotiations on the condition of total withdrawal of NATO troops. Iran said, through their Ambassador to Kabul Abolfazl Zohrevand, that they will continue to support Afghanistan’s reconstruction and development areas after the withdrawal of the foreign forces, reports Wadsam. The Ambassador also said that the US mission in Afghanistan to restore peace and stability had failed and the presence of the foreign troops is the cause of the instability in the country. According to the provincial security chief spokesman Gen. Abdul Wali, Taliban militants assassinated a female social activist working for a non-governmental organisation, hanging her corpse on a tree in Chak district, in Wardak province, highlights Khaama Press. Wali confirmed the activist had been abducted approximately four days prior. The non-governmental organisation that employed the activist is reportedly providing chickens, tailor machines and carpet waving equipment in an effort to create employment opportunities for local residents. In a recent interview, the Deputy Director of the US Department of State Afghanistan Office Mustafa Popal, announced that the US and Afghan government are working to open new diplomatic missions in the country, reports Pajhwok. So far, the two countries have agreed to open a new consulate in the Balkh province and there are plans to open five new consulates countrywide.
Security & Force Protection
Rainer Gonzalez ► email@example.com
recent article by the Global Times accuses Central Asian countries of ignoring the drug problem in Afghanistan. Afghanistan continues to be the largest drug producing country in the world and the problem is not only social or criminal but also has direct impact on regional politics and security. The chairman of the Customs Control Committee of the Kazakh Ministry of Finance Mazhit Yesenbayev showed concern over a worsening drug situation in Afghanistan after the withdrawal of the troops in 2014. In fact, Central Asian and South Asian countries have become important export paths for drugs that threaten their security and stability as criminal groups collide with political forces. For instance, during the unrest in southern Kyrgyzstan in 2010, organised drug crimi15 January 2013 Page 3
nals played a vital role in the city of Osh during the social unrest. Drugs are also used to leverage political forces in the region; the article warns of a drug problem spreading beyond Afghanistan to the entire region if the international community does not cooperate effectively and jointly after 2014. A suicide attacker has struck in the heart of Kabul, detonating a car bomb in a crowded street near the National Directorate of Security, the Afghan intelligence agency, and a few dozen metres from several embassies, reports The Guardian. A large explosion that echoed through the city around noon local time (0730 GMT) on 16 January was followed by gunfire and several smaller blasts. A fire broke out in the area following the explosion. “It was a suicide attack, the explosives were inside the car,” Sediq Seddiqi, spokesman for the Interior Ministry, told Tolo television channel. He said the blast site was not fully under the control of Afghan Special Forces. The attack comes days after Afghan President Hamid Karzai returned from a trip to Washington where he met US President Barack Obama to discuss the withdrawal of most foreign forces by the end of 2014. A Taliban spokesman told Reuters the group was “unaware” of the car bomb. In a weekly press conference, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) spokesman Brig. Gen. Gunter Katz praised the fastgrowing capabilities of Afghan forces in taking the lead to protect the country, according to Tolo News. Katz added that in three years Afghanistan will have a self-sufficient air force, which was created from the scratch. Katz lauded the progress in the creation of the air force pointing out that “we [still] need to train those guys in particular in English language and it takes very long, you know to train them on technical issues and pilot training takes a while.” Three Afghan policemen fired at Italian troops in Bala Baluk district in Farah province but did not cause any casualties, reports Pajhwok Afghan News. The reported green-on-blue attack was denied by ISAF but confirmed by the Farah Governor Abdul Rahman Zhwandai. The attackers are reportedly two members of the Afghan Local Police and one official of the Afghan National Police. Although Zhwandai assured the attackers were caught, the district’s administrative head Mullah Syed Mohammad said they managed to escape. Allegedly, the assailants joined the Taliban after fleeing the area. Similarly, one British soldier was killed and six more were wounded in an insider attack perpetrated by an Afghan soldier, highlights the Daily News. The Taliban claimed responsibility for the shooting. ISAF spokesman Brig. Gen. Gunter Katz, confirmed that the attack occurred at a patrol base in Nahri Sarraj district in Helmand province and that the soldier shot at both Afghan and British troops. In other security-related news from Afghanistan and its region: Twenty-three women sergeants graduated from a training course of the Afghan National Army (ANA) in Herat province, according to Pajhwok. A spokesman of the ANA said that the females will focus on administrative duties and searching houses when required. According to local authorities in Ghazni province, an Afghan man was killed in a failed rape attempt along with the victim in Deh-Yak district on 15 January, reports Khaama Press. District Attorney General Chief for Deh-Yak district Mohammad confirmed that “A man was trying to rape a woman while her husband was away from home but the relatives of the woman kill her along with the man after they were informed of the incident.” An explosion in a mosque left seven dead in Wardak province after ISAF and the Afghan National Security Forces killed four insurgents, reports Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. The explosion came after the ISAF team had departed the area. Two rockets struck the Kandahar Airport when a Pakistan International Airlines plane was preparing to take off, highlights Pajhwok. ISAF confirmed that several rockets were launched, although only two landed in the vicinity of the airport, causing minor infrastructural damage. The flight PK199 from Kandahar to Quetta was carrying 42 passengers.
