A Short History of

the ~smailis
Traditions of a Muslim Community

Later Developments: Continuity and Mo dernisa tion
This final chapter will present a brief survey of the main developments and trends in the history of Ismaili communities during the post-Alamtit period, from the fall of Alamut in 654/1256 till the rggos. It will focus mainly on the majoritarian Niziri branch of Ismailism. In this period, several Nizw- communities developed in various regions and, more or less, independently of one another. These communities, scattered widely from Syria to Persia, Central Asia and India, elaborated a diversity of religious and literary traditions in different languages. The Tayyibi Musta'h Ismailis had continued to be centred in Yaman with a growing subsidiary Bohra community in Gujarat. In time, the Bohra community overshadowed the Tayyibis of Yaman, while both communities preserved a good portion of the Ismaili literature of the Fatimid times. In this chapter we shall also discuss aspects of the modem history of the Tayyibi Ismailis.
POST-ALAMSIT PATTERNS AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS

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The first five centuries after the fall of Alamat represent the longest obscure phase in the entire history of the Ismailis. Many aspects of their activities and thought in this period are still not sufficiently studied, and the situation is exacerbated by a paucity of primary sources. A variety of factors, related to the very nature of postAlamnt Ismailism, have combined to create special research problems here. In the aftermath of the destruction of their state, the Nizaris were completely deprived of the centralised leadership they had enjoyed during the Alamiit period The Niz&i imamate itself continued in the progeny of the last lord of Alamiit, Rukn al-Din Khurshiih. But the imams remained in hiding and inaccessible to their followers for about two centuries. Under the circumstances, various Nizm communities, as noted, developed locally and more or less in isolation from one another, each community elaborating separate religious and literary traditions. The communities of Central Asia and India expanded sigruficantly, gradually overshadowing their co-religionists in the traditional Niz&i abodes, namely, Persia and Syria. The origins and early formation of the religious traditions of the Nizm Khojas of the Indian subcontinent are among the least understood areas of post-Alamiit Ismailism.

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A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS

LATER DEVELOPMENTS

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More complex research dfficulties arise from the widespread adoption of taqiyya or precautionary dissimulation by the Nizaris of hfferent regions. During much of their post-Alamtit history, until modem times, the Nizm-s were obliged to dissimulate rather strictly to safeguard themselves against persecution. To that end, they not only concealed their beliefs and literature, but actually resorted to Sufi, Twelver ShT'i, Sunni and Hindu disguises in the midst of hostile swoundings in the Iranian world and the Indan subcontinent. It is important here to distinguish between short-term or temporary taqiyya practices used traditionally by Ismailis and Twelver Shi'is and their long-term applications that acquired near permanency k & among certain Ni communities during the post-Alamiit period. The latter phenomenon, with its lasting consequences, has not sufficiently attracted the attention of modem scholars. It is a truism that extended dissimulating practices under different guises would in time lead to irrevocable influences on the traditions and indeed the very religious identity of the community. In time, these influences might be manifested in different forms, ranging from total acculturation or full assimilation of Niaris of a specific locality into a community chosen initially as a dissimulating cover, to various degrees of interfacing between "Nizari" and "other" traditions without the actual loss of Nizm identity. Risks of complete assimilation or total disintegration were particularly high during the early postAlamat centuries when the scattered Nizms were deprived of any form of central leadership, including especially the guidance of their imams, who have provided throughout their history the most important single source for a cohesive identity in the midst of fluid circumstances. Even after the Nizbi imams emerged in Anjudan in central Persia, in the middle of the gth/rsth century; initiating the Anjudan revival in NWri history, many isolated Nizsri groups may have failed to establish links with the imam's headquarters or with his regional representatives. In time, many such groups must have disappeared in various ways, contributing to the decline in the overall size of the N e - population from the time of the Mongol massacres until the early A n j u h times. A l in all, the dssimulating practices of the Nizms have made it l very hfficult, if not impossible, to distinguish between the tradtions developed indgenously by the Nizaris of a particular community or region and those resulting from the long-term observance of taqiyya and extended interaction with "other" traditions. It is not surprising that the dissimulating N m - s should not have generally attracted the attention of historians. Indeed, for several post-Alamtit centuries, only a handful of local histories contain sporahc references to the

Nizaris. The difficulties of studying p o s t - A l a m ~ Nizari Ismailism are further aggravated by the fact that, as in A a m ~ times, the Nizarls produced few religious textsi while upon the demise of their state, they were unable to maintain their earlier interest in historiography of any kind. In the light of these problems, and gaps in our knowledge, the findings of modem scholarship on post-Alamfit Ismailism should be generally treated as provisional. Further progress here would a ultimately depend on acqui~ing better understanding of the history as well as the religious and literary traditions of major Niznri communities of the post-Alamtit period, especially those in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent where the bulk of Nizsris resided by the early modern times. Only then would it be possible to compile a coherent and connected history of post-Alamtit Ismailism in its myriad dimensions. Modem scholarship, following the pioneering stuhes of W. Ivanow, has distinguished three main periods in the history of post-Alamut Niznri Ismailism, namely an obscure early period covering the first two centuries after the fall of Alamiit; the Anjudan revival, from the ~ middle of the g t h / 5th century until the end of the rzth/18th century, and the modem period, dating to the 13th/19th century. Our discussion has been organised on the basis of this classification, with due consideration to certain major regional developments in post-Alamtit Ismailism.
E A R L Y P O S T - A L A M ~ TCENTURIES AND NIZARI RELATIONS WITH SUFISM

The Mongols demolished Alamtit and numerous other fortresses in Persia, also massacring large numbers of Nizsris in northem Persia and Quhistan. These events in 654/1z56 signalled the demise of the Nizari Ismaili state. The news of the execution of Rukn al-Din Khurshah, the last lord of Alamut and twenty-seventh Nizari imam, in Mongolia in 655/1257 must have dealt another devastating blow to the Niznris. However, despite the claims of Juwayni,' who served Hiilegu and was an eyewitness to the Mongol destruction of AlamM and its famous library, Persian Ismailis survived the downfall of their state and mountainous strongholds. Many Persian Nizaris who had survived the Mongol swords migrated to adjacent lands in Afghanistan, Central Asia and Sind in the hdian subcontinent, where Ismaili communities already existed. Other Niznri groups, isolated in remote places or in towns outside their traditional territories in Persia, soon either disintegrated or were assimilated into the religiously dominant communities of their milieu. The centralised da'wa organisation and the direct leadership of

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS

LATER DEVELOPMENTS

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N h r i imams who had hitherto ruled from Alamat were also bygone. Under the circumstances, scattered Nizari communities outside of Syria resorted once again to a strict observance of taqiyya. This was particularly the case with the Persian Nizaris who lived clandestinely outside their traditional fortress communities. It is important to bear in mind that the observance of taqiyya in this period, marked by an absence of a viable central leadership apparatus, was not imposed on the community. Deeply rooted in their Imami teachings and communal practices, it was a measure adopted by the Nizaris on their own initiative and as necessitated by the exigencies of the time. The Ni-ris were rather experienced in adopting different external guises as required to safeguard themselves. For a while during the Alamat period, they had even adopted the shari'a in its Sunni form. Many Nizm groups in the eastern Iranian world, where Sunnism prevailed, now probably disguised themselves once again as Sunnis. According to Nizm tradition, a group of their dignitaries had managed, before the fall of A l a m ~ tto hide Rukn al-Din Khurshah's , minor son Shams al-Din M&ammad, who soon afterwards in 6551 1257 succeeded to the imamate.l Subsequently, the youthful imam was taken to Adharbayjan, where he lived secretly as an embroiderer, hence his nickname of Zardiiz. Certain allusions in the still unpublished versified Safar-ncima (Travelogue)of Nizafl Quhistani [d. 7201 132o),the first post-Alamat Nizari Ismaili poet, indicate that he actually met the imam in Adharbayjiin, possibly in Tab*, in 67811280. Tabriz, it may be noted, was then the capital of Abaqa (663-811126582), Hiilegii's son and successor in the Ilkhiinid dynasty. Shams alDin, synonymous in legendary Ismaili accounts with Shams-i Tabriz, the spiritual guide of Mawlana Jalal al-Din ROmi (d. 672/1273), died around 71o/131o. A little-known dispute over his succession split the line of N d r i imams and their following into what became known as the Qaim-Shah and Muhammad-Shahi branches.' This schism provided another serious blow to the Nk&i Ismailis. The MuharnmadSh&i line of imams initially seems to have enjoyed special prominence in northern Persia and Central Asia; their seat was transferred to India in the early decades of the 1oth116th century, and by the end of the 1zth/18th century this line was extinct. On the other hand, the Qaim-Sh& branch has persisted to our times, accounting for modem N d - Ismaili population in its entirety. The last four Qasim-Shahi N m imams have enjoyed international prominence under the hereditary title of Aga Khan. Paucity of information does not permit us always to differentiate accurately between rival Nizm communiperiod. It remains true, however, that all ties in the early post-Alam~t N i a r i Ismailis dissimulated in Persia and adjacent lands.

It was in the early post-Alamut times that Persian Nizaris, as part of their dissimulating practices, disguised themselves under the mantle of Sufism, without actually establishing formal affiliations with any one of the Sufi orders or tariqas then spreading in Mongol Persia. The origins and early development of this phenomenon remain very obscure. The practice soon seems to have gained wide currency among the Nizaris of different regions. The earliest recorded manifestation of it is found in the writings of the Nizari poet Hakim Sa'd alDin b. Shams al-Din, better known as Nizari Quhist~ni.4In fact, he may have been the very first post-Alamtit Nizari author to have chosen the poetic and Sufi forms of expression for concealing Ismaili ideas, a model adopted by many later Nizari authors in Persia, Afghanistan and Central Asia. The Nizm-s of Quhism never recovered from the Mongol onslaught, which left all of Khurmn in ruins. They survived clandestinely in villages around Birjand, Qa'in and other towns of Quhistan formerly in their possession.^ Nizari the poet was born in 64511247 in Bijand into a landowning family. His father, a poet himself, had lost much of his wealth in the Mongol invasions of Khurasan. Quhistan was now incorporated into the territories of the Mongol ilkhanids who ruled over Persia until the middle of the 8thI14th century. For a few decades after the demise of the Ismaili strongholds in Quhistan, however, the Mongols allotted Quhista to the Sunni Karts, their vassals. The Karts soon extended their influence throughout eastern Khurasan and northern Afghanistan from their seat in Harat. In his youth, Nizm Quhistani evidently served in the administration of the founder of the Kart dynasty, Shams al-Din Muhammad I (643-76/1245-77), and his successors. With their rising political fortunes the Mihrabbd Maliks of neighbouring Sistan (or Nimr~z], themselves originally vassals of the Mongols, extended their influence throughout Quhistm. The Mihrabmids, in fact, had succeeded the Karts in eastem Persia; they also managed to subdue, at least temporarily, the intermittent ravaging activities of various Turco-Mongol bands in Sistan and Quhistan. By 68811289, the Mihrabsnid Malik Nasir alDin Muhammad (653-7 1811255-13 18) had conquered all of Quhism, which he then gave as an appanage for his son Shams al-Din Nizafl Quhistani served for a while at the court and chancery of Shams al-Din 'Ali, governor of Quhistm until his untimely demise in battle in 70611306. Nizm panegyrised this Mihrabaid prince, referring to him also as Shams-i Din Shah-i Nimriiz 'Ali and 'Ali Shah. Eventually, Nizari Quhistm lost the favour of his Mihrab~nid patron, who dismissed him from his posts and confiscated his properties. The poet's subsequent efforts to regain the prince's goodwill

the Zaydi Sayyid 'Ali Kiyn. the twenty-seventh Muhammad-Sh& Nizari imam. bdtin. Badakhshan was conquered by the Ozbegs. Kiya Sayf al-Din encountered the animosity of In Sayyid 'A11 Kiya (d. The Zaydi amir Sayyid 'Mi eventually defeated Kiya Sayf al-Din and then. Khudiiwand Muhammad. are unequivocally Shirr in outlook. In g 13/r 507. which have not yet been studied adequately. in 78 1/1379.~ time. arrived in Badakhshan from his original base of operations in eastern Persia. evidently acknowledged the Nizari imamate during the late Alamiit period as a result of the activities of da'is sent from Quhistsn. These dd'is founded dynasties of pin and mi^^ who ruled over Shughnan. mention may be made of his spiritual interpretation of the qiydma. He died destitute in 720/13zo in his native BIrjand where his mausoleum still remains. whose rule was persistently resisted by different local dynasties. In fact. He was followed by a second dci'i. The Safawids used Alamiit for a while as a state prison for the rebellious princes of their household before that historic fortress was permanently abandoned. had been partially restored and used by the Mongols themselves.founder of the Timarid dynasty of Persia and Transoxania. Mu'min Shah (d. He . Central Asian Ismailis. united the Nizans of northern Persia and established his leadership at Alamiit for a while. The region had not completely embraced Islam until Alamiit times. Be that as it may. In the latter category. Subsequently. Subsequently. the 'Alids. Shah Radi al-Din b. Nizari . various local dynasties emerged in the Caspian provinces.7 Nizaxi's works. and his lamentable situation remained unchanged when the governorship of Quhistm passed to Shams al-DIn 'Mi's son Taj al-Din. For instance. besieged Alamiit and forced Khuhwand Muhammad to surrender the castle which.including Kiya Sayf alDin who by 770/1368 controlled much of Daylam. the Niz&is were more successful in regrouping in Daylam. established his rule in Shughnm. with countless references to Ismaili idioms and terminologies like zdhir.A S H O R T HISTORY OE THE I S M A I L I S LATER DEVELOPMENTS proved futile. Meanwhile. Only a few isolated Nizari groups survived in northern Persia through the 1oth116th century. qiydma and qa'im. emphasising the veneration of the ah1 al-bayt. the Zaydi rulers of Lahijan controlled Alamat and dealt severe blows to the Niaris of Daylam. This is essentially corroborated by the local traditions of the Badakhshanf Nizaris. a certain Ni-ri leader known as Khudawand Muhammad appeared in Daylam where he played an active part in local conflicts and alliances. where they remained active throughout the Llkhmid and Timihid periods. one of the major districts of Badakhshan. he does refer frequently to the intrigues of his enemies and the fact that he had been considered a m&d or heretic. but was incorporated into the l'imwd empire in the middle of the gth/rsth century. persecuted the local Nizms. not much is known about the Ismaili history of Central Asia between the time of Na$ir Khusraw and the Mongol invasions. like other major fortresses of Daylam formerly in Nizari possession. founder of a local Zaydi dynasty who ruled over Daylamiin and adjacent territories until rooo/rsgz when the region was seized by the Safawids. a Muhammad-Shab Nizari imam. the Caspian provinces. who may perhaps be identified with Muhammad b. Mir Sayyid Hasan Shah Khamash. In early post-Alamut times. 791/1389). terms used by Sufis in reference to their spiritual guide. ' d r f (gnostic). as well as ideas more specifically associated with the Isniailis. had been incorporated into Safawid dominions and their inhabitants embraced Twelver Shi'ism. protected by the Pamirs and the Hindu Kush mountains. adhered to Nizari I~mailism. escaped the Mongol debacle. Riisha and adjacent districts of Badakhshan in the upper Oxus region until modem times. then the most powerful ruler of Daylaman. darwish [dervish). and the necessity of the imam's teachng and guidance.Io The first of these da'is. Khuhwand Muhammad was given safe-conduct and sought refuge with Rmiir (771-807/1370I ~ O S ) . some of the Kashayji amirs. qalandar (wandering dervish). as well as many who still adhered to ancient Iranian religions. a certain Sayyid Shah Malang. Later. Paradise and Hell. also winning several local rulers of northern Persia to their side. including the lesser Timarids and the Ismaili mirs of Shughnan. including especially the Niziiris of the Alamiit period. as well as pir and murshid. The Ismailis of Badakhshh and other parts of Central Asia. T b i r . Belonging to a family whose Isrnaili affiliation was a known fact before the corning of the Mongols. 807/1404). He is also the first Nizan to use Sufi terminology such as khanaqah. Indeed. By then. too. That entire region of Central Asia. had essentially remained outside the Nizari-Musta'li schism and the confines of the Nizari state in Persia. Soon after the Mongol invasions. ta'wil. as noted. who later exiled him to Sultaniyya.. and this political fragmentation provided suitable opportunities for the Niz~ris who made periodic attempts to regain control of Alamat and Lamasar.who occasionally refers to himself as a da'i perhaps metaphorically discreetly praises the imam of the time in many of his poems.may thus have found it particularly difficult to conceal his identity in later life. Nizm. N i m ' s persecution was probably related to his Ismaili faith and the failure of his taqiyya practices in a highly hostile Sunni milieu. who place the initiation of the Nizari da'wa in Badakhshan earlier in the middle of the 6th/1zth century.

