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glucocortisoids mineralcortisoids

Fatty acids derivatives

prostaglandin juvenile hormone

HORMONE CLASSES noradrenaline adrenaline thyroxine

amino acid derivatives

peptide - oxytocin -PTH protein and peptide -calcitonin -ADH

Peptide hormones are shorter than proteins Protein hormone consist of one or more polypeptide These hormones released by endocrine glands into blood and from blood to target cell where response occur. Endocrine glandbloodtarget cellresponse
proteins -insulin -glucagon -FSH -LH -prolactin

Adrenaline, noradrenaline and thyroxine are from amino acid thyrosine Adrenaline, noradrenaline = epinephrine/norepinephrine

Prostaglandins in human Juvenile hormone in insects Bothe derived from arachidonic acid (20 C fatty acids)


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Neurosecretory cell Neuron/nerve cell Translate neural signal into chemical stimuli

Type of hormonal control pathways

Mechanism of Hormone Actions

mechanisms of actions

steroid (lipid soluble)

non-steroid (water soluble)


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Steroid hormones are able to enter the cell Why? Because lipid portion of the PM does not act as a barrier for lipophilic regulators Steroid is lipophilic

Steroid hormones Cannot dissolve in blood plasma Need transport protein Always attach to protein carrier

Mechanism of steroid hormones

1. Hormone combine with receptor protein (at cytoplasm or in nucleus) 2. Form Hormone receptor complex (HCR) 3. Activated hormone receptor complex will bin to specific region in DNA 4. Results in transcription of gene region into mRNA 5. Translation mRNA transcript happen outside the nucleus 6. Results in formation of enzyme and other protein

BindHRCactivated HRCbind on gene regiontranscription into mRNAtranslation of mRNA New protein and enzyme


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Mechanism of non-steroid hormones

Non-steroid hormone cannot pass the PM 1. Hormone bind to receptor at cell’s surface 2. Trigger activation of 2° messenger, cAMP by cAMP synthesizing enzyme with the help of ATP 3. cAMP activate inactive enzyme 4. enzyme catalysed conversion of reactant to products
Flow BindcAMPactivate enzymeconversion

This kind of mechanism is enzyme mediated • Signaling by any of these molecules(steroid and non-steroid) involves three key events – Reception  – – Bind to receptor

Signal transduction Response   Action of enzyme Reactant to product

The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have    Different receptors for the hormone Different signal transduction pathways Different proteins for carrying out the response


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The hormone epinephrine – Has multiple effects in mediating the body’s response to short-term stress

The hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate endocrine system The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland – Control much of the endocrine system

Pituitary gland is regulated by: 1. Nervous system 2. Endocrine system Neuroendocrine system

Pituitary gland called as MASTER GLAND Because control activity of other glands

Some of these cells in hypothalamus produce direct-acting hormones That are stored in and released from the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis
• The two hormones released from the posterior pituitary – – Act directly on nonendocrine tissues Oxytocin o Induces uterine contractions and milk ejection

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) o Enhances water reabsorption in the kidneys


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Other hypothalamic cells produce tropic hormones

That are secreted into the blood and transported to the anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis

The anterior pituitary – Is a true-endocrine gland

The tropic hormones of the hypothalamus – Control release of hormones from the anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary – – Produces both tropic and nontropic hormones The four strictly tropic hormones are o o o o – Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Each tropic hormone acts on its target endocrine tissue o To stimulate release of hormone(s) with direct metabolic or developmental effects


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The nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary include o Prolactin

Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals o But has diverse effects in different vertebrates

Growth hormone (GH)/somatotropin o o o Promotes tissue growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects Promote protein synthesis Stimulates the production of growth factors by other tissues – – Liver to produce insulin-like growth factors(IGFs) IGFs promotes tissues and skeletal growth

The pineal gland, located within the brain o Secretes melatonin

Release of melatonin – Is controlled by light/dark cycles

The primary functions of melatonin Influence and control onset of sexual maturity and biological clock Control circadian rythm (24 hour cycle)