Social & Strategic Infrastructure
Rainer Gonzalez ► firstname.lastname@example.org
he US government wants the Kajaki dam fully operational by 2015, according to Wadsam. In total, accounting for the costs of rehabilitation, transmission and installation of the substation, the project is estimated at USD 500 million. Once completed, the hydroelectric dam will generate electricity for 332,000 Afghans in the provinces of Helmand and Kandahar and create many job opportunities. The structure, 98 m high and 270 m long, was built in the 1950s with US funding and fell into a state of disrepair in the late 1970s. Shortly after 2001, both Turbine No. 1 and No. 2 were repaired with the help of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Soon becoming a symbol of the American presence in Afghanistan, USAID offered to install a third turbine in 2004 in hopes of doubling the capacity of the power station to 50 megawatts (MW). The real challenge of the project involved the transportation of the USD 6 million turbine from Kandahar airport through the highly hostile Sangin area of Helmand province. The operation was carried out in September 2008 and involved 4,000 Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops (see video of the operation). Despite the efforts and costs involved, the third turbine still remains uninstalled because the cement needed for the foundations never arrived and the Chinese company in charge of its construction pulled out of the project due to security concerns. In addition, the existing power lines and transformers cannot handle the extra capacity that the new turbine will provide. In similar news, the Indian cabinet approved a new budget for the construction of Salma dam in Herat province at an estimated cost of USD 110 million after years of delay, reports Pajhwok Afghan News. Salma Dam has been a longstanding project since 2006, when it was initiated with the financial and technical support of India. According to officials, slow progress of the project is related to security, financial and technical obstacles. The project aims to generate 42 MW of power and irrigate 75,000 hectares in western Afghanistan. The Indian Ministry of External Affairs, which considers the Salma dam as one of the “friendship projects” India is implementing in Afghanistan, said that the dam will be completed two years after the approval date of 15 January 2013 Page 4
the new budget. As a result of the clashes between project security and insurgency around the site, construction activity was stopped and contractors lost faith in the completion of the project. With this new budget, the construction costs have escalated from USD 75 million to USD 200 million. The olive industry, developed in the 1960’s around the Nangarhar Canal, which once was an economic generator for eastern Afghanistan, is undermined due to the outdated infrastructure of the Darunta dam, reports the Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Several years ago, state-run farms were producing 8,000 tons of olives in a season, but ten years after the fall of the Taliban, harvesting plunged to just 1,400 tonnes. These farms were developed around the Nangarhar Canal, a 70 km-long waterway that provided enough water to local farmers to export their olives and fruits. However, the canal, which starts in the Darunta dam, needs at least 65 per cent of the electricity generated by the dam, but with just one of the three turbines currently working this not enough. Ziyarat-Gul Rahel, director of the Nangarhar Canal Project claims: “Believe me, we hardly get five hours of power generated by the dam”. Mohammad Shoja, deputy director of Nangarhar’s energy department says that the problem is the lack of water: “The problem is that the canal department is asking for both water and electricity at the same time – and we can’t satisfy both demands simultaneously.” USAID announced in 2011 they would provide funding to rehabilitate and modernise the dam. With a different view, Hezatullah, head of the Nangarhar Olive Factory, pointed out that the industry had declined not only due to water shortage but also as a result of war and poor maintenance of the farms. He says: “There isn’t enough water to irrigate the olive trees, nor are there enough people to maintain the farms – not to mention a host of other problems […] The canal was a significant undertaking for this eastern region, so the government should revive this now dilapidated project.” At its peak, the olive industry used to employ 12,000 and there were 700,000 olive trees in the province. Three quarters of the trees were destroyed during decades of war and the now industry barely employs 800 people. The Afghan government has launched efforts to deal with a potential crisis due to a depletion of ground water in Kabul, reports Pajhwok. The ground water resources decreased in Kabul from 44 million cubic metres to 31 million in a decade. “We have ground water for one million people, but the level is in great depletion because four million people in Kabul pump water from dwells dug at homes,” said Shujaudin Ziaye, Deputy Minister of Energy and Water. The deputy minister, who warned that water could become undrinkable over the next three years, said the ministry is planning short and long term actions to protect underground water from contamination. One of the actions is the construction of dams in