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'Aid loyalism espoused by Shi'i movements. is not only a believer but a believer put to the test (al-mu'min almumtahan). as opposed to the systematic propagation of Shi'ism of any specific school. Marshall Hodgson designated this popular Shi'i phenomenon. formed during the early post-Alamtit period. representing another minority community in predominantly Sunni Persia. The late Claude Cahen referred to this curious phenomenon as the "Shi'itisation of Sunnism". As a result. the perfect microcosm for whom a lesser guide or a Sufi pir could not substitute. was also analogous to that of the "perfect man" (al-ins& al-kdmil) of the Sufis. certain developments in the religio-political ambience of post-Mongol Persia made for better opportu&ti& for the activities of the NizarIs. in a unique manner. It is interesting to note that a majority of the leaders of these movements in predominantly Sunni Persia hailed from Shi'i-Sufi backgrounds. remained outwardly Sumi in pre-Safawid Persia. the Syrian Nizaris. particularly devoted to 'Ali b. gradually became more widespread. as well as general IsmailiSufi interactions. in the knowledge of whose inner reality the post-qiyama Niaris shared a joint spiritual communion. 1o~o/1640) and other Shi'i gnostic theosophers belonging to the so-called "school of Isfah-". as well as the Sunni-centred Sufi orders. the Jal~yirids. excepting the reigns of Timur and his son Shih Rukh [d. But they were. it was of a popular type infused with Sufi ideas and hsseminated mainly through Sufi orders. the and finally the Qara Qoyunlu and the Aq Qoyunlu Turkmen rulers. also ernphasising the common grounds of Shi'ism and Sufism. Influenced by the teachings of Ibn al-'Arabi [d. developed their own intellectual rapport with Sufism in pre-Safawid Persia. Such a Muslim. 850/1447). a Muslim who combines shari'a with haqiqa and tarIqa. Haydar h u l i amalgamated Shi'i theology with certain gnosticmystical traditions. Shi'i elements began. Abi Talib and the ah1 al-bayt. They remained in their traditional strongholds. According to him. At the same time. as representative of cosmic reality. as well as a number of Sufi orders. and they were closely watched by the Mamliiks who sporadically used them in their designs against the Ilkhanids of Persia. acknowledging 'Ails spiritual guidance and including him at the head of their silsilas or chains of spiritual masters. one of the greatest Sufis of Islam whom the Nizms also rank among their famous co-religionists. Mulla Sadra (d. in combination with different philosophical [theosophical)traditions. The ontological position of the Nizari Ismaili imam. the learned Twelver theologian and gnostic ('drifl from M-andarm who died after 78711385. Meanwhile. Arnuli. later culminated in the works of Mir Damad [d. as reported by Ibn Battota who visited them in 72611326. parts of Persia and adjacent lands were ruled by a number of local dynasties. openly maintained their identity. the later TImnrids. It may be noted in passing that with the persecution of Sufis in early Safawid times. the religious topography of Persia was remoulded . would preserve a balance between the ziihir [shari'a) and the ba'tin [haqiqa]. Some of these movements. the Mwaffarids. as noted. the spiritual path followed by Sufis.16 Persia was politically fragmented with the demise of the Mongol ilkhanids. The earliest instance of this nonIsmaili Shi'iSufi collaboration is reflected in the writings of Sayyid Haydar. including the minor Ilkhanids. and a number of Shiri-related movements. The Nizaris.LATER D E V E L O P M E N T S For the Ismailis. It was under such circumstances that the N i s r i imams emerged at Anjubn. In this turbulent period lasting until the advent of the Safawids. the imam was a single cosmic individual who summed up in his person the entire reality of existence. which ultimately culminated in Safawid Shi'ism. though again the latter could not offer a full equivalent of the imam. Sarbadiirids. to be superimposed on Sunni Islam. the advocates of mystical experience used the term gnosis or 'irfdn in preference to Sufism [ t a s a m f l . In this atmosphere of religious eclecticism. By contrast to the Nizaris of the Iranian world. The Twelver Shi'is. as "tarlqah Shi'ism". were extremely popular. However.r8The Nizari Ismailis found it both convenient and pragmatic increasingly to seek refuge under the "politically correct" mantle of Sufism. now found a suitable respite to organise or reorganise themselves during the 8th/14th and gth/15th centuries. with which they also shared many esoteric precepts. The political fragmentation of Persia proved favourable to a rising tide of Shi'i tendencies rendering the country's religious milieu conducive to the activities of the Nizaris and other crypto-Shi'i or Shi'irelated movements.lS Aspects of this interaction between Twelver Shi'ism and gnosis ('ufdn). Instead of propagating Twelver or any other particular school of Shi'ism. such as those of the Sarbaditrids and the Humfiyya. at the same time. 1040/163o). especially the radical ones with political designs and possessing millenarian or Mahdist aspirations.'7 It is significant to recall that most of the Sufi orders in question. Ukhanid rule in Persia effectively ended with Abu Sa'id (716-3611316-35) who made peace with the Mamlaks over Syria. along with certain other Shi'i and related movements with rnillenarian aspirations. 638/1240). as those organised by the Hurtifiyya and their Nuqtawi (or Pisikhani) offshoot. avoiding both the excessively literalist interpretations of Islam undertaken by jurists and the antinomian tendencies of the radical groups such as the Shi'i ghuldt. at once true Shi'i and gnostic. the Shi'ism that was then spreading in Persia was of a new form.

These communities had been led. By the beginning of the Anjudan period. to whom they regularly delivered the religious dues collected on his behalf. It is a fact. the Persian chroniclers of Timar's reign refer to Nizm activities there. Anjubn was evidently chosen carefully. may have been the first Qasim-Shahi imam to have settled in A n j u h . especially those situated in Central Asia and India. on occasions replacing them with their loyal appointees. the locality had a central position removed from the main seats of the Sumi dynasties ruling over Persia. like the leaders of certain other religious communities and movements. after the fall of Alamat. All these tariqas eventually became fully Shi'i. bringing the religious dues of their communities. describes how the by d8is of Khurasan and other regions arrived there during his stay. The dd'is now received their instructions directly from the imam. that the N i a r i imamate was handed down in two parallel lines amongst the descendants of Shams al-Din Muhammad. is still preserved in AnjudAn. Mustansir bi'lliih (111.A S H O R T HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS by this tariqa-diffused Shf'i-Sunni syncretism. charactensed by political fragmentation and spread of 'Alid loyalism and Shi'i tendencies through a number of Sufi orders. A n j u h . THE A N J U D A N REVIVAL I N N l Z A R l HISTORY The Niziiri Ismailis and their imams were quite successful in their taqiyya practices in Persia during the early post-Alamtit period. the Safawi shnykh or master who ascended the throne of Persia in go7/1501 as S h h Isma'il. played the most direct role in the "SWitisation" of Persia. Khayrkhwah's writings are of great historical value in explaining not only the N i a r i doctrines of the time. that the Qasim-Shahi Nisi imams became definitely established in the locality. As a result. mention should be made of the N~rbakhshiyya.19 I s l a Shah. Sultan Husayn Ghoriybi Harati. and Khayrkhw~h-i Harati. especially in Persia.'" It is interesting to note that the modem-day inhabitants of Anjudan remain completely ignorant of the Ismaili history of the area. The Anjudan period also witnessed a revival in the literary activities of the Niaris. as they rarely forwarded the religious dues collected in their communities to the imams whose whereabouts were secret. preparing the ground for the adoption of ShS'ism as the religion of the land under the Safawids. Additionally. By the middle of the 9th115. It was also in proximity to the cities of Qumm and Kahan. initiating the A n j u h revival in Nizari Ismailism. it was home to an Ismaili community before the imams permanently settled there. Among the Sufi orders that played a key role in spreading 'Alid loyalism and Shi'i sentiments in pre-Safawid Persia. however. Indeed. also mentioning an expedition led by Tim& himself in 79511393 against the Nizaris of Anjudan who by then must have attracted sufficient attention. The pirs. reorganised and reinvigorated their da'wa not only to win new converts but also to reassert their central authority over the various Nizari communities. there is a paucity of information on the imams succeeding Shams al-Din Muhammad. but also for containing unique details on the contemporary organisation and leadership structure of the community? Khayrkhwd. took advantage of the changing religio-political climate of Persia. It is. by herecttary dynasties of pirs and mirs. representing the first NizZui doctrinal works of the postAlamat period. It was. the Nizari imams. the Nizm imams of the Qasim-Shah line emerged in A n j u h in the guise of Sufi pits. This policy seems to have been initiated by Mustansir bi'llsh who dis~atched number of trusted daris to various localities in Persia. with his grandson. indcative perhaps of the lasting success of the Nizans' taqiyya practices. better known as Khayrkhwiih-i Hariiti. traditional centres of Shi'i learning in Persia. who died after 960/1553. a Afghanistan and Central Asia. The mausoleum of Mustansir bi'llah. a contemporary of R m t u and Khuhwand Muhammad. however. indeed. The earliest results of this literary revival. the imams of the Anjudan period devoted much of their attention to circumscribing the position of pirs in the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere. with its strong military organisation. where several other imams were later buried. they believe that the (Niza-)dignitaries buried in their village were actually Twelver Shi'i Sayyids. were produced in Persian by Aba Ishaq Quhistlni. while still hiding their identity. was a prolific writer and a poet. who flourished in the second half of the gth11sth century.th century. Under these circumstances.the Ni'mat All&iyya and the Safawiyya. who was summoned to ~ n j u h n the imam. The imam had by . functioning as chief dn'is in particular regions. situated in central Persia in the vicinity of Maballat and Qumm. the imams. For all these reasons. They also enjoyed a great deal of financial independence. The Safawi tan-qa. who succeeded to the imamate around 86811463. had indeed become powerful and autonomous figures. Muhammad Ri& b. remained the seat of the Qaim-Shiihi N i z ~ r imams and their da'wa activities for more than i two centuries. He was also appointed by the imam of the time to succeed his father as a local da'i or pir in his native western Afghanistan. His successors retained this policy. and adopted Twelver Shi'ism as the state religion of his dominions. who ded in 885/1480. also periodically summoning the regional dd'is to the da'wa headquarters in Anjudm.

who have preserved a Gujariiti (Khojki)version of the Pandiyat maintain that this book was sent to them as guidance by the imam of the time. this term fell into disuse in Persia. ma'dhun-i akbar. the ordinary Nizibis acted as the imam's mun-ds. and they continued to use the master-disciple (murshid-murid)terminology of the Sufis. known as Shah Qalandar. the da'wa hierarchy was headed by the imam. and even afterwards for a while. For instance. the Persian Nizms now appeared as a Sufi tariqa. which equally emphasises the duty of the believers to pay their religious dues regularly to the imam of the time. The Nizllri Khojas. As before. normally residing at the headquarters of the da'wa near the imam. were compiled and written in Persian during the imamate of Mustansir bi'll&'s son and successor 'Abd al-Salam Shah. the Niz&i imams often added. The same admonitions are reiterated in the writings of Khayrkhwiih-i Harati. descendants of the Prophet. the N i M s l veneration of 'All and other early 'Alid imams did not pose any danger of divulging their true identity. By his time. starting with Mustansir bi'llith (111. The variegated influences of some of these medieval taqiyya practices have left an indelible mark on the historical development of the Niziiri community in the p o s t . With 'Alid loyalism and Shi'i tendencies spreading through Sufi orders whose members were actually Sunnis. as in earlier times. the Persian equivalent of the Arabic shaykh. whde the imam is designated as piz. He acted as the administrative head of the da'wa and the imam's chief assistant. was permitted to teach the Nizari doctrines and to convert anyone on his own initiative. was assisted by two categories of ma'dhiin. There was. Sind and elsewhere. In adhtion. describing haqiqat as the bdtin of shari'at which would be attainable by the faithful through following the spiritual path or tariqat. as noted. very much like a Sufi order. were known as mustajibs. precious evidence is preserved in a book entitled Pandiydt-i jawdnmardi (Admonitions on Spiritual Chivalry).h j u h centuries. the Nizihi imam living in Anjudan appeared as a Sufi murstud. They were also regarded as pious 'Alid Sayyids. Manuscripts of the Persian text of the Pandiynt are still preserved by the N b . Similarly. The murallims were appointed by the hujja. the term pir. they still refer to themselves as their imam's murids and the word tariqa itself has been retained in reference to the Ismaili fonn and interpretation of Islam. The emergence of the imams and their accessibility to the community through the intermediacy of trusted agents or ddris was instrumental in this development. in the 1oth116th century.13 The imam was followed by a single hujja. the Nizans adopted a new communal organisation. The next lower rank in the hierarchy was that of rnu'allim or teacher who was normally in charge of da'wa activities in a particular community or region. the Nizaris are referred to by Sufi expressions such as akl-i haqq and ahl-ihaqiqat. on the religious admonitions of the Imam Mustansir bi'llah (II). had acquired widespread currency among Nizari Ismailis.ll These sermons. while the junior assistant or rna'dhiin-i asghar could perform these tasks only with the mu'allim's permission. the Pandiyat further explains that haqiqat essentially consists of recognising the spiritual reality of the imam of the time. But the Nizaris still found it necessary. addressed to true believers (mu'mins) and to those seeking high standards of ethcal behaviour and spiritual chivalry. The acknowledgement of the current imam and obeying his commands are stressed throughout the Pandiydt. rooted essentially in the doctrine of qiydma propounded in the Alamiit period. a missionary at large. pir or shaykh. many Nizari groups had disintegrated or acquired new identities owing to a lack of contact with their imam or his representatives. with the approval of the imam who thus ensured the appointment of trusted persons to the post. murshid or qutb. guided along a spiritual path or tariqa to haqiqa by their spiritual master. or the "people of the truth". but it was retained in the Niziiri communities of Central Asia and India. a single category of da'i. It was thus customarj for the imams to adopt Sufi names. mainly responsible for periodic inspections of different communities and reporting their situation to the da'wa headquarters and conveying the instructions of the imam and his hujja to local leaders. In the Pandiyat. in turn. Permeated with ideas widely associated with Sufism. in predominantly Sunni Persia. Hunza and other northern areas of Pakistan. similarly to Sufi masters. By the rothlrbth century. In the early Anju&n period. In line with the Nizitri teachings of the time.s of Badakhsh-. came to be generally used in reference to the . which played a key role in reasserting and rearticulating (at least secretly) their religious identity. Every rnu'allim. the senior one. terms such as Sh& and 'Ali to their names. To the outsiders. Before the A n j u h revival. to practise taqiyya in the guise of Sufism. In the context of Nizm-Sufi relations during the early Anju&n period. now again referred to as jaziza. it was applied to da'is of different ranks as well as the imam himself. The Nizitris of the Anju&n period once again possessed a secret da'wa organisation. Subsequently. For all practical purposes. The contemporary Qasim-Shai Niziiri texts mention five lower ranks in the da'wa hierarchy. then. the imam's admonitions start with the shari'at-tariqat-haqiqat categorisation of the Sufis. the term pir.A SHORT HISTORY O F T H E ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS then clearly asserted his leadership over the outlying Nizari communities in Badakhshiin. The ordinary initiates.