Figure 1: Pineal Gland

The thyroid gland – – Consists of two lobes located on the ventral surface of the trachea Produces two iodine-containing hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) • The thyroid hormones – Play crucial roles in stimulating metabolism and influencing development and maturation

The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin – Which functions in calcium homeostasis Page 8


Two antagonistic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin – Play the major role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis in mammals

PTH secrete by parathyroid gland at the surface of thyroid gland

Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland – Stimulates Ca2+ deposition in the bones and secretion by the kidneys, thus lowering blood Ca2+ levels

PTH, secreted by the parathyroid glands – Has the opposite effects on the bones and kidneys, and therefore raises Ca2+ levels Also has an indirect effect, stimulating the kidneys to activate vitamin D, which promotes intestinal uptake of Ca2+ from food

Insulin and Glucagon: Control of Blood Glucose • Two types of cells in the pancreas –

Secrete insulin and glucagon, antagonistic hormones that help maintain glucose homeostasis and are found in clusters in the islets of Langerhans

Glucagon – Is produced by alpha cells

Insulin – Is produced by beta cells


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Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by – Promoting the cellular uptake of glucose Slowing glycogen breakdown in the liver Promoting fat storage

– •

Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by – Stimulating the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver Stimulating the breakdown of fat and protein into glucose

Diabetes mellitus, perhaps the best-known endocrine disorder – Is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues Is marked by elevated blood glucose levels

– • Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes) –

Is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas

Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes) – Is characterized either by a deficiency of insulin or, more commonly, by reduced responsiveness of target cells due to some change in insulin receptors

Adrenal Glands • The adrenal glands – – Are adjacent to the kidneys Are actually made up of two glands: the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex


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The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine (a.k.a adrenaline and noradrenaline) – Hormones which are members of a class of compounds called catecholamines

• – –

These hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine: Are secreted in response to stress-activated impulses from the nervous system Mediate various fight-or-flight responses

Fight-Or-Flight Responses Catecholamine hormones, such as adrenaline or noradrenaline, facilitate immediate physical reactions associated with a preparation for violent muscular action. These include the following 1. Acceleration of heart and lung action 2. Paling or flushing, or alternating between both 3. Inhibition of stomach and upper-intestinal action to the point where digestion slows down or stops 4. General effect on the sphincters of the body 5. Constriction of blood vessels in many parts of the body 6. Liberation of nutrients (particularly fat and glucose) for muscular action 7. Dilation of blood vessels for muscles 8. Inhibition of the lacrimal gland (responsible for tear production) and salivation 9. Dilation of pupil (mydriasis) 10. Relaxation of bladder 11. Inhibition of erection 12. Auditory exclusion (loss of hearing) 13. Tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision) 14. Disinhibition of spinal reflexes 15. Shaking


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Hormones from the adrenal cortex – Also function in the body’s response to stress

• •

Adrenal cortex secrete: Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol – – Influence glucose metabolism and the immune system Promotes the liver to undergo gluconeogenesis to convert amino acid to glucose

Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone – – Affect salt and water balance Maintain proper balance of sodium and potassium ion in kidney tubules

The gonads—testes and ovaries – Produce most of the body’s sex hormones: androgens, estrogens, and progestins


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Androgen: testosterone – Which stimulate the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system Testosterone causes an increase in muscle and bone mass And is often taken as a supplement to cause muscle growth, which carries many health risks

– –

Estrogens, the most important of which is estradiol – Are responsible for the maintenance of the female reproductive system and the development of female secondary sex characteristics

In mammals, progestins, which include progesterone – Are primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus

Molting and Metamorphosis • In insects – Molting and development are controlled by three main hormones

Metamorphosis is a development from egg to adult in which there is a series of distinct stages. Molting is a process to shed periodically part or all of a coat or an outer covering, such as feathers, cuticle, or skin, which is then replaced by a new growth.


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Nervous System All animals except sponges has nervous system What differentiate between animals is how the nervous system is organized

Have neurons arranged in nerve nets

Has Radial nerve. Nerve net connect to nerve ring by radial nerve (uncentralized)
Leech, insect and flatworm has bilateral nervous system Bilateral nervous system has: 1. Cephalization – nervous system concentrated at head end 2. Centralization – Has central nervous system(CNS) and peripheral nervous system(PNS). But CNS is different from PNS.

Flatworm has small brain composed of Ganglia Has 2 parallel nerve cords These 2 are CNS while the others is PNS


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Nervous systems in molluscs – Correlate with the animals’ lifestyles

Sessile molluscs have simple systems – While more complex molluscs have more sophisticated systems

Squid has high degree of cephalization (many nerve at the head) Give intelligence

In vertebrates – The central nervous system consists of a brain and dorsal spinal cord


The PNS connects to the CNS

Nervous systems process information in three stages – Sensory input, integration, and motor output(motor function)

photo 1: Neural Signaling


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1 Sensory(afferent) neurons transmit information from sensors a. That detect external stimuli and internal conditions 2 Sensory information is sent to the CNS a. Where interneurons integrate the information 3 Motor output(motor function) leaves the CNS via motor(efferent) neurons a. Which communicate with effector cells(muscles, glands) for response Example: Knee-Jerk Reflex

Integration takes place in the CNS (brain and spinal cord) Brain and spinal cord: a. Receive sensory information b. Make decisions from the information obtained

Motor output(motor function) is the stimulation of effectors


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Neurons Make up nervous tissue Also called nerve cells

What is neurons? 1. Functional units of nervous system 2. Function to receive and send information 3. Information is in form of electrical signals called nerve impulse Most of a neuron’s organelles are located in the cell body

Types of neurons


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Differences between Sensory neuron and Motor neuron Sensory neuron Dendrites shorter Cell body located in the middle of axon Transmit message from sensory receptors to CNS • Interneurons connect neuron to neuron Most neurons have dendrites – • Highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons Motor neuron Dendrite longer Cell body located at upper axon Transport message from CNS to effectors

The axon is typically a much longer extension – – That transmits signals to other cells at synapses That may be covered with a myelin sheath

Glia are supporting cells – That are essential for the structural integrity of the nervous system and for the normal functioning of neurons

Oligodendrocytes (in the CNS) and Schwann cells (in the PNS) – Are glia that form the myelin sheaths around the axons of many vertebrate neurons

Glia alson known as Neuroglia Functions: 1. Supplies nutrients to neurons 2. Remove waste 3. Provide immune function


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Neurons Transmission of Impulse • Across its plasma membrane, every cell has a voltage – • Called a membrane potential

The inside of a cell is negative – Relative to the outside

The unequal distribution of charge is called as Electrical Gradient – Electrical gradient is called as potential difference

The membrane potential of a cell can be measured

In all neurons, the differences in charge depends on: 1. Ionic concentration 2. Sodium-potassium pump 3. Ion leak channel

Ionic concentration Molecules such as carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid are negative charged Cannot pass the PM Called fixed anions Page 19


Sodium potassium pump • The concentration of Na+ is higher in the extracellular fluid than in the cytosol – • • While the opposite is true for K+

Pumps out three Na+ and pump out two K+ Help to maintain concentration gradient

Ion leak channels • • • • Membrane protein that is more numerous for K+ than Na+ Allows little Na+ to diffuse in Allows more K+ to diffuse out So more negative ions will remained in the cytoplasm

The resting potential
– Is the membrane potential when a cell at rest OR • The resting potential – Is the membrane potential of a neuron that is not transmitting signals

Voltage: -65mV to -70mV Why negative: inside cell more negative charge Treshold potential When stimulus id applied, voltage rise to point called as treshold potential About -50mV Only about 2 to 3 seconds

What is treshold potential? Membrane potential that must be reached before all membrane channel can open

What membrane channel? Sodium ion and potassium ion channels


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Action potential Change in membrane potential occuring in nerve, muscleor other excitable tissues when excitation occurs o o • Is a brief all-or-none depolarization of a neuron’s plasma membrane Is the type of signal that carries information along axons

Both voltage-gated Na+ channels and voltage-gated K+ channels o Are involved in the production of an action potential

When a stimulus depolarizes the membrane o Na+ channels open, allowing Na+ to diffuse into the cell

As the action potential subsides o K+ channels open, and K+ flows out of the cell

A refractory period follows the action potential o During which a second action potential cannot be initiated


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An action potential can travel long distances – By regenerating itself along the axon

At the site where the action potential is generated, usually the axon hillock – An electrical current depolarizes the neighboring region of the axon membrane


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The speed of an action potential – Increases with the diameter of an axon

In vertebrates, axons are myelinated(has myelin sheath) – Also causing the speed of an action potential to increase

Action potentials in myelinated axons – Jump between the nodes of Ranvier in a process called saltatory conduction

Action potential is all-or-none event. Whether treshold is reach to produce action potential or treshold is not reached causing no action potential at all.

Neurons Communication
Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses • In an electrical synapse – Electrical current flows directly from one cell to another via a gap junction

The vast majority of synapses – Are chemical synapses

In a chemical synapse, a presynaptic neuron – Releases chemical neurotransmitters, which are stored in the synaptic terminal


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When an action potential reaches a terminal – The final result is the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft

The process of direct synaptic transmission – Involves the binding of neurotransmitters to ligand-gated ion channels

Neurotransmitter binding – Causes the ion channels to open, generating a postsynaptic potential

After its release, the neurotransmitter – – Diffuses out of the synaptic cleft May be taken up by surrounding cells and degraded by enzymes

Summary of the process: 1. Action potential arrived at synaptic cleft will trigger the opening of Ca 2+ channel. 2. Ca2+ enter the channel rapidly. 3. The fusion of Ca2+ will act as stimulus for the presynaptic neuron vesicles to fuse within its own outer membrane(presynaptic membrane). 4. The vesicle content(neurotransmitter) will be released by exocytosis into synaptic cleft. 5. Neurotransmitter will bind to receptor protein on the surface of postsynaptic membrane. 6. The binding will cause ion channel to open and ion diffuse into receiving cell. The diffusion will trigger new action potential.


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Acetylcholine – – Is one of the most common neurotransmitters in both vertebrates and invertebrates Can be inhibitory or excitatory

• • -

Inhibitory neurotransmitter Open channel for another ion such as Cl- . No action potential. Triggering hyperpolarization. Excitatory neurotransmitter Open Na+ channel. Thus triggering action potential Promotes depolarization

The vertebrate nervous system is regionally specialized
In all vertebrates, the nervous system o Shows a high degree of cephalization and distinct CNS and PNS components


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CNS consist of Cranial nerve and Spinal nerve • The cranial nerves originate in the brain – • And terminate mostly in organs of the head and upper body

The spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord – And extend to parts of the body below the head

The PNS can be divided into two functional components

sensory(afferent) pathways

motor(efferent) pathways

from sensory receptor of all body to the CNS

carry impulse from CNS to effector

Motor division can be divided into The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
Motor pathways (efferent)

Not in syllabus

The somatic nervous system (allows us to control – voluntary) – Carries signals to skeletal muscles

The autonomic nervous system (system control – involuntary) – – Regulates the internal environment, in an involuntary manner Is divided into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions – Have antagonistic effects on target organs


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The sympathetic division – Correlates with the “fight-or-flight” response

The parasympathetic division – – Promotes a return to self-maintenance functions Slows body functions, thus conserving energy

The enteric division – – Controls the activity of the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder speeds body functions, thus increasing energy use.

• -

This two system has opposite effect If one is activated, another one is inhibited

Endocrine VS Nervous system
Categories Nature of messages Speed of message Endocrine system Chemical signals quite slow because it needs to be transported by blood to specific target sites Slower speed Longer duration of effect Precise Nervous system Electrical signals really fast due to saltatory conduction Rapid speed Shorter duration of effect Diffuse

Speed of response Duration of effect Accuarcy of message


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References BIOL2060: Cell Biology. (n.d.). Memorial University. Retrieved from Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V., & Jackson, R. (2008). Biology. San Francisco: Pearson, Benjamin Cummings.


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