Wardak and Panjshir provinces to preserve potable water for the population of Kabul. In this regard, a recent article by Wadsam illustrates that every day, diarrhoeal diseases in Afghanistan are responsible for the deaths of 133 children, mainly due to lack of access to safe drinking water and appropriate sanitation. In fact, 73 per cent of Afghans do not have access to safe drinking water and 95 per cent to appropriate sanitation. This is a chronic problem not only in rural areas but also in unplanned urban settlements, where the majority of Afghans fetch water from open sources such as rivers, springs and wells. Afghanistan has an excess of surface water availability of around 1,000 cubic metres per capita per year; nonetheless, the country has neither the infrastructure nor the capacity to properly utilise, manage and distribute the water to meet the demands of its citizens. The new building for the Jumhoriat Hosptial in Kabul, inaugurated in 2009 by Afghan President Hamid Karzai, is still unused, highlights Wadsam. The Jumhoriat Hospital was built in 1976; in2006, the Chinese government funded and carried out a complete rehabilitation. In addition, the Chinese committed to constructing a new building equipped with modern facilities. The new building was completed in 2009 and handed over to the Afghan Ministry of Public Health. However, three years later, patients are still treated in the old facilities, which are limited and use outdated equipment. Dr. Najibullah Nesar, head of the staff at the hospital, said: “When the hospital was first inaugurated, the Ministry of Public Health wanted to operate it. As the hospital’s expenses were high, the Ministry’s budget could not afford to run it. Several NGO’s and foreign organizations were consulted. Recently, engineers from the Aga Khan Foundation have visited the hospital, but they have not yet taken any action.” Reportedly, it is expected that the Afghan Khan Foundation will take over of the management and operation of the hospital. A recent article by Al Jazeera indicated that the Chinese contractor and the workmanship used to build the hospital were so poor that it would need USD 44 million to operate safely. The Iranian Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Kamran Daneshjoo, announced that Iran and Afghanistan will establish a shared university in order to share expertise in the area of higher education, reports the Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA). Dansehjoo highlighted the progress in different disciplines that Iranian universities have gained during the last years such as aerospace, nanotechnology, biotechnology and nuclear sciences. Dansehjoo, who said that Iranian universities will provide scholarships to Afghan students, showed interest “to undertake joint technical and engineering projects involving both states”.
15 January 2013
Recent Readings & Resources “A Resilient Oligopoly: A Political-Economy of Northern Afghanistan”, Afghanistan Research Evaluation Unit, December 2012, by Antonio Giustozzi. “Market Price Bulletin (December 2012)” World Food Programme and FEWS NET, December 2012. “Signposting Success: Civil Society in Afghanistan”, Internews Network, November 2012. “Badakhshan Province, Kohistan District Avalanche in Farghil village Incident Report No.1”, OCHA, January 2013. “DEWS Weekly Epidemiological Report WER-51”, World Health Organisation and GIRoA, December 2012. “Floods – Emergency Appeal, Update No. 3”, International Federation of Red Cross, December 2012. “Political Economy and Conflict Dimensions of Afghanistan’s Mineral Resources: A Preliminary Exploration”, United States Institute of Peace, December 2012. “Still a Long Way to Go: Implementation of the Law on Elimination of Violence Against Women in Afghanistan”, United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, December 2012. “Talking to the other side: humanitarian engagement with the Taliban in Afghanistan”, Overseas Development Institute, December 2012 by Ashley Jackson and Antonio Giustozzi. “Forgotten Heroes: Afghan Women Leaders Killed in Impunity Ignored in Justice”, Afghanistan Rights Monitor, December 2012 by Orzala Ashraf Nematand Ajmal Samadi.
Recent Maps “Mapping of Percentages/Cases of Selected Diseases by Province (December 2012)”, Government of Afghanistan. “Who Does What, Where: Farm Development/Livelihood Support (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Who Does What, Where: Emergency Support to Livestock (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Who Does What, Where: Emergency Support to Agriculture (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Who Does What, Where: Disaster Risk Reduction (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Who Does What, Where: FSAC Partner Coverage (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Snow water equivalent summarized by basin as of 22 November 2012”, USAID and IMMAP. “Local population targeted in security incidents (November 2012)”, USAID and IMMAP. “Who Does What, Where: Rural Rehabilitation (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Who Does What, Where: Food Distribution (December 2012)”, World Food Programme. “Who Does What, Where: Cash Support (December 2012)”, World Food Programme.
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ENGAGE WITH US 15 January 2013
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