. The N a s of the Anjudiln period. It seems that only the hujja had truly entered the spiritual realm of haqiqa. required a spiritual journey from the apparent zcihiri world to the hidden batini world of haqiqa.~4 The current imam retained his central importance in the Nizari doctrine of the Anjudiln period. da'i and mu'allim. the Niaris did not maintain any systematic interest in cosmology or cyclical history. at least in the early Anjuhn period. The Ismaili writings of the Fatimid period. Engaged in more overt activities. such as jazira. propounded by Khayrkhwnh. the religious identity of the Persian Niznfis became somewhat better known for the first time in the post-Alamiit period. In the event. Shah Tahir was appointed as the most trusted adviser to Burhan Nizam-Shah (915-6111509-541. he settled permanently In in the Deccan and rendered valuable diplomatic services to the Nizam-Shahs of Ahmadnagar. were now no longer available to the Nizaris of Persia and adjacent lands. But Sh& T h r ' s expanding religious following in Persia proved intolerable to the Safawid ruler and his Twelver scholars. in turn.17 In the meantime. were divided into the "strong". and certain da'wa ranks like ma'dhiin were revived and used by the Nizaris. Most of the Sufi orders of Persia were. some of the pre-Alamiit interest of the Ismailis in co~mology. extirpated in the reign of Shah Isma'il (907-30/1~o1-24). as in Alamiit times. I ! I! 1 i I i - a . the advent of the Safawids and the proclamation of Twelver Shi'ism as the state religion of the Safawid realm in 9071 1501 promised yet more favourable opportunities for the activities of the Nizaris and other Shi'i movements in Persia.. Shah T ~ h i advocated Twelver Shi'ism. some of the da'wa terminologies of the Fatimid period. the Nizaris. . The new optimism of the Nizaris proved short-lived. however. which he had adopted r in Persia obviously as a form of disguise. As a result. already stressed by Nasir al-Din al-Tasi. in fact.I imam and the higher ranks in the da'wa hierarchy. too. Greatly influenced by Nasir Khusraw. too. may not necessarily have been incorporated into the general Nizari teachings of the Anjuchn period. attracted the attention of the early Safawids and their 'ulama'. presumably through the writings of Nasir Khusraw preserved in Badakhshan. the closest associate of the imam who was normally selected from among his relatives. the latter succeeded in fleeing to India in gz6/r~zo. the N&s themselves who. However. Some of these ideas.A SHORT HISTORY OF T H E I S M A I L I S LATER DEVELOPMENTS L )IX !i:. and received their persecuted Shah T a i r al-Husayni. ahl-i tarattub. a l non-NW-s representing the opponents l of the imam. notably hujja. the hujja. But in Anjudan times. reduce the intensity of their t a q i ~ practices during the a initial decades of Safawid rule. on whose request he also held weekly lectures on different religious subjects for large audiences. Shah Isma'il issued an order for the execution of Shah Tahir. . Finally. preserved in the Tayyibi Musta'lf collections of Yaman. 92811522. and as interpreted by the person of the current imam. in fact. haqiqa could be accessible to a few members of the community. with the major exceptions of the Nirmat Allahiyya and a few other tariqas which rapidly lost their earlier importance. The role of the bujja. even though they still continued to use the murshid-murid dyad and other Sufi terms. subjects elaborated in the Tayyibi writings of medieval times. especially as elaborated after the declaration of qiydma. from an understanding of the apparent meaning of the sharira to the truths concealed in its bdtin. As a result.I . as the Safawids and their shari'a-minded 'ulamd' soon adopted a vigorous persecutionary policy against all popular forms of Sufism and those Shi'i or Shr'irelated movements which fell outside the confines of state-sponsored Twelver Shi'ism. . that elite group was reduced to one person. represented by the ordinary members of the community. comprised of the holders of the darwa ranks below the hujja. and the recognition of his true spiritual reality remained the prime concern of the Nizaris. The Qbim-Sh& N W s of the Anjuhn period essentially retained the teachings of the Alamiit times.. who accused him of heretical teachings and conspiracy against the monarch. Shah Ism~'i1 the most famous imam of the Muhammad-Sh&i Nizari line29 Sh& Tnhir was a learned theologian and had attained much popularity thanks to his learning and piety. share of persecutions.. there was the ahl-i vahdat category consisting of the person of hujja alone. Persia had embarked on a process of conversion to Twelver Shi'ism through the efforts of a number of jurists brought in from Iraq and elsewhere. However. the Badakhshani Nizafls also retained. There.. Twelver Shirism was also more acceptable to the Muslim rulers of India who were generally interested in cultivating friendly relations with the Safawids. whose religious quest was defined afresh around the attainment of that knowledge?' This knowledge. distinguished three categories of men? ahl-i tadadd. the Turkmen Sufi soldiers who had brought the Safawids to power. and the "weak". now also called ahl-i haqq or haqjqat. The Nizari Ismailis did.. These factors explain why Shah Tahir wrote several commentaries on the theological works of well-known Twelver scholars. had now acquired even greater importance in Nizari doctrine. The Nizm-s of the Alamot period had held that even in the time of satr and taqiyya. Meanwhile.ls This policy was used even against the QizilbAsh. It is interesting to note that from early on in India. second only to that of the imam.

3" This imam was evidently active politically. severely repressed by the Safawids. rejoiced at the Safawid court in Persia. the author clearly hides his Ismaili ideas under the covers of Twelver Shi'i as well as Sufi expressions. too. THE KHOJAS A N D S A T P A N T H I S M A I L I S M The Niz&i Ismaili da'wa was introduced into the In&an subcontinent during the first half of the 7thJrjth century. he eulogises the Ithna'ashar~imams whilst also alluding to the Nizari imams of the Muhammad-Shahi line. continued to practise taqiyya under the double guises of Sufism and Twelver Shi'ism. Haydar. persecuted the Qasim-Shah Nizaris of Anjudan and their thirty-sixth imam. By then. the ginans. the Shi'a of Anjudan. Amir Khalil Allah. the Safawids were drawn into their own dynastic disputes lasting a decade. The ginans have attained a very special status within the Nizari Khoja community. the By closing decades of the r 1th/17th century. it may be added. possibly in collaboration with the Nuqtawiyya. the Persian Nizaris had successfully adopted a second tactical disguise. The Qasim-Shahi Nizari da'wa had gained the allegiance of the Nizari majoritarian community at the expense of the Muhammad-Shahis. were exempted from paying certain taxes. Subsequently. possibly a sister of Shah 'Abbas. After Sh& Tahmbp. was married to a Safawid princess. It was evidently only during the late Alamat period that the central Nizmleadership made systematic efforts to extend the da'wa activities to Badakhshan and Sind. This epigraph reproduces the text of a royal decree issued by Shah 'Abbas I in Rajab 1036IMarch-April 1627. The matter remains rather obscure owing to paucity of reliable historical information on the subject. the Khojas. Murad W-rzii. 10821167 I). The Nizari Khojas. have always acknowledged the imams of the Qasim-Shahi Nizari line. were eulogised by their contemporary Nizilri poet Khaki Khurasiini who personally visited Anjudiin. of course. Shah Khalil Allah I1 (d. Twelver Shi'ism enforced by the Safawids. the Anjudiin revival had clearly bore fruit. Composed in a number of Indic languages and dialects of Sind. The term ginrin (gnan)seems to have been derived from the Sanskrit word jiifina meaning sacred knowledge or wisdom. and their imams. an obscure Shi'i-related religio-political movement and an offshoot of the H u d y y a . The success of the Nizms in dissimulating as Twelvers is clearly attested to by an epigraph. one of a few extant Muhammad-Shahi Nizari treatises composed in the Deccan around I I 10/1698. regions which had remained outside the confines of the Nizari state. Khalil All&. In this connection it is interesting to point out that in the Lama'dt al-tdhirin. in fact." Murad Mirz. according to hls epitaph in Anjudiin. successors. referred to as Ithna'ashans. Shah 'Abbas did not persecute the Nizais. died in 104311634. At any rate.3' Khaki also refers to the success of the Nizari da'wa in central Persia and Khurasan as well as in Multan and other parts of India. The Nizari imams in Persia. This provided a timely respite for the N i m s . after his own conversion. Much controversy . Shah Tahmasp (930-841 1524-761. the second Safawid monarch. Ntir al-Dahr 'Ali (d. known also under the Sufi name of Dhu'l-Faqar 'MI. The ginfins were transmitted orally for several centuries before they were recorded mainly in the Khojki script developed in Sind by the Khoja community. observed taqiyya in India mainly in the form of Twelver Shi'ism. was eventually captured and executed in 98111574 on Shah Tahmasp's order. though the Sufi cover seems to have been increasingly eclipsed by that of Twelver Shi'ism. and other (non-Twelver) religious communities. namely. Sh* T W s son and future successor. for the earliest phase of NizW activities in India we have to rely almost exclusively on the traditional accounts of the Nizaris of the Indian subcontinent. Order was restored to the Safawid state by Shah 'Abbas I (9gs-1038/1s87-1629). recovered by the author in Anjudm in 1976. 1ogo/1680). NOr al-Dahr's successor. At any rate. who had survived the earlier persecutions. the Nizari da'wa had spread successfully in Central Asia and several regions of the Indian subcontinent. or possibly earlier in the Alamat period. like other Twelver Shi'is around Qumm. This event was. was dispatched on a goodwill mission to the Safawid capital in Persia. which could readily be adopted by the Nizms who shared the same early 'Alid heritage and Imam. these hymn-like poems vary in length from four to over a thousand verses. Murad Mma's successor as the thirty-seventh imam of the Qasim-Shahr Nizaris. by now solely of the Qasim-Shahi line. enjoyed friendly relations with the Safawids. At the same time.A S H O R T HISTORY O F THE I S M A I L I S LATER DEVELOPMENTS Sh& Tiihir achieved his greatest religious success in the Deccan when B u r h a Nizam-Shah. Panjab and Gujarat. as expressed in their indigenous religious literature. Shah Tahir may have been the earliest Nizari leader to have conceived of this new form of dissimulation. who had a large following in Persia as well as in Sind and elsewhere in India. This imam and his successor. According to this edict. who led Safawid Persia to the peak of its glory. was the last imam of his line to reside in Anjud~n. addressed to Amir Khalil Allah Anjudani (the contemporary Nizarr imam). Shah Tahir His died around 9szl1~4s. proclaimed Twelver Shi'ism as the official religion of his state in 94411537.Shi'i traditions with the Twelvers. Meanwhile.

community house]. many gindns contain ethical and moral instructions for the conduct of religious life and guiding the spiritual quest of the believer. who were yet to assert their leadership. Before long. The gin& literature contains a diversity of missionary. they are not generally reliable as historical sources of information. in Patan.33 According to the traditional accounts of the Nizan Khojas. it may be noted. Pir Satgur converted all the inhabitants of Patan. At any rate. whlch served as the seat of the Satpanth darwain India. in Kotri. were the headquarters of the Suhrawardi and Qadiri Sufi orders. in fact. Multan and Ucch in Sind. a great-grandson of Pir Shams. and they probably acknowledged the Nizari da'wa before the end of the Alamat period. was the most important Sufi order of .A S H O R T HISTORY OF T H E ISMAILIS LATER D E V E L O P M E N T S surrounds the authorship of the gindns. According to ginanic evidence. an honorary title meaning lord or master corresponding to the Hindi term thnkur by which the Hindu Lohanas were addressed. a certain Pir Satgur Niir was the first Nizari missionary sent from Daylam to Gujarat. to the south of Multan. Qasim Shah. It may be noted that Sind was ruled from around 75211351 by the Sunni Sammas in succession to the Sumras who adhered to Ismailism. is named as his contemporary imam. The Suhrawardiyya. Be that as it may. apparently concentrated their efforts in Sind (modemday Panjab in Pakistan). Fir Shams has been identified also with Shams-i Tabm. His shrine is located near Ucch. For all practical purposes. he was apparently active particularly in Ucch and Multan. derived from the Persian word khwdia. The specific form of Nizari-related Ismailism that developed in India became known as Satpanth (sat panth) or the "true path" (to salvation). he successfully preached the da'wa in Panjab and Kashrnir. the N * da'wa continued to be preached secretly in Sind by his descendants during the early post-AlamCit centuries. There. as they are held to contain the teactungs of their pirs. hagiographlc and legendary accounts of the activities of pin and their converts and as such. he died sometime between the middle of the 8th/ 14th and the beginning of the g t h l r ~ t h century. in addition to serving as centres of Satpanth Ismaili missionary activities. It is interesting to note that this pix is reported to have been affiliated with the Suhrawardi Sufi order. where Ismailism had persisted clandestinely since the Fatimid times in Multan and elsewhere. he has also been credited with the authorship of the largest number of ginans. mystical. By the time of Pir Sadr al-Din. mythological. shortly before the Anjuhn revival. In other gindns.34 The earliest N ~ ~ ~missionaries operating in India. the available evidence reveals that in India. where he built more jamd'at-khdnas. The dates mentioned for this missionary's arrival in Gujarat vary widely from the time of the Fatimid caliph-imam al-Mustansir to the middle of the 6th11zth century. for the religious and communal activities of the Khojas. Pir Hasan Kabir al-Din's name appears in the list of the spiritual masters of the Suhrawardi tanqa. Sadr al-Din converted large numbers of Hindus from the Lohana trading caste and gave them the title of Khoja. Sind. After Pir Shams. In time. There is no evidence attesting to the success of the Nizari da'wa in Gujarat until after the 7th/13th century. Pir Hasan converted numerous Hindus and eventually settled in Ucch. He is. some g i n a s also relate anachronistic. the activities of Pir Shams are placed some two centuries earlier. travelled widely and reportedly visited his contemporary Nizm imam. The Siimras themselves had ruled from Thatta for almost three centuries from 443/1o~1. the ginfins have continued to occupy a central role in the religious life and rituals of the Nizari Khojas. As an oral tradition. cosmological and eschatological themes. too. Pir Sadr al-Din consolidated and organised the da'wa in India. which was at the time prevalent in western and northem India. whoever they III may have been.35 In some of the many gindns attributed to him. when the Tayyibi da'wa led from Yaman was already well established there. Mustan~ir bi'llh (11). the Nizaris developed close relations with Sufism. His mausoleum still remains outside of Ucch and is locally known as Hasan Dary2.in Anjubn. He. who is also reported to have been converted to Tayyibi Musta'li Ismailism but actually died a devout Hindu. Pir Shams al-Din is the earliest figure specifically associated in the gindn literature with the commencement of Nizm activities in Sind. Sadr al-Din was succeeded as p& by his son Hasan Kabir al-Din. where his mausoleum is preserved under the name of Shah Shams al-Din Sabzawari. Pir Shams seems to have flourished around the middle of the 8th/14th century. or pi^^ as dd'ls were called in the Inhan subcontinent. he converted the local Rajput lung Siddharaja Jayasingh (487-~~7/1094-1133). too. Sadr al-Din laid the foundations of the Nizai communal organisation in In&a where the Nizaris became generally designated as Khojas.36 Indeed. a term used by Khojas and throughout their g i n h s . the pirs in India had established a hereditary dynasty without regular contacts with the Nizari imams. In fact. Imam Shams al-Din Muhammad's son and successor in the Qasim-Shahi line. didactic. generally ascribed to a few early missionaries. An obscure missionary clouded in numerous legends. Pir Sadr al-Din is also reputed to have built the first jamneat-khana (literally. considered to have been the founder of the Nizm Khoja community in the Indian subcontinent. which now became known as PIma Patan or "the pir's city". On that basis.

where he converted in local Hindus to Satpanth Ismailism. The Nizari imams. This enabled the Khojas to blend more readily into the religious. Imam al-Din 'Abd al-Rahim. As Ali Asani has shown in his meticulous study. the ImamShahis split into several groups following different pas. Subsequently. until Hasan Kabir al-Din. Taj al-Din visited the imam in Persia and delivered to him the religious dues.40 He now claimed the imamate for himself. as we shall see. close relations developed between these two esoteric traditions in the Indian subcontinent. the dassondh or tithe. The ImamShahis. The Nizm. by the N i a r i Khoja community as well as strong parallels between the poetic and mystical expressions found in the gindns and in Sufi poetry composed in Panjab! and Sindhi facilitated the SatpanthSufi relations. It is clear. Meanwhile Imam Shah. a book of guidance. to succeed him as pir. soon denied any connections with Ismailism. as noted. were component parts of their traditions. who now greatly outnumbered the Persian Nizaris. rather than one of his numerous sons. subdivided into a number of groupings and . however. in fact. Henceforth. who attribute it to Pir Sa& al-Din. a majority of the Khojas of Gujarat remained loyal to the Nizari imam and his da'wa.3~ The Pandiycit. is due to the fact that its mystical themes and terms readily lent themselves to Ismaili interpretations. the Nizm Khojas were able to represent themselves for extended periods as one of the many mystically oriented communities of Sind. They." this long poem about the mystical path actually originated in Qadirx Sufi circles of Sind and then entered the gindn literature of the Khojas. who produced their own version of the gindns. Thus. were Twelver Shi'is. embarked on periodic journeys to Anjudan to visit the imam. The adoption of Sufi terminology. As a result. the new piz. migrated to Gujar2t. namely. cultural and social structure of Sind. his son Nar Muhammad seceded from the Nizari Khoja community and founded an independent sect known as the Imam-Shahis. and retrospectively for Imam Shah. By then. That the Biijh Niraiijan is considered by the Khojas to be an expression of Satpanth Ismailism. the town founded by himself near Ahmadabad. the already-noted Pandiydt-i jawdnmardi. The Nizari Khojas. who had evidently remained loyal to the imam. even though it does not contain any specifically Ismaili elements. the pirs and their Khoja followers may not have consciously and explicitly developed their Sufi connections for taqiyya purposes. translated into GujarHti and written in the Khojki script. However. The same doctrinal affinities that existed between Persian Ismailism and Sufism also existed between Satpanth Ismailism and Sufism in India.imams of the Anjudzln period made systematic efforts to control the hereditary authority of the pirs and other local dynasties of various Nizari communities. in the traditional lists of pirs compiled by the Niziiri Kh0jas. that these relations did exist and developed over time. claimed that their early pirs. After Pir Hasan Kabir al-Din. was sent to them. containing the admonitions of the Imam Mustansir bi'llah of Anjudan. and aiming to assert his own direct control. after Taj al-Din. Close relations between the Khojas and Sufis of India in postAlamiit times are also attested to by a lengthy didactic poem in medieval Hindustani known as Bnjh Niraiijan (Knowledgeof the One]. came to occupy the twenty-sixth place. where such communities and groups existed among both the predominantly Sunni Muslim as well as Hindu milieus. the imam decided not to appoint any more pus. The adherents of this syncretic sect. collected from the Khoja community. More cannot be said in our present state of knowledge on IsmailiSufi relations in the Indian subcontinent. such as murshid and muzid. the Nizari imam had asserted his control over the Khoja community. attempted in vain to becomepir in Sind. appears to have reached Sind by the middle of the 1othl16th century. better known as Imam Shah. did not appoint any new pirs to the leadership of the Khojas after Pir Taj al-Din. Instead. Imam Shah died in grg/1~13 Pirana. especially in Sind where both Sufism and Satpanth Ismailism had deep roots. however. On Nar Mubarnmad's death in 94011533. by claiming to represent the incarnation of the imam. named after his father. while the Qadirrs began to acquire prominence in the gthlrsth century. a concept very familiar to a Hindu milieu and also to the contemporary Khojas. This may explain why the imam appointed Hasan Kabir al-Din's brother Taj al-Din. also explaining why a pir of the Khoja community was recognised as one of the p i n of the Suhrawardi Sufi order while several of the early Satpanth pirs are still generally regarded as Sufi masters and saints of Sunni persuasion in the subcontinent. This book. However. were already safeguarded against Sunni persecution by their Hindu elements which. by contrast to the situation of the contemporary Nizari Ismailis of Persia. the Khojas were set back by internal dissensions which eventually split their hitherto unified community. attracting less attention as Ismailis and escaping persecution by Sind's Sunni rulers. the Nizari Khojas. Thls appointment displeased Hasan Kabir al-Din's sons who plotted against their uncle.39 On Imam Shah's death. where his shrine is located. one of Hasan Kabir al-Din's sons. Fir Taj al-Din evidently died towards the end of the gth/rsth century. Weary of the incessant leadership quarrels among Imam Shah and his many brothers.A SHORT HISTORY O F THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS Sind during the 7-8thI13-14th centuries.

imams had evidently appointed one more pir. and later moved to Bhuj. Tantrism and the Bhakti tradition. named Dad& was dispatched to Sind in the second half of the roth/ 16th century. Under the circumstances. protected the Khojas against certain persecution at the hands of Sind's Sunni rulers. served taqiyya purposes and made the Khojas less conspicuous in their predominantly Hindu and Sunni Muslim environments. Satpanth Ismailism represented a complex form of dissimulation and acculturation adapted to the religious. not satisfactorily substantiable on the basis of available evidence. in order to enhance the effectiveness and spread of their message. the pirs adopted a strategy of accommodating indigenous religious mores and concepts. In a sense. or possibly Taj al-Din. cultural and political realities of the Indian subcontinent. represents an indigenous tradition reflecting certain historical. and adapted their policies to. Henceforth. The origins and early development of the particular form of Ismailism known as Satpanth. representatives with less authority compared to the pirs. Satpanth Ismailism is said to have evolved primarily as a result of the ingenious conversion policies of pirs. the pirs did attempt ingeniously to maximise the appeal of their message in a Hindu ambience. in addition to inducing conversions. dissimulation meant something much more than the . In time. or whether it represented a tradition that had evolved gradually over several centuries from the Fatirnid times. after Tnj al-Din (and the Pandiynt-i jawdnmardi). then. who operated in Sind from the 7th/rjth century. Dada played an important role in strengthening relations between the Khoja community and the Nizm da'wa headquarters in Anjud~n. for the Nizari da'wa in India was addressed mainly to the rural. the pirs from early on turned to Indian vernaculars. an existing situation. nothing is known about its particular form while the Ismailis of Sind and surrounding areas evidently remained outside the Nizm-Musta'li boundaries until later Alamiit times. However. lower castes. On the evidence of the ginans. including Sufism. and its religious literature. Dada was later obliged to flee from Sind together with many Sindhi Khojas. This. Ismailism.A S H O R T HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS concentrated in the rural communities of Gujarat and Khandesh. Under obscure circumstances. and largely uneducated. In this context. interfacing their Islamic and Ismaili tenets with myths. especially in Sind and other areas of northern India. remain obscure. images and symbols already familiar to the Hindus. Therefore. a strategy of acculturation that proved very successful and won masses of converts from among Sind's lower castes. as noted. the Nizm. beginning with Ivan0w. whose name does not appear in the later lists of pus. The Hindu cover of the Nk&ri Khojas. had survived in a subdued form in Sind since the collapse of the Ismaili principality of Multan and the persecutions of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna at the rth beginning of the s t h / ~ century. whatever the circumstances surrounding its origins. Be that as it may. The background to Satpanth (in terms of its specific concepts and thematic admixtures] may very well have already existed by the time the Nizan missionaries or pirs became active in Sind in the latter decades of the Alamat period.culminating in the successes of the Anjudan period when the imams took more direct charge of the affairs of the Niznri Khoja community. For the same reason. the gindns. With Dada. Satpanth Ismailism developed its own set of themes and theological concepts emanating from an interfacing of Hinduism with Ismaili Islam and a number of other traditions and mystical movements prevalent in Indo-Muslim milieus of India. with a special mission to prevent the reversion of the N * Khojas to Hinduism or their conversion to Sunnism. In the meantime. interfacing of this Ismaili tradition to the preaching strategy of the pits who are held to have designed suitable Hindu-oriented policies for the purpose of converting the Hindus to Ismailism. who aimed to make their preaching understandable and attractive to a Hindu audience. who could not tolerate Shi'i Ismailism. the pirs also used Hindu idioms and mythology. cultural and political circumstances prevailing in medieval Indian subcontinent. very much akin to the situation of the Central Asian Ismailis. According to this view. the imams attempted to retain and strengthen their direct control over the Khojas in the subcontinent. rather than Arabic and Persian used by the educated classes. The imams now maintained their contacts with the Khoja community through functionaries referred to as waltlls or bnbns. Satpanth Ismailism. In particular. of course.4~ have generally attributed the mixed. HinduM u s h . with the Nizm missionaries adapting their preaching to an existing situation and religious mould. today consider themselves chiefly Twelver Shl'is or Sunnis without any distinct memories of their Ismaili past. In other words. social. it is not known whether Satpanth Ismailism as it developed in the Indian subcontinent had resulted from the conversion policies of the early pirs. where he died in 1oo1/15gj. as expressed by Hindu elements in their Satpanth tradition. the line of pirs definitely came to an end. the NizPri da'wa was reinvigorated in Sind by a succession of pi. the dominant relqgons of the contemporary Indo-Muslim society. social. modem scholars of Satpanth. He settled in Jamnagar (Navanagar) in Gujarat. and the pirs may indeed have drawn inspiration from. This pix.

Starting with the fifth dai. f The Tayyibis preserved a good portion of the Ismaili literature of the Fatimid period. 'Ali b. however. All this explains the particular reverence the Nizari Khojas hold for their pus and their teachings as expounded in the gindns. In particular.4~ the absence of imams. the Tayyibi da'wa and In community remained under the leadership of a dd'i mutlaq. a variety of symbolic correspondences and equivalences were established in some ginans between Hindu and Islamic concepts and figures. While the pirs condemned idol worship. All this explains why the Satpanth tradition of the N a n Khojas of the subcontinent differs significantly from the N a n traditions developed in Central Asia. we shall briefly survey the later history of this minority Ismaili community in Yaman and the Indian subcontinent. the untouchable worshippers of a deified saint known as Ramdev Pir. As a dfferent example of shifting identities. always evolve smoothly. The ddri Hgtim also resumed the Fatimid traditions of teaching and delivered regular lectures (majalis)on a variety of subjects in Hutayb. which like other g i n h s with strong Hindu influences is no longer in usage in the Niz&i Khoja community.u As noted. redefining their identity. In the event. Muhammad was a learned scholar and a prolific writer. including especially the . The gindns. This phenomenon seems to have occurred in the case of the Kamad (or Umadiyya) of Rajasthan. portray the p h as the "true guide" (sat guru)who can lead the faithful in their spiritual quest. 5571 1162))to the 1ggos.45 The Dasa Avatrfla. in order to attain knowledge of the imam and the true path to salvation. facilitating the transformation of the religious identity of the converts from Hinduism to Satpanth Ismailism. It was also in recognition of such difficulties that the N a r i imam in Persia entrusted Pir Dadn with the mission of preaching among those Khojas who had evidently reverted to Hinduism. al-Walid [605-1~/1zog-151. in fact. revert to Hinduism. presents the imam as the longawaited saviour within a Vaishnavite framework concerning the ten descents (dasa avat&a) of the Hindu deity Vishnu through the ages. and his works. The Qur'an was represented as the last of the Vedas or sacred scriptures. Persia and Syria. successfully spread the Tayyibi da'wa in the mountainous region of Hara. Hatim b. the Kamad went through a process of "re-Hinduisation".Shah. with its several towns and fortresses. to the southwest of San'a'. 'Ali b. Ibriihim al-Himi&. the headquarters of the da'wa. 3 position that was held by Ibrahim al-Hamidi's descendants until 605/ 1209. where his grave is still piously visited by Tayyibi pilgrims. Hatim b. It involved. from the time of their second d a i mutlaq. they completely rejected or forgot their Satpanth Ismaili heritage. This found expression in an important gindn entitled Dasa Avatara. The Satpanth tradition drew on a multitude of indigenous concepts and motifs prevalent in the Indo-Muslim context of the subcontinent. adhesion and syncretism. whose true meaning was known only to the pirs representing the imams. including Hutayb situated on one of the peaks of the Shibam mountain. There. as Tazim Kassam has argued. As a result. The teachings of Satpanth Ismailism are abundantly reflected in the ginan 1iterature. The third da'i.aathe creative application of taqiyya through a complex process of indigenisation. Ibrahim died in 596/1119 and was buried under the fortress of Hutayb. which has been recorded in three separate versions attributed to Pir Shams al-Din. coherently or successfully in India. Pir Sadr &Din and Im. while their devotional poems are replete with Ismaili references. We have already discussed the origins and early history of the Tayyibis. indeed. Ibrahim al-Hamidi (d. Harh served as the main stronghold o the Tayyibi da'wa in Yaman. the spread of this form of Ismailism was facilitated in India. There. Muhammad b. the position of daCi mutlaq remained essentially in the hands of the Banu'l-Walid al-Anf family of Quraysh for almost three centuries until 94611539. We have already noted the secession of the Imam-Shahis who dnfted away variously from their Ismaili origins. In this section. the pirs had transformed Hindu mythology and motifs into narratives propounding their Ismaili teachings. he also provided instructions for hls subordinate da'is in Yaman as well as in India. with the support of different clans of Banii Haman. also providing a protective shield for the Khoja converts. Recent research has shown that some communities which originally may have adhered to Satpanth Ismailism did. and perhaps originally converted only in a superficial or incomplete manner. who remain the sole representatives of Musta'li Ismailism. Henceforth. they expounded within a Hindu framework the doctrine of the imamate as held by the N & r i Ismailis of the post-qiyoma times.I?/ /j A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS concealment of true identity or superficial adoption of an exterior guise. The pirs taught that it was only through the recognition of the "true path" (sat panth) that their converts would be liberated from the Hindu cycles of rebirth and attain salvation in Paradise. the da'i seized a number of fortresses. Satpanth Ismailism did not.43 Cut off from the religious centres of Satpanth in Ucch and Multan. it may be noted that many isolated Persian Niz&i groups dissimulating as Twelver Shi'ts eventually became fully integrated into their predominantly Twelver Shi'i environment.

as noted. esoteric haqd'iq system with its distinctive eschatological and salvational themes. though few specific details are available. the head of the Tayyibi da'wa in India.The da'wa originally spread among the urban artisans and traders of Gujarat. was Thus. The da'wa organisation of the Tayyibis drew on the Fatimid antecedents with certain modifications and simplifications dictated by the changed realities of Yaman. The Ismailis. encounters between the Tayyibis and the Zaydis. The reign of the Sunni sultans of Gujarat effectively ended in 980/1572 when the region was annexed by Akbar to the Mughal empire. began to be widely persecuted from the time of Zafar Khan's grandson. a dd'i enjoying absolute authority within the community. meanwhile. spread in Gujarat under the supervision of the Sulayhids of Yaman. The Tayyibi da'wa generally retained. and the position was normally handed down on a hereditary basis. when the main local Hindu dynasty (the Vaghelas of Anahilw~ra) uprooted. He and his successors preached the da'wa successfully among the Hindus of Gujarat from their original base in Khambhat (modem-day Cambay]. on a much reduced scale. All this provides further explanation as to why Hindu-Muslim interfacing is absent from the religious literature of the Ismaili Bohra community. According to another etymological explanation. adhering to the Tayyibi Musta'li da'wa. By contrast.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS Tdj al-'aqd'id and the Kitnb al-dhakira. There is no evidence suggesting that the Tayyibi da'wa was then active in any region outside Yarnan and India. the Tayyibi community expanded without encountering serious difficulties until the Muslim conquest of Gujarat in 697/1298. the Tayyibi ddris succeeded in converting large numbers in Cambay. had his own hierarchy of assistants and subordinate dnris in India. Sidhptir and later in Ahma&b%d. about which there is little information. the local Tayyibi dnris. as noted. were frequently marred by open warfare. 'Abd Allah. the Tayyibis maintained the Fatimid Ismaili traditions. From early on. who built a new capital at Ahmadabad. During this long period. including the Rasidids and the Tahirids. were not in obliged to dissimulate. It is generally held that the word bohma (bohoza) is derived from the Gujarati term vohorvii meaning "to trade". the Ismaili . The Tayyibi ddls in Yaman were among the most educated members of their community. In the doctrinal domain. The situation of the Ismaili Bohras deteriorated seriously when Zafar Khan (793-8061 I 39 1-1403) established the independent sultanate of Gujarat. provided the basis of the Tayyibi gnostic. Ahmad Shah I (814-4611411-42). The latter evidently did not feel endangered by the Tayyibi da'wa in their midst. replacing Anahlw~ra. the Tayyibis also used al-Qadi al-Nu'ma's Da'n'im al-Zsldm as their most authoritative legal compendium. a rich province owing to its commercial and maritime relations with other shores of the Indan Ocean. the Ismaili converts. these Ismailis were designated as Bohras because they had been converted from the Hindu caste of Vohra. too. Patan. secrecy and education of the initiates. every dd'i appointed his successor by the rule of nass. The Yamani dd?s. the Tayyibis of Gujarat were not harassed by the region's Hindu rulers. the Tayyibi da'wa in India remained under the strict supervision of the dari mutlaq and the da'wa headquarters in Yaman until the second half of the 1oth/16th century. These concerns. the ddrimutlaq was entitled to the obedience and submission of the Tayyibis. many of them became outstanding scholars producing the bulk of the Tayyibi literature on esoteric subjects. maintained close relations with the Tayyibi community of Gujarat. the da'wa activities in western India became scrutinised by the region's Muslim governors appointed by the rulers of the Delhi sultanate. The early da'wa. Later." The dd'i mutlaq was assisted in the affairs of the da'wa by several subordinate ddris designated as ma'dhiin and mukdsir. locally known as wali. Under the circumstances. The Tayyibi Ismaili imam remained in concealment since al-Tayyib himself. in fact. where the Indian headquarters of the da'wa was established. were known as Bohras (Bohoras). along with his bob and hujjas. Henceforth. the executive head of the da'wa hierarchy in Yaman was designated as al-dd'i al-mutlaq. unlike the Nizari p ~ r s Sind. As in the case of the imams. In fact. the traditions of the Fatimid da'wa in terms of initiation. including the earlier interests in cosmology and cyclical history. in 460/1067. As the highest representative of the hidden imam. The wdli. was based on the earlier heritage of the Fatimid and Yamani Tayyibi Ismailis. The Tayyibi ddris maintained peaceful relations with various local dynasties of Yaman. Henceforth. was regularly appointed by the dari mudaq. this text has retained its juridical importance for the Tayyibis of Yaman and India down to modem times. who were led by their own imams. when taqiyya was required in Gujariit. are important for understanding the Tayyibi haqd'iq system. The Ismaili community of western India. At any rate. This literature. The term was evidently applied to the Tayyibi Mustarli Ismailis of Gujarnt because they originally belonged to a trahng community. In western India. As a result. grew steadily since the arrival of the first Yamani dd'i. By contrast to the Nizari Khojas of Sind who were frequently persecuted by the local Sunni rulers. Zafar Khan was the first ruler of Gujarat to suppress Shirism. too. it was adopted in the form of Sunni Islam. mostly of Hindu descent.

Ibrahim founded the 'Aliyya splinter group who established their own line of days. grandson of the dd'i Yiisuf b. Yasan as their new dd'i. These Tayyibis. Yiisuf b. At the same time. Sulayman and the deceased dari's deputy in Yaman. Da'ad also revitalised the community and its organisation. 'Ajabshah. as they were not molested by the Mughal emperors and their governors in Gujargt. Basan. On the death of Da'iid b.49 The great majority of Tayyibis. As part of Awrangzib's persecutions. Yijsuf b. more than half of the community now seceded and became S~nni. led to a permanent split in the Tayyibi dd'wa and community. to Aljmadab~d. another Indian. with its Indian and Yamani rivalry undertones. the first Indian dd'i mutlaq. and had him convicted of on heresy in a Sunni court. Qutbkhan Qutb al-Din. supported the Da'iidi cause. however. and persecute the Ismailis and other Shi'i Muslims as "heretics" during his long reign (1068-1 I 1811658-1707). the Zaydis. Sulayman was one such Bohra selected by the wdli to study in Yaman. inducing the emperor to instruct his officials in Gujarat to accord religious freedom to the Bohras. al-Hasan al-Wal~d. Qutbshah. while briefly governor of Gujarat. in 99711589. A few years later. J a l J b. Awrangzib widely persecuted the local ~srnailis. 'Ali b.4~ These developments once again serve to show how. was the last of the dd'is from Banu'l-Walid al-Anf as well as the last Yamani dd'i to lead the undivided Tayyibi Ismailis of Yaman and India. the headship of the community passed to an Indian from Sidhpiir. 'Ajabsh*. It was during Ahmad Shah's oppressive rule that many Ismaili Bohras converted to Sunni Islam. Even before his accession. The twenty-third dd'i mutlaq. had practically exterminated the Banu'l-Walid. The Ismaili Bohras turned the mausoleum of their martyred dii'i in A l p a h b a d into a shrine. under specific circumstances. in fact. The da'i personally visited Akbar in Agra in 98111573. and returned to India to prove h s case. extended dissimulation may lead to intensive and incremental acculturation. Hasan. Strictly adhering to the Hanafi school of Sunnism. too. the 'Aliyya are a small community centred in Baroda. Gujarat.sO Subsequently.A S H O R T HISTORY OF T H E ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS Bohras were obliged to observe taqiyya in the guise of Sunnism. the ddfr was then executed in 10~611646 Awrangz~b'sorder. brought in 1 o o ~ / 1 ~ 9 7 Lahore. Upon his death in 94611539. restoring the Tayyibi religious practices which had been abandoned for a long time in India owing to persecution. Yosuf. Meanwhile. it was customary for talented Bohras to receive their Ismaili education in Yaman. M&amrnad b.He arrested the thirty-second dd'i. It was in recognition of Yiisuf's learning that the twentythird dn'i nominated him as his successor. acknowledged Da'ad B u r b al-Din (d. At the same time. This dispute. his deputy in Gujarat. a dispute between the Tayyibi walj and a dissident Ismaili Bohra led to further Sunni conversions and secessions from the community. a minority of the Tayyibis. the main Da'iidi community continued to grow and prosper. and when he died in 97411567 the headquaxters of the Tayyib~ da'wa was transferred by his successor. and pursuing zealous religious policies of his own. claimed the succession for himself. they became known as Da'adis. and was succeeded by Da'iid b. preparing the ground for a new phase in the history of Tayyibi Ismailism. designated as Sulaymanis. the traditional enemies of the Yamani Ismailis. It was only after the establishment of Mughal rule that the Bohra community enjoyed a certain degree of -religiousfreedom. where the da'is could count on the religious tolerance of the Mughal emperors. Thus ended the Yamani phase of unified Tayyibi Ismailism. Hasan al-Hindi. Meanwhile. then. the Tayyibi Bohras of India greatly outnumbered their co-religionists in Yaman. the twenty-sixth dZi. 1021116 12) as their new. Sulayman. died in 975/1567 soon after his accession to leadership. eventually settled in Yaman. and ultimately to complete assimilation. represented by Bohras. According to some accounts. hls succession was disputed causing the Da'iidi-Sulaymani schism in the Tayyibi community. Awrangzib was the only member of the Mughal dynasty to adopt anti-Shi'i measures. the Tayyibis of Yaman had been experiencing their own difficulties under Ottoman rule. Henceforth. the Da'iidis and Sulaymanis followed separate lines of darrs. During his leadership Akbar annexed Gujarat to the Mughal empire. are a small minority within the Tayyibi Musta'li community. but the emperor's intercession failed to resolve it. the Da'adi Bohras were further subdivided in India because of periodic challenges laid to the authority of their da'i mutlaq. further weakening this branch of Ismailism. In 1034/1624. accounting for the bulk of the community in Yaman and a small number in Inda. Da'ijd b. On the other hand. Jalal b. while the headquarters of the Sulaymani da'wa remained in Yaman. these visits also enhanced the religious and literary links between the Yamani and Indian factions of the community. 'Ajabshah was succeeded in India by Da'ad Burhan al-Din b. recognised Sulayman b. By then. At present. before Akbar in The dispute was. A small faction of the Yamani Tayyibis. The Da'tidi dd'js continued to reside in India. It was under such circumstances that the Tayyibi da'wa headquarters was moved to Gujarat. twenty-seventh da'i. the religious rituals and practices of the Ismaili Bohras . despite By prolonged persecutions and secessions. the twenty-fifth da'i. as one such instance. Sulayman b. extended to cover southern Arabia in gz311517.

caused a deep rift in the community. is chosen from among his close relatives and he normally succeeds to the position of dd'i mutlaq. Tahir Sayf al-Din successfully established his absolute authority over all religious and secular affairs of the community. everv concern and activitv of Bohras reauires the dn'i's consent. coinciding with the early decades of British rule over India. This also applies to academic and research activities. traditional attributes and prerogatives of the imams. In the event. He also established direct control over all communal endowments and financial resources. is a substitute for the hidden Tayyibi imam. been transferred from Ahmadabad to Jamnagar. they became known as Hiptias (Hibtias)after his name. selected from among the learned members of the community. the headquarters of the Da'iidi da'wa was transferred to Siirat. The dn'i mutlaq is the supreme head of the Da'iidi da'wa organisation. The da'i also nominates one mukcisir. the oath now includes unconditional obedience to the da'i mutlaq. the controversial circumstances surrounding the succession to the forty-sixth dn'i. 'Abd al-Qadir's subsequent assumption of the title of ddrr muglaq aggravated the situation and led to the formation of a permanent opposition movement to the dn'i. meanwhile. The latter have campaigned for secular education and individual rights as well as the democratisation of institutions of the Da'adi da'wa and the financial accountability of the da'i mutlaq to the community. The seat of the Da'tidi da'wa had. founded a seminary known as ~ a y f Dars (also Jami'a Sayfiyya) for i the education of Da'adi scholars and community functionaries. By the 1960s~ the reformist groups had established a united front called Pragati Mandal (Progressive Group). succeeded to his position as fiftysecond in the series in 138511965. from a variety of Bohra and Khoja communities. then under British control and a safe refuge. Muhammad Burhan al-Din b. then the seat of the Da'udi da'wa. After Awrangzib. related to the deceased dd'i. In particular. or ma'dhiin. the Indian Ismailis. Tahir Sayf al-Din. also laying claims to sinlessness and infallibility ('isma). were no longer subjected to official persecutions. For all practical purposes. and they were subjected to heavy punitive taxes. to act as the ma'dhtin's assistant. Since 1232/1817. the forty-third dari. their mosques were placed in the charge of Sunni custodians. and enforced policies including excommunication. The dn'i appointed members of his large family to high positions within the da'wa organisation. The mashnyikh officiate at the larger Dl'udi centres. the study of the so-called esoteric Ismaili texts cannot be undertaken without the dn'i's personal consent. Next. has continued to serve as a centre of traditional Islamic and Ismaili learning for the Da'udi Bohras. With the consolidation of British rule in Inda in the early decades of the 13thI1gth century. whose reign was also marred by persecutionary measures against nonMuslims. Hibat Allah al-Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din ( I 168-93/1754-79).A SHORT HISTORY OF T H E ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS were banned. and Burhanpiir had become another important Da'adi Bohra stronghold outside of Gujarat. the dn'i appoints his own 'amils or agents. the lowest rank in the da'wa hierarchy. 'Abd 'Ali Sayf al-Din (1213-3211796-18171. 'Abd al-Qadir enforced his authority during his long leadership (1256-1302/1840-85). while they also resorted to taqiyya practices. but only at the cost of irrevocable dissensions in the community. In his time the Da'adis were clearly polarised between his traditionally-minded supporters and a number of reformist groups. performing various ceremonies. to act as the caretaker and administrator (nazim) of the da'wa. there are the mashnyikh (singular. Once again. and his son Hibat Allah who claimed to have established contact with the hidden Tayyibi imam. 'Abd al-Rasd al-Majdti'. the Bohra community was generally permitted to develop freely and peacefully. It was in the time of their fortieth dfi'i. Hibat All& acquired some following in Ujjain. that the Da'iidis witnessed yet another dssident movement. usually eighteen in number. The 'amils administer to every Da'udi on attaining the age of fifteen an oath of allegiance (mithnq) to the Tayyibi imams and their da'ls. The da'i's chief assistant. the Ismaili Bohras were pressured into converting to Sunni slam. author of the famous catalogue of Ismaili literature.sz In 1zoo/1785. The 'dmil acts as the local leader of the Da'adis. . again a relative. Finally. addressed as Sayyidna Sahib. the da'i. Muhammad Badr al-Din who died suddenly in I 25 611840 without having openly designated his successor. Indeed. In particular.rl However. The present dd'i mutlaq. a group of the Da'adi 'ularnn' appointed 'Abd al-Qadir Najm al-Din. here. to every Da'fidi community exceeding fifty families. Tahir Sayf al-Din (1333-8~/1915-65))who led the community longer than any of his predecessors. This institution. But the Da'adi community experienced incessant internal strife and discord brought about by oppositions to the da'i's authority. He is also responsible for collecting the religious dues and sending them to the dn'ils central headquarters. which is difficult to obtain. and elsewhere. with a later branch in Bombay. A new era in the modem history of the Ds'adi Bohras began with their fifty-first dd'i. the office of dii'i muglaq of the Da'adi Tayyibi Bohras has remained in the progeny of Shaykh Jiwiinji Awrangabadi. to ensure the unwavering obedience of the Da'iidis. The leaders of this movement were Isma'd b. shaykh].

among the Banu Muqatil. In Yaman. Outside India. was in fact annexed bv Saudi Arabia in 135311934. Asian emigration increased after Sultan Sa'id permafrom Muscat to Zanzibar. Since then. however. the Yamani Tayyibis lent their overwhelming support to the Sulaymani cause. most of the East African Bohras as well as Khojas have been obliged to emigrate and settle in the West and elsewhere owing to the antiAsian policies of certain African regimes. there are small Sulayrnani communities in Haraz. Unlike the D%'~dis. Ujjain. Sulaymihi leadership has remained hereditary. but managed to hold their own.000 persons). They live mainly in the northern districts of Yaman and on the border region with Saudi Arabia. The Bohras incorporated many Hindu customs in their marriage and other ceremonies. Fatimid and Yamani periods until the Ds'adi-Sulayma~fischism. the political influence of the daris was further curtailed by the rising power of the Sa'iidi family. In the second half of the 13th11gth century. Yaman itself. The Tayyibi Bohras. In particular. and is living in Saudi Arabia. the Da'iidis represent a small minority. Bombay has also served as the permanent seat of the Da'adi d z i mutlaq. the small Sulaymnni Bohra community of the subcontinent has allowed itself a certain degree of social change. sonally looks after the affairs of the community with the help of a few assistants. they even succeeded in regaining a foothold in Haraz. At present. The present dd'i mutlaq. Ibrahim b. their community is unified. al-Hasan al-Makrami. Muhammad b.ooo i persons). After the schism. along with the Nizari Khojas. Ahmadabad and Haydarabiid." Their settlement was particularly encouraged during the early decades of the 13th11gth century by Sultan Sayyid Sa'id (1zz0-73/r806-56). scattered in Bombay. in the same Makrami the family. the Ismaili Bohra emigrants from western India constituted the largest Asian community of Zanzibar. were among the earliest Asian communities to settle in East Africa. the Sulaymani Tayyibi Ismailis of Yaman number around ~oo.da'is established their headquarters in Badr. namely. Aiming to develop the commercial basis of his African dominions. some zo.000 persons. with few exceptions. the Indian Ismailis moved from Zanzibar to the growing urban centres of the East African coastline. not they live mainly in the H a r b region and especially exceeding ~. where they were accorded religious freedom. secularisation and modernisation. The total Da'adi population is currently estimated at around only 700. They ruled independently over Najran with the military support of the local Bana Yam.ooo Ismaili Bohras lived in Kenya. the sultan encouraged the emigration of Indian traders to Zanzibar. the forty-ninth in the series. succeeded to office in 139611976. The Sulaymanis have pera simple darwa organisation. Sulaymanr dflis. The Sulaymani da'wa has traditionally been active in three regions (jazd'ir]. mostly of a polemical nature defending or refuting the claims of various dd'is. Since the 19zos. the seat of the Makrami dd'is. Ahmadabad and Sidhpilr. The Sulaymani as dictinct from the Da'adi Bohras of India represent a small and diminishing community of a few thousand. 60. the Ottomans ended the political prominence of the Sulaymsni da'is in Yaman. are accepted by both of the Tayyibi Musta'li branches. In the twentieth century.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS Centuries of persecution and forced conversion to Sunnism have taken their toll on the Ismaili Bohras of India. too. After the Khojas. More than half of the Da'ocli Bohras live in Gujarat. The Sula-pani Makram. The dd'is had numerous hostile encounters with the Zaydi imams. in northeastern Yaman. Other important urban centres of the Da'iidi Bohras in India are located in Dohad. nently transferred his capital in 12~6/1840 In time. focusing on developments from the middle of the nineteenth century. he also supervises the affairs of the small Sulaym2ni Bohra community of Pakistan. and on the modemisation policies of the . of the Al Ba Sa'id dynasty of 'Urnan and Zanzibar. Baroda. Besides the Banu Yam of Najran. In the aftermath of the D~'~di-Sulaymani schism. Since the time of their thirtieth da'i mutlaq. Udaipur. alSharafi al-Husayn b.ooo persons.The dci'i appoints his agents ('dmils) to the main Sulaymani districts of Yaman. Najran. Sulaymms are not plagued by succession dsputes and. the Da'udis and Sulavmanis Droduced separate literatures. MODERN DEVELOPMENTS I N THE NIZARI COMMUNITY In this final section we shall present highlights of the modem history of the Nizari Ismailis. designated officially as the "Dawat-i Hadiyah". The Ismaili texts of the pre-Fatimid. Siirat. Tanzania and Uganda. withhold their literature from outsiders. By 1970. Najran. have followed one another by the rule of nasq.(1088-9411677-83). addressed as Sayyidn~. and has a chief representative or mansub in India. the largest Da'adi community is settled in ~ a r a c h (c. The Sulaymihi leadership has been more progressive than its Da'iidi counterpart. The Sulaymanis.54 There are certain differences between the traditions of the Arabic-speaking Yamani Sulaymanis and the Da'iidi Bohras who use a form of the Gujarati language. The largest single Da'adi Bohra community is situated in Bombay (c. consequently. al-Fahd al-Makram. their d&?. at the Sulaymani headquarters in Baroda. too. and the central administration of his da'wa organisation. designated as ma'dhzin and mukdsir.ooo. 30. Hind (India]and Sind (Palustan].

were prominent Ni'mat Allah Sufis. now a small Ithna'ashari village with a population of around 500 persons. instability in K i m & urged Shah Khalil Allah to move temporarily to Kahak. By then.55 Consequently. Bibi Sarkarals father and brother. founder of another short-lived dynasty in Persia. even after Kanm Khm Zand's death in I 19311779. rose to political prominence in Kirman. the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Imam Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali. In Persia. Hasan 'Mi. 126711851). in 1z19/1804. In Badakhshan. Shah N i a r died in I 134/1722.s6 He was appointed to the governorship of the province by Karim Khan Zand ( I 164-93/1751-79). distanced from their imams. who lived in Ahmadnagar and later in Awrangab~d. The imams maintained a foothold in Kahak for more than a century. By the middle of the 1zth/18th century. Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali. At an unknown date in his imamate (1og*1134/168*17zz). In 1232/1817. together with several of his followers. where the shrine of their founder Shah Ni'mat ~ l l a h Wali (d. the da'wa of this majority N i m line had proved successful particularly in Afghanistan and Central Asia. It was in his time that the Ni'mat Allah1 Sufi order was revived in Persia by its contemporary master Rida 'Ali Shah (d. especially in the urban areas. they switched their allegiance mainly to the QasimSh&i line. rapidly disappeared in the course of the 1zth118th century. On the other hand. both in terms of their numbers and financial resources. By his time. his stay in the ancestral locality lasted about two decades before he settled in Yazd in rzjo/1815. as a result of persecutions and dissimulation. He became actively involved in the affairs of firmiin. was dictated apparently by concern for the safe passage of the Khoja travellers to Persia. as well as in the Indian subcontinent. Shah Khalil Allah II died in 109011680 and was succeeded by his son Shah Nizar. The forty-fourth imam. were often plundered and killed before they could reach Kahak. the future founder of the Qajar dynasty. 121411799). the centre of gravity of the Nizari community had clearly shifted towards the Khojas. unless otherwise stated. the popular governor of Kirman." Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali died in 1206/1792 and was succeeded in the Ismaili imamate by hls son Shah Khalil Allah (III). Kahak is indeed cited in some ginrfns as the abode of the Ismaili imams. in close relations with Zayn al- . Sh& Khalil All* (II) was the last of the Qsim-Shah1 Nizari imams to reside in A n j u h . In Persia. challenged Zand rule in various Persian provinces. With the improved flow of funds from India.the Khoja travellers. who journeyed to see their imam. However. It is interesting to note that this necropolis also contains several graves with Khojki inscriptions. Afghanistan. establishing close relations with the province's Afsharid ruler Shah Rukh (116*72/ 1747-591. Soon after his accession. This Sufi tariqa spread rapidly in Kirmm. who like his predecessors lived in the Deccan. where his successor Sayyid 'Ali and other family members are also buried. Shah N i W s mausoleum. This imam played a decisive role in the local politics of Kirman during the turbulent period when &ha Muhammad Khan (1193-121211779-97).A S H O R T HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS LATER D E V E L O P M E N T S recent imams. By then. Central Asia. Syria and East Africa. 83411431) is preserved in Mahan. ruled autonomously over that province. in a mob attack on his house. The Mubarnmad-Shah communities of Badakhshan and India. Our &scussion here. acquired extensive properties in Shahr-i Babak as well as in the city of Kirman. especially those situated in Iran. Shah Nizar transferred the da'wa headquarters to the nearby village of Kahak. the imams moved their headquarters to Shahr-i Babak in southeastern Persia. It was in Yazd that the imam was enmeshed in certain disputes and religious rivalries between his followers and the local Twelver leaders. The choice of Yazd. Muhammad Sadiq Mahallat1 (Sidq 'Ali Shah) and 'Izzat 'Ali Shah. he was murdered. converted to Twelver Shr'ism. the majority of the Muhammad-Shahis. ending the Anjubn period in the Nizari Ismaili imamate.N~ZAX% were found only in Syria. Bibi Sarkara [d. the forty-second imam. may have been part of the original residence of the imams in Kahak. The arrival of prominent Ni'mat All& Sufis in Kirman also revived erstwhile ties between this Sufi order and the Niziiri Ismaili imams. too. Shah Khalil Allah (111)was married to a relative. closer to the route of the Indian pilgrims. In the unsettled conditions prevailing after the Afghan invasion of Persia and the downfall of the Safawids in I 13~/1722. situated on the route to BalDchistan and Sind. MuhammadS h h . testimonies to visits by Nizai Khojas from the subcontinent to see their imam. originally adopted as a form of taqiyya. many Nizari Ismailis had converted to Twelver Shi'ism. the imams moved to Shahr-i Babak in the province of Kirman. the fortunes of the Muhammad-Shahi imams. refers to the N i M Ismaili imams of the Qasim-Sh&i line and their followers. had rapidly declined. including a Khoja murid. the imams had acquired widespread influence in A n j u h and its surroundings in central Persia. who bore him the successor to the Ismaili imamate. according to his tombstone in Kahak. A thorough treatment of this subject would require much better information than is currently available on modem developments in a number of N i z m communities. Hasan 'Ali Shah. too. where their small community still exists. He was also the first Nizari imam to abandon the traditional taqiyya practices. By the middle of the 1jth11gth century.

his widow went to Tehran to the court of the Qaja monarch. Agha Khan stayed in Jermk.~~ Ismaili forces were eventually defeated decisively in a major battle in Kirman in 1zs7/1841. which marks the commencement of the modem period of Nizari Ismaili history. Hajji Mirza Aqsi. appointed the imam to the governorship of Kirman in 12s 1/1835. the Ismaili imam settled permanently in Bombay in 12651 1848. Close associations between the family of the Ismaili imam and various Ni'mat Allahi leading personalities. too. The imam soon restored order to Kirman. For his services. were finally able to receive the imam in their midst. deteriorating into a series of The military encounters in 1256/1840. By then. 12~3/1837). as noted. who were now seeing their imam for the first time. As the spiritual head of a Muslim community. Fath 'Ali Shah gave one of his daughters. The Nizari Khojas. and the monarch appointed Hasan 'Ali Shah to the governorship of Qumm. Satpanth Ismailism. had often resorted to Hindu customs rather than the provisions of Islamic law. The instigators of the imam's murder were punished after a fashion. The remittance of their religious dues. In the settlement of their legal affairs. Agha Khan I arrived in the summer of 1257/1841 in Qandaha. who carried the Sufi name of Mast 'Mi Shah and became the spiritual master (qutb) of the chief branch of the Ni'mat Mlahi tar-qa. Henceforth. This marked the end of the Persian period of the Nizari Isrnaili imamate which had lasted some seven centuries since the Alamiit times. Safi 'Mi Shah (d. 1301/1884). the imam left Sind and after spending a year at Kathiawar in Gujarat with his followers. and bestowed upon him the honorific title (laqab)of Agha Khan meaning lord and master. representing a large community for several centuries. Nevertheless. he initially encountered some serious difficulties in establishing hls religious authority. He attended the chief jamarat-khma in Bombay on special religious occasions. 1316/1898) and Ma'siim 'Ali Shah (d. too. and the title of Agha Khan (Aga Khan) was inherited by his successors to the Ismaili imamate.Ismaili imarn. 1344/1926).S8 Hasan 'Ali Shah was only thirteen when he succeeded his father as the forty-sixth Nizm. he arrived in Bombay in 1262/1846. Aghn Khim I revived contact with his Khoja followers. the Ismaili communities of these regions now strove to establish more direct contacts with their imam. In Qandah&r. including Rahmat 'Ali Shah Id. could henceforth take place in a more regular and orderly fashion.59 On the murder of Shah Khalil Allah. Hasan 'Ali Shah was known in Persia as Agha Khan Mahallati. h s cavalry assisted in the annexation of Sind to British India in 1259/1843. The next Qaja monarch. especially in matters relating to inheritance. then besieged by an Anglo-Indian army. Agha Khan was awarded an annual pension from General Sir Charles Napier (1782-185 31. However. like certain other Indian Muslims. The Nizari Khojas of the Indian subcontinent were left without a pir for quite a long time. After a brief stay in Calcutta. honoured and respected at the Qajar court for the remainder of Fath 'Ali Shah's reign. and he was dismissed from that post in 1252/1837 under obscure circumstances rooted in the enmity of the powerful chief minister. while the Khojas were also obliged to dssimulate for long periods as Sunnis or Twelver Shi'is. also giving him properties in nearby Mahallat. There. and also held regular d u b a r (Persian. as was his personal desire. with the support of the local K h u r a m and 'Am' AU&. Henceforth. were re-enacted throughout the nineteenth century. his governorslxp was short-lived. the imam received deputations from his followers in Badakhshan and Sind. With the defeat of the British forces in Kabul and Qandahar. where h s house is still preserved. The above factors . In adhtion.(d. author of the famous Sufi work entitled Tara'iq alhaqa'iq. Agha Khan's dismissal led to prolonged confrontations between the imam and the Qnjar government. Fath 'Ah Shah (1212-so/1797-1834). the Ismah imam also gathered a fighting force in Mahallat. The imam soon established elaborate headquarters and residences in Bombay. In 1260/1844. Accompanied by a large retinue. Agha Khan I spent the last three decades of his life and long imamate in Bombay. the Khojas. &ha Khan I received the protection of the British establishment in India. Agha Khan I lived a quiet life in Persia. British intercessions for the imam's retum to his Persian homeland.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS 'Abidm Shirwm. the conqueror of Sind who maintained friendly relations with the imam. darbar) giving audiences at his residence. in marriage to the youthful imam. to his followers who came in large numbers to receive his blessings. seeking justice for her husband and children. soon after his accession to the throne of Persia. In Sind. Agha Khan I was the first Ismaili imam of his line to live in India. Kirman was then in constant turmoil because of incessant raids by Afghan and Baliichi bands and rebellious activities of certain Q a j a princes. a close association developed between the Ismaili imam and the British Raj. Poona and Bangalore. 1z78/186 I). Sarv-i Jahan Khanum. Muhammad Sh&. &ha Khan proceeded to Sind in 1 ~ ~ 8 / 1 8 4 2 . Kahak and Qumm). w h c h strengthened and stabilised h s position. the Aga Hall. failed.61 From the time of his arrival in Sind.tribesmen among his local followers. because of his royal title and the family's deep roots in Mahallat and its environs (Anjudan. She was eventually successful. Munawwar 'Ali Shah (d. was influenced by Hindu elements. and the imam was obliged to flee to neighbouring Afghanistan.

Shihab al-Din Shah (d. therefore. Matters came to a head in 1866 when the dissident Khojas brought their case before the Bombay High Court. who composed a few treatises in Persian on ethical and mystical aspects of N i a A tea~hings. This relationship brought immense benefits to his followers in India and Africa who lived under British imperial rule.61This judgement legally established in British India the status of A g b Khan's Khoja followers as a community of "Shia Imami Ismailis". longer than any of his predecessors.a granddaughter of Fath 'Ali Shah of Persia. He also lived for some time in Karachi. who normally acted as the social and religious head of any local Khoja community. while his paternal uncle Aq2 Jan@ Shah (d. . in 12g8/1881. The bulk of the Ismaili Khojas complied. The Nizm.Ismailis are still organised according to this traditional structure. died after an eventful imamate of sixty-four years. The forty-seventh imam was born in 12461 1830 in Mahallat. Shams al-Muliik [d. by charging a group of his followers with the task of locating and acquiring the relevant manuscripts. S u l t a Muhammad Shah. he died in 130211885 of pneumonia contracted on a day's hunt near Poona. Agha Khan I. and jamd'at-khdna were in time adopted by all non-Khoja Nizai Ismaili communities as well. Aqa 'Ali Shah was succeeded by his sole surviving son. In the course of the prolonged hearings of this so-called "Aga Khan Case". 135611938). Persia. asked to pledge their loyalty to the imam and to their SWi Ismaili Muslim faith as interpreted by h m . with clearly defined duties. Agha K h h I was succeeded by his eldest son Aqa 'Mi Shah.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS were hardly conducive to the formation of a lucid and strong sense of religious identity. Aq2 'Mi Shah eventually arrived in Bombay in 126911853 and. His life and achievements are. A detailed judgement was finally rendered against the plaintiffs and in favour of the Ismaili imam on all counts. Agha Khan I1 was an accomplished sportsman and hunter. The authority of Agha Khan. regularly visited different Khoja communities. and his assistant. These officers included a mu^ (pronounced muki). which included Arabic and Persian as well as exposure to English language and literature. amply d o c ~ m e n t e d . Aga Khan ZII. a small dissident group persisted in challenging Agha Khan's authority and refused to acknowledge the Ismaili identity of their community. including the collection of the religious dues. a landmark in asserting Nizm. was installed to the Ismaili imamate in official ceremonies in Bombay in I 30211885 when he was only eight years old. He was buried in the Mazagaon area of Bombay where h s mausoleum stands as an impressive monument next to an old jama'at-khana. He became well known as a Muslim reformer and statesman owing to his prominent role in Indo-Muslim as well as international affairs. Every Khoja community (jamd'at) of a certain size had its own mukhi and kamadia. also recognising & h a Khan as the spiritual head of that community and heir in lineal descent to the imams of the Alamtit Furthermore. was never again challenged seriously in the subcontinent or elsewhere. 1302/1884). this hlstoric judgement confirmed his rights to all customary dues collected from the Khojas. He personally appointed the officers of the major Khoja congregations. his sole son by his Qajar spouse. where his future successor Sultan Muhammad Shah was born in 129411877. In fact. addressed by his Khoja followers as Sark* S&ib and Pir Salmat. Agha Khan I also encouraged a revival of literary activities among the Ismailis. the forty-sixth Nizari Ismaili imam. the imam produced a variety of documents on the hstory of the community and his leadership mandate. who led the Nizari Ismailis as their forty-eighth imam for seventy-two years. was circulated in Bombay and elsewhere. where he spent his youthful years. Sultan Muhammad Shah maintained close relations with the British throughout his life and received numerous honours from that government. and was buried in the f a d y mausoleum in Najaf. ~ ~ Sultan Muhammad Shah. He grew up under the close supervision of his capable mother.~4 Hasan 'Ali Shah. claiming Sunni or Ithnf ashad heritage for the Khoja community It was under such circumstances that Agha Khan I launched a widespread campaign for defining and delineating the particular religious identity of his Khoja following. Aqa 'Ali Shah led the Nizari Ismailis for a brief four-year period. especially in Gujarat and Sind. during which time he concentrated mainly on improving the educational and welfare standards of the Nizms. In 1861. henceforth. Aga Khan 1 1 received a 1 rigorous traditional education in Bombay. He also made special efforts to collect the gindns circulating in the community. where he later established his permanent residence.Ismaili identity. requesting every Khoja to sign it. and presiding over religious ceremonies in the jamdrat-kh&a or congregation house. 131411896)was designated as his guardian. This document. in effect. the imam circulated a document that specified the religious beliefs and practices of the N M Ismailis. and the terms mukhi and kamadia. In 1898. called kamadia (pronounced kamriyd). Foremost among the pioneers of this revival was his eldest grandson. including the dassondh or tithe. the Ismaili imam paid h s first visit to Europe. However. dissident groups emerged intermittently. The signatories were. derived from Sanskrit words. Lraq. Agha Khan I gradually succeeded in exerting control over the N W Khojas through their traditional communal organisation.

dealing especially with matters related to inheritance. These measures also safeguarded the separate identity of the Nizari Ismailis who were at the same time experiencing modemisation. Aga Khan III was drawn into Indian affairs and effectively participated in the crucial discussions that led to the eventual independence of India and Pakistan from British rule. The officeholders in the council system were appointed by the imam for limited periods and they did not draw any salaries. Aga Khan 1 1 successfully 1 encouraged the undertaking of voluntary public service within his community. In the meantime. The constitutions specified the powers and functions of different categories of national. Aga Khan 1 1 made systematic efforts to set his followers' identity apart from the Twelver Shi'is as well as the Sunnis. During World War I. This identity was spelled out in the constitutions that the imam promulgated for his followers in different regions. marriage. and those issued later for other regions.66Later in the 1930s~ represented the Muslims of he India at the Round Table Conferences in London. emphasising their spirituality and esoteric significance. which had set his Khoja followers apart from those Khojas who preferred . especially in Persia and the subcontinent where the Ismailis had either dissimulated as Twelvers or had interfaced with them for extended periods. The Ismaili constitutions were revised periodically to account for changes in the political and socio-economic circumstances of different communities. the Ismaili imam was increasingly concemed with reform policies that would benefit not only his followers but other Muslims as well. these concerns evolved in the form of specific policies and programmes. in particular. In time. These changes also served to distinguish further the Nizari Ismailis from the Twelver Shi'is.67The constitution of 1905. the first of which was issued in Zanzibar in 1905. guardianship and so on. were developed for the Ismaili communities of India and Pakistan. thus. This policy soon put a stop to occasional secessions by dissident groups as well as the absorption of the Ismailis into their surrounding Sunni and Twelver Shr'i communities. divorce. the imam set forth his ideas on the future of India in a book. Aga Khan 1 1worked vigorously for consolidating and reorganising his 1 followers into a modem Muslim community with high standards of education. Nairobi and Kampala. a period of economic prosperity and improved trading and commercial opportunities in the island. The development of a new communal network. By World War I. comprised the first constitution for his community in East Africa. health and social well-being. At the same time. Dar-es-Salaam. In 1905. Nizari Khoja settlements existed also in many of the urban centres of the East African mainland. The implementation of hls reforms. By then. reiterated the imam's status within his family and community. to which he devoted much of his time and financial resources over several decades. where they established their earliest settlement and jamii'at-khdna. His religious policy. The court's ruling against the plaintiffs. discussing India's destiny with other eminent participants such as Mahatma Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Aga Khan 1 1 drew on the court decisions in Bombay. 1 In his reforms. it further delineated the identity of the Nizari Ismailis and distin1 guished them from the Twelver Shitis. The emigration of Nizari Khojas and other Asians to Zanzibar increased significantly during 1840-70. This ruling had a number of wider implications as well. he made the first of his visits to his followers in East Africa. Subsequently. a suit was filed against hlm in the Bombay High Court by some members of his family. Aga Khan I concemed himself with the affairs of D his followers. he also became one of the founders of the All-India Muslim League. He campaigned for a variety of educational reforms and played a leading role in the transformation of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh into a leading university. founder of the state of Pakistan. Aga Khan 111's involvement in international affairs culminated in his election in 1937 as president of the League of Nations in Geneva for a session.communities of the subcontinent and East Africa. regional and local councils. It may be noted that Aga Khan I11 from around 1910 also introduced certain changes in the religious rituals and practices of his followers. the Ismaili imam had already celebrated his golden jubilee in 1935. Simultaneously with defining and delineating their Ismaili identity. including especially Mombasa. which was an established tradition. This constitution. with council systems of administration and their affhated bodies. thus. rooted in the age old taqiyya practices. initiating Aga Khan 111's institutional and modemisation policies.A S H O R T HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS From early on. Henceforth. who were also urged to respect the traditions of other Muslim communities. Aga Khan 1 1 issued a set of written rules and regulations 1 which. In 190s~ while the imam was in East Africa. in effect. became one of the imam's major tasks. led by Aga Khan's cousin Hajji Bibi. In fact. especially the Nizm. The N i s r i Khojas had emigrated regularly from western India to Zanzibar. marking the fiftieth anniversary of his imamate. required suitable institutions and administrative organisations. however. similar constitutions. also represented the personal law of the community. also foresaw a new administrative organisation in the form of a hierarchy of councils for the Nizari Ismailis of East Africa. centred for quite some time around asserting or reasserting the Nizari Ismaili identity of his followers. In 1905.

He founded and maintained a large network of schools. the non-Khoja N W Ismailis had.68 Aga Khan III's modernisation policies may indeed be traced through his farmms and speeches on spiritual matters. The Persian Nizaris had hitherto observed their religious rituals m a d y in the fashon of.A SHORT H I S T O R Y O F T H E ISMAILIS LATER D E V E L O P M E N T S to join the Sunni or Ithna'ashari communities. Numbering around IS. This claim was accepted by a faction of the Ismailis of southern Khurasan. and Murad Mirza now displayed leadership aspirations of his own. these decisions had clarified the imam's status in respect to his followers. engendered to assert and protect the communal identity. on education. and communal properties and revenues. he claimed the rank of hujia and demanded the absolute obedience of the community. yet another communal mechanism for introducing reforms. Subsequently. who like his predecessors lived in India. referred to as Mawlana Hazir Imam. In the early r84os. for the settlement of the Syrian Ismailis. received high priorities l in the imam's reforms. In particular. the Niz*. Aga Khan E used the religious dues and other offerings submitted to him. By the 192os. the Nizaris were left without effective leadership upon the departure of Agha Khan I in 1zs7/1841. By his time the Persian Ismailis no longer had any &rect contacts with their imam. He also conveyed the imam's instructions on the practices of the faith. Meanwhile. the Indo-Palustan subcontinent and el~ewhere. Murad Mina recognised Samad Sh&. Aga Khan 1 1 attempted to establish h s own 1 control over the Persian community through Muhammad b.~g By the early decades of the twentieth century. Aga Khan In remained in close contact with his followers. sports and recreational clubs. the Syrian Nizaris of the Maammad-Sh&i line had not heard from their imam. Later. then represented by Aga Khan 111. the living and present imam". then led by Murad Mina's daughter Bibi Tal'at. Zayn al'Abidin. the most learned Persian Ismaili of the time. The scattered and small Ismaili communities of Persia once again resorted to strict dissimulation in the guise of Twelver Shi'ism. Hajji Bibi's son. to finance his modemisation policies. Murad MirzP sided with the plaintiffs in the Hnjji Bibi Case against Aga Khan 111. since 1210/1796. is their foremost scholar. known as M u r d Mirza'is. remained loyal to the Muhammad-Shahi line. Fida'i Khur~sani travelled to Bombay three times during 1313-241 1896-1906 to see the imam. Muhammad al-Baqir. and in company . dispensaries and hospitals in East Africa. These Ismailis. To the same end. social welfare and female emancipation and on matters related to religious tolerance. But the dissident Murad Mina'is never reverted to the main Nizari Ismaili community. his privileged position was taken over by his son Murad h4irza. Persia's official religion. lost their earlier predominance. by and large. as an imam. They also had periodic entanglements with their Nwayri ('Alawi) neighbours. and their health standards. centred in Ma~yaf and Qadmas. In Syria. Agha Khan I designated from Bombay a certain MirzH Hasan from the village of Sidih in southern Khurasan to oversee the affairs of his Persian followers. made all of Aga Khan 111's reform measures reahly acceptable to his followers. was central to all the Ismaili constitutions+ he was the sole person empowered to change or revise the constitutions.OOO persons.Ismailis had mainly acknowledged the MuhammadSh&i [or Mu'mini) line of imams while remaining loyal subjects of the Ottomans. By the 1940s~most of the Murad Mirza'is of Sidih and its environs. Upon Mirza Hasan's death around 1305/1887.70 In Persia. had converted to Twelver SWism. the education of Ismailis. The figure of the imam. In particular. vocational institutions. who sent him on a mission to Hunza. "our lord. Samad Shah had reconciled his own hfferences with the imam. editor of numerous Ismaili texts. and was appointed by him as the murallimor teacher in charge of the religious affairs of the Persian Ismailis. who often occupied their fortresses and destroyed their literature. as the religious and administrative head of the community. and are still awaiting the reappearance of their hidden imam. better known as Fidit'i Khurasani. In 1908. he created a variety of institutions with their benefits accruing not only to his own followers but to non-Ismailis as well.ooo. explaining their heritage and winning their renewed allegiance to Aga Khan 111. At the same time. The deep devotion of the Ismailis to their imam. personal conduct and co-operative economic enterprises. libraries. In the meantime. and the funds collected at various jubilee celebrations. However. these Ismailis (locally known as the Ja'fariyya] are today the sole remnants of the Muhammad-Shahi Nizaris. currently numbering to around 8o. both male and female at different levels. Fi&'i Khurns~ni regularly visited the Ismailis of different localities in Persia. then in ruins. whose leadershp he was then challenging. As their search to locate the imam proved futile. live in Salarniyya and its surrounding villages. a local Ismaili leader in QadmS successfully petitioned the Ottoman authorities for permission to restore Salamiyya. This initiated a new era in the modem history of the Syrian community. in 1304/1887 the bulk of the Syrian Muhammad-Shhis transferred their allegiance to the Qasim-Shahi line. and guided them through his oral and written directives or furmans. even when changes in religious rituals were at stake. as well as the participation of women in communal affairs. an Ismaili minority. '&if Tamir.

[ Not much is available on the modem histories of the Nizaa: Ismailis of Afghanistan and Central Asia as well as the communities located in the northern areas of Pakistan. In the course of the nineteenth century. small Ismaili communities have existed. The bulk of extant Niz&i Ismaili literature.the Soviet government created the Autonomous Region of Gorno-Badakhshan. Until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. 1239/1823) the first miz was of Hunza to convert to Nizari Ismailism. Mahallat and its surrounding villages. their inhabitants. with Tajik which is its Central Asian variant. Aga Khan 1 1 estaband his lished close relations with Mir Safdar K h n (1886-19311 successor^.73 Hunza was ruled independently for several centuries until 1974when the region became part of the federal state of Pakistan. has been secretly preserved in numerous private collections in Badakhshan.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS with. by a family of m i n who had their seat in Baltit (now Karimabad].in the reign of his son and successor Mir Ghwanfar. 1938). with the British extending their hegemony over Badakhshan proper in the Afghan territories. too. Aga Khan 111's last contact with his Central Asian followers was probably in 1923 through a Nizari Khoja dignitary. centred on the writings of higbly revered N a ~ iKhusraw. the Ismailis of Central Asia and surrounding areas developed rather autonomously under the local leadership of their khalifas. Yazd and their environs. as well as certain indigr enous rituals such as the chirdgh-rawshan rite for the dead. Tajikistan's Ismailis were completely cut off from their imam. the entire population of Hunza was converted by Badakhshani dnris. They were also discouraged from joining the Twelvers in their mosques or on special religious occasions. dispatched there as hls emissary. with Faydabad as its chief town. The Nizitri Ismailis of Badakhshu account for the bulk of the Ismailis of Afghanistan and Central Asia.ooo). Aga Khan I11 had established his authority over the Persian community.'% In some of the areas now situated in northern Pakistan. However. Ismailism seems to have originally spread at the same time.^^ The imam's emissary Sabz 'Ali also visited Hunza. Other Persian Niz?lrI communities are located in Tehran. living in the midst of the prohibitive Pamirs. their predominant language is Persian.000 Nizari Ismailis living in Persia (Iran). Hunza. who also trained local khalifas to instruct the converts in Ismaili doctrines. Henceforth. In 1925. . as noted. a policy of a school for every Ismaili village was successfully undertaken. but the greater part of that region came under the increasing control of imperial Russia. They were now requested to set themselves apart from the Twelvers. Aga Khan 111 found it difficult to establish direct contacts with his followers in Badakhshan. the northern portion of Badakhshiin was annexed to various Central Asian Khanates. especially in the field of education. to the Khanate of Bukharq then controlled by Russians. (Pir)Sabz 'Ali (d. with almost half in the province of Khurasan. ~o.Subsequently. where the bulk of the community is concentrated in modem times. as well as in the cities of Kirman. along with Nagir. Chitral and other adjoining districts. These Ismailis. Aga Khan JI extended. the people of Hunza referred to themselves as Mawla'is. reaffirming their own identity as a separate religious community like the N d r i Khojas. concentrated in Badakhsha. the more learned members of their community who officiate at religious ceremonies. As a result. his modernisation I policies to Persia. Shahr-i Babak. they recited the entire list of their imams at the conclusion of their daily prayers. have been isolated historically from other Ismaili communities. By the time of Fi&i Khuras~ni'sdeath in 1342/1gz3. often related to one another. In Hunza. there are about 30. and participate in more or less identical religious rituals. The Ismailis of these mountainous regions.The Nizaris of Hunza have a selection of the Ismaili texts preserved by their co-religionists in Badakhshan. now accounting for the largest Nizari Ismaili community of northern Pakistan (c. such as Chitral and Gilgit. they were also deprived of regular contacts with their imam or his appointed representatives. while designating the left bank as Afghan territory. with its capital at Khorog. as a province of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Tajikistan. where he set up jamd'at-khrinas in 1923. the Hindu Kush and the Karakorum ranges. the Twelver ShI'is. unsurmountable difficulties exacerbated by the incorporation of Central Asia into the Soviet Union. Until recently. probably dating from the Anju&n period. At present. because they were followers of the Ismaili imam addressed by them as Mawla. and they were not permitted to practise their faith due to anti-religious policies of the Soviet regime. Niziiri Ismailism was reintroduced to Hunza during the early decades of the nineteenth -century by daris coming from neighbouring Badakhshw. the people of Hunza reverted to Twelver ShFism sometime before the 13th/1gthcentury. a major upper headwater of Amo Darya [Oxus). Later in 1254/1838. in a limited manner. As one such measure. Salim Khan (d. was 1 annexed to British Incha in 1891. These political realities were officially recognised in 1895 when an Anglo-Russian boundary commission handed the region on the right bank of the Panj. a product of centuries of dissimulation practices and assimilation into the dominant religious community of the region. elaborated an indigenous literary tradition. In Khurasn. continue to belong to both the Ismaili and Twelver Shi'i communities. Sijan. In many villages.

the preamble to the 1986 constitution emphasises the imam's ta'lim or teaching which is required for guidlng the community along the path of spiritual enlightenment as well as improved material life. The communal affairs of each local jamd'at have continued to be under the jurisdiction of a mukhi and a kamadia. Rfishan and other districts of the Gomo-Badakhsha province of the Republic of Tajikistan. Pakistan. High standards of education integration of and significant business acumen have made for a ~ e a d y these Ismaili migrants into the economic life of their adopted homelands. Tanzania. Aga Khan III. He regularly visits his followers in different parts of Asia. 1933). and the fourth imam to carry the title of Aga Khan. he designated his grandson Karim. Consequently. Prince Aly Khan (1911-60) and Prince Sadruddin (b. and guides them through his farmdns. including India.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS L A T E R DEVELOPMENTS Small Nizmi communities exist also in Yarkand and Kashghar. Born in 1936 in Geneva. from where he graduated in 1959 with a degree in Islamic history. Aga Khan lV closely supervises the spiritual and secular affairs of his community. The Turkish-speaking Ismailis of China have not been permitted by the country's Communist regime to communicate with the outside world. At the same time. Kenya. was indeed very successful in his modemisation policies. As a spiritual leader and Muslim reformer. now acting as treasurer. the United States and Canada in recognition of the large-scale emigration of his followers from East Africa and the subcontinent to the West since the 1970s. and survived by two sons. Mawlana Hazir Imam Shah Karim al-Husayni. he responded to the challenges of a rapidly changing world and made it possible for his followers in different countries to live in the twentieth century as a progressive community with a distinct Islamic identity. overlooking the Nile. He maintained the elaborate council system of communal administration developed by his grandfather. developmental and cultural issues which are of wider interest to the Muslims and the Third World countries. and dedicated to promoting a better understanding of Islamic civilisation with its diversity of expressions and interpretations. Sultan Muhammad Shsh had issued separate constitutions for his Khoja followers in East Africa. when the Ismailis celebrated the fortieth anniversary of his imamate. Sultan Muhammad Shah was married four times. the forty-eighth imam of the Nizm. In recent years. A full appreciation of his reforms and achievements is beyond the scope of this study. severely repressed under the Soviets. A new chapter was initiated in the "constitutional" history of the community in 1986. The Badakhshani Ismailis. India and Pakistan. in Egypt. The present Ismaili imam has continued and substantially expanded the modemisation policies of his grandfather. These functionaries officiate . gathered in tens of thousands to renew their allegiance to their imam in Shughnan. about whose history no specific details are available. Canada and the United States. Aly Khan's son. Syria. an exclusive school in Switzerland. through his Pamir Relief and Development Programme. Aga Khan lV had established an impressive record of achievement not only as the Ismaili imam but also as a Muslim leader deeply aware of the demands and dilemmas of modernity. Aga Khan lV1s humanitarian and developmental aid to Tajik Badakhshan. who emerged from their forced isolation in 1991 in the aftermath of the establishment of independent Central Asian republics. Portugal. By then. Aga Khan III died in his villa near Geneva in 1376/1957. also extending it to new territories in Europe. is the forty-ninth and the present imam of the N d r i Ismailis. a uniform system of councils with affiliated bodies is now operative in some fourteen regions of the world where the NizBri Ismailis are concentrated. He is internationally known as His Highness Prince Karim Aga Khan IV. By 1997. the United Kingdom. and Harvard University.000 persons. Africa. Afghanistan and Tajikistan. The council system has not yet been extended to certain Ismaili communities including the Persian-speaking jamd'ats of Iran. Europe and North America. France.Ismailis. He stipulated in his will and testament that owing to the changing conditions of the world the Ismailis would be better served if their next imam were a person brought up and educated in more recent times. After affirming the fundamental creeds of Islam. also developing a multitude of new programmes and institutions of his own for the benefit of his community. and was later buried in a permanent mausoleum at Aswan. as he is addressed by his followers. with their jamd'at-khiinas. as his successor to the imamate. On the basis of this constitution. had already saved the region from imminent economic catastrophe. the Ismailis of Tajikistan had the opportunity of seeing their imam for the first time in 1995. The Nizari Ismailis have maintained their traditional pattern of social and religious organisation in terms of local communities (jamd'ats). These latter communities are administered through alternative systems based on special committees. when their imam promulgated a universal document entitled "The Constitution of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims". he has concerned himself with a variety of social. Numbering around 200. particular attention has been paid to the religious and socioeconomic affairs of the Ismailis of Badakhshan in Tajikistan. Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah. for all his followers throughout the world. Aga Khan lV was educated at Le Rosey. in Sinkiang province of China.

Aga Khan IV has also initiated many new policies. Pakistan and India in projects for health. originally called Ismailia Associations. Boyle. therefore. the AKDN disburses on the average $100 million per annum on its non-profit activities. such as Cairo and Zanzibar. his grandson has built upon that central interest of the Ismaili imamate and extended it to higher education and educational institutions. Z. Thus. 'A11 Rib Mujtahidzada. F. the community does have religious functionaries. 51 (1957)~ 581-612.pp. founded in 1977 to recognise and encourage outstanding architectural achievements in different Muslim environments. nursing and education. NOTES I. The Trust's mandate now covers the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. who perform the vital tasks of provilng religious education for members of the community and delivering sermons on special occasions. 6 (1337/1958). vol. Safa. and to acquire specialised education and achieve academic excellence. The Ismd'ilis. The present Ismaili imam has devoted much of his time and resources to promoting a better understanding of Islam.Quhist&ni1'. Implementing projects related to social. 3. vol. programmes and projects for the socio-economic and educational benefits of his followers as well as the non-Ismaili populations of certain regions in Africa and Asia. to educate architects and planners to cater to the needs of modem Muslim societies. and for pursuing excellence in architecture. From the time of Aga Khan 111. To that end. Twelver Shi'is. "Shams al-Din Mdamrnad". a Muslim minority scattered in many countries. not only as a religion but as a major world civilisation with its diversity of social. as well as the daily communal prayers. they often resorted to extensive and extended dissimulating practices. 295-6. 446ff. tr. and insurance services to industrial ventures and tourism promotion. Ivanow. Many of these are promoted or financed through the Aga Khan Foundation established in 1967. and the Aga Khan University. and building on foundations laid by his grandfather.A SHORT HISTORY O F THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS on various special occasions. Sunnis or even Hindus. intellectual and cultural traditions. the imam's network has been particularly active in East Africa. and rural development. established in 1979 at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the area of social development. In this connection. However. thus preparing hls followers for the meritocratic world of the twenty-first century. The present imam has also encouraged young Ismailis to aim for a balanced spiritual and worldly life. 4. To that end. 2. founded in London in 1977 for the promotion of general Islamic and Ismaili stules." The Nizm Ismailis. and regulates their activities through his Secretariat at Aiglemont. 57-79. inaugurated in Karachi in 1985. 2 (1345/1966). pp. '&if Tmir. pp. including the school cumcula developed for Ismaili pupils throughout the world. he has created a complex institutional network. and the Historic Cities Support Program launched in the early 1990s to promote the conservation and restoration of buildings and public spaces in hlstoric Muslim cities. vol. Tch. Juwayni. 9. " F m ' al-shajara al-Isma'iliyya al-Imamiyya". EIz. Farhang-i Iran Zamin. 451-2. The apex institution here is the Aga Khan Trust for Culture. pp. Revue de la Facultd des Lettres de Meched. They also collect the religious dues. "Sa'd al-milla wa'l-dm Nizm. 724-5. In the economic development field. That the Nizaris survived at all and emerged in modem times as a progressive community with a distinct identity attests to the resiliency of their traditions as well as their adaptability under the capable and foresighted leadership of their recent imams. pp. Ta'rikh-i . including especially the religious education of the Nizari Ismailis. no longer in place. near Paris. such as marriage ceremonies and funeral rites. Aga Khan IV takes a personal interest in the operations of all his institutions. designated as teacher (mu'allim) and preacher (wd'iz). mention should be made of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. they are responsible also for the distribution of religious literature. "A Forgotten Branch of the Ismailis". the Aga Khans. and Daftary. Central Asia. pp. with faculties of medicine. Baradin. are placed under the overall charge of the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development. and the da'wa organisation is. Aga Khan IV has sponsored many projects and s e ~ c e sActivities in this general area. W. Ta'rikh. too.pp. Designated as Ismaili Tariqah and Religious Education Boards (ITREB) since 1987 with their own national. 3. and an affiliated hospital. economic and cultural development. lsguising themselves as Sufis. 71-100