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Chapter 2

Complex Functions and Mappings

image under f

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

image under l

–1.5

–1

– 0.5

0.5

1

1.5

Figure 2.16 Linear approximation of w = z2

complex functions, the linear approximation formula can be applied to complex functions once an appropriate deﬁnition of the derivative of complex function is given. That is, if f (z0 ) represents the derivative of the complex function f (z) at z0 (this will be deﬁned in Section 3.1), then the linear approximation of f in a neighborhood of z0 is the complex linear function l(z) = f (z0 ) + f (z0 ) (z − z0 ). Geometrically, l(z) approximates how f (z) acts as a complex mapping near the point z0 . For example, we will see in Chapter 3 that the derivative of the complex function f (z) = z 2 is f (z) = 2z. Therefore, the linear approximation of √ f (z) = z 2 at z0 = 1+i is l(z) = 2i+2(1+i)(z −1−i) = 2 2 eiπ/4 z −2i. Near the point z = 1 + i the mapping w = z 2 can be approximated by the linear mapping√ consisting of the composition of rotation through π/4, magniﬁcation by 2 2, and translation by −2i. In Figure 2.16, the image of the circle |z − (1 + i)| = 0.25 under f is shown in black and the image of this circle under l is shown in color. Figure 2.16 indicates that, for the circle | z − (1 + i) | = 0.25, the linear mapping l gives an accurate approximation of the complex mapping f .

EXERCISES 2.3

Answers to selected odd-numbered problems begin on page ANS-9.

In Problems 1–6, (a) ﬁnd the image of the closed disk |z| ≤ 1 under the given linear mapping w = f (z) and (b) represent the linear mapping with a sequence of plots as in Figure 2.14. 1. f (z) = z + 3i 3. f (z) = 3iz 5. f (z) = 2z − i 2. f (z) = z + 2 − i 4. f (z) = (1 + i)z 6. f (z) = (6 − 5i)z + 1 − 3i

In Problems 7–12, (a) ﬁnd the image of the triangle with vertices 0, 1, and i under the given linear mapping w = f (z) and (b) represent the linear mapping with a sequence of plots as in Figure 2.14. 7. f (z) = z + 2i 9. f (z) = eiπ/4 z 11. f (z) = −3z + i 8. f (z) = 3z 10. f (z) = 1 i z 2 12. f (z) = (1 − i)z − 2

In Problems 13–16, express the given linear mapping w = f (z) as a composition of a rotation, magniﬁcation, and a translation as in (6). Then describe the action of the linear mapping in words. π π 13. f (z) = 3iz + 4 14. f (z) = 5 cos + i sin z + 7i 5 5 √ 1 15. f (z) = − z + 1 − 3i 16. f (z) = (3 − 2i)z + 12 2

onto the square with vertices −1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. (c) f (z) = R ◦ M ◦ T (z) (b) f (z) = M ◦ T ◦ R(z) Focus on Concepts 27. S is the square with vertices 1 + i. 2 + i. −1 + i. Find two diﬀerent linear mappings that map the half-plane Re(z) ≥ 2 onto the half-plane Re(z) ≥ 5. and translation by 1 + i √ (b) magniﬁcation by 2. then magniﬁcation by 2 2 (d) What do you notice about the linear mappings in (a)–(c)? √ 26.) 17. 0. S is the circle |z + i| = 5. In each part. i. translation by 2. Does the order of composition matter? (c) Prove that the composition of two magniﬁcations M1 (z) = a1 z. and T2 (z) = z + b2 . and M . (a) f (z) = T ◦ M ◦ R(z). magniﬁcation by 2. 3i. and −1 + 3i. |a2 | = 1.2. Describe the image in words. S is the imaginary axis. 23. and rotation through π/4 √ (c) translation by 1 2. (a) Find a parametrization of the image of the line segment under the translation T (z) = z + b. express the given composition of mappings as a linear mapping f (z) = az + b. is a rotation. (c) Find a parametrization of the image of the line segment under the magniﬁcation M (z) = az. and 1 − i. Describe the image in words. S is the line through the points i and 1 + 2i.3 Linear Mappings 77 In Problems 17–20. Repeat Problem 23 for the circle parametrized by z(t) = z0 + reit . R. −1 + i. 21. rotation R. b2 = 0. |a1 | = 1. and magniﬁcation M that satisfy the given equation and then describe the mapping f in words using T . and 1 + i. (b) Find a parametrization of the image of the line segment under the rotation R(z) = az. ﬁnd the translation T . Does the order of composition matter? . and i. Consider the complex linear mapping f (z) = 1 + 3i z + i. Consider the line segment parametrized by z(t) = z0 (1 − t) + z1 t. a > 0. and i. b1 = 0. 1. 18. is a translation. 1 + i. |a| = 1. −1 − i. (a) Prove that the composition of two translations T1 (z) = z + b1 . b = 0. 19. 20. S is the triangle with vertices 2i. 22. S is the triangle with vertices 0. a2 > 0. (Note: there may be more than one linear mapping that works. (a) rotation through π/4. 24. ﬁnd a linear mapping that maps the set S onto the set S . Does the order of composition matter? (b) Prove that the composition of two rotations R1 (z) = a1 z. and M2 (z) = a2 z. a1 > 0. Find two diﬀerent linear mappings that map the square with vertices 0. 25. Describe the image in words. 1 + 2i. is a magniﬁcation. 1. and R2 (z) = a2 z. S is the circle |z − 1| = 3. rotation through π/4. In parts (a)–(c). S is the square with vertices 1.

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