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Chapter 2

image under f

image under l

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

complex functions, the linear approximation formula can be applied to complex functions once an appropriate denition of the derivative of complex function is given. That is, if f (z0 ) represents the derivative of the complex function f (z) at z0 (this will be dened in Section 3.1), then the linear approximation of f in a neighborhood of z0 is the complex linear function l(z) = f (z0 ) + f (z0 ) (z z0 ). Geometrically, l(z) approximates how f (z) acts as a complex mapping near the point z0 . For example, we will see in Chapter 3 that the derivative of the complex function f (z) = z 2 is f (z) = 2z. Therefore, the linear approximation of f (z) = z 2 at z0 = 1+i is l(z) = 2i+2(1+i)(z 1i) = 2 2 ei/4 z 2i. Near the point z = 1 + i the mapping w = z 2 can be approximated by the linear mapping consisting of the composition of rotation through /4, magnication by 2 2, and translation by 2i. In Figure 2.16, the image of the circle |z (1 + i)| = 0.25 under f is shown in black and the image of this circle under l is shown in color. Figure 2.16 indicates that, for the circle | z (1 + i) | = 0.25, the linear mapping l gives an accurate approximation of the complex mapping f .

EXERCISES 2.3

In Problems 16, (a) nd the image of the closed disk |z| 1 under the given linear mapping w = f (z) and (b) represent the linear mapping with a sequence of plots as in Figure 2.14. 1. f (z) = z + 3i 3. f (z) = 3iz 5. f (z) = 2z i 2. f (z) = z + 2 i 4. f (z) = (1 + i)z 6. f (z) = (6 5i)z + 1 3i

In Problems 712, (a) nd the image of the triangle with vertices 0, 1, and i under the given linear mapping w = f (z) and (b) represent the linear mapping with a sequence of plots as in Figure 2.14. 7. f (z) = z + 2i 9. f (z) = ei/4 z 11. f (z) = 3z + i 8. f (z) = 3z 10. f (z) = 1 i z 2 12. f (z) = (1 i)z 2

In Problems 1316, express the given linear mapping w = f (z) as a composition of a rotation, magnication, and a translation as in (6). Then describe the action of the linear mapping in words. 13. f (z) = 3iz + 4 14. f (z) = 5 cos + i sin z + 7i 5 5 1 15. f (z) = z + 1 3i 16. f (z) = (3 2i)z + 12 2

77

In Problems 1720, nd a linear mapping that maps the set S onto the set S . (Note: there may be more than one linear mapping that works.) 17. S is the triangle with vertices 0, 1, and 1 + i. S is the triangle with vertices 2i, 3i, and 1 + 3i. 18. S is the circle |z 1| = 3. S is the circle |z + i| = 5. 19. S is the imaginary axis. S is the line through the points i and 1 + 2i. 20. S is the square with vertices 1 + i, 1 + i, 1 i, and 1 i. S is the square with vertices 1, 2 + i, 1 + 2i, and i. 21. Find two dierent linear mappings that map the square with vertices 0, 1, 1 + i, and i, onto the square with vertices 1, 0, i, 1 + i. 22. Find two dierent linear mappings that map the half-plane Re(z) 2 onto the half-plane Re(z) 5. 23. Consider the line segment parametrized by z(t) = z0 (1 t) + z1 t, 0 t 1. (a) Find a parametrization of the image of the line segment under the translation T (z) = z + b, b = 0. Describe the image in words. (b) Find a parametrization of the image of the line segment under the rotation R(z) = az, |a| = 1. Describe the image in words. (c) Find a parametrization of the image of the line segment under the magnication M (z) = az, a > 0. Describe the image in words. 24. Repeat Problem 23 for the circle parametrized by z(t) = z0 + reit . 25. In parts (a)(c), express the given composition of mappings as a linear mapping f (z) = az + b. (a) rotation through /4, magnication by 2, and translation by 1 + i (b) magnication by 2, translation by 2, and rotation through /4 (c) translation by 1 2, rotation through /4, then magnication by 2 2 (d) What do you notice about the linear mappings in (a)(c)? 26. Consider the complex linear mapping f (z) = 1 + 3i z + i. In each part, nd the translation T , rotation R, and magnication M that satisfy the given equation and then describe the mapping f in words using T , R, and M . (a) f (z) = T M R(z). (c) f (z) = R M T (z) (b) f (z) = M T R(z)

Focus on Concepts

27. (a) Prove that the composition of two translations T1 (z) = z + b1 , b1 = 0, and T2 (z) = z + b2 , b2 = 0, is a translation. Does the order of composition matter? (b) Prove that the composition of two rotations R1 (z) = a1 z, |a1 | = 1, and R2 (z) = a2 z, |a2 | = 1, is a rotation. Does the order of composition matter? (c) Prove that the composition of two magnications M1 (z) = a1 z, a1 > 0, and M2 (z) = a2 z, a2 > 0, is a magnication. Does the order of composition matter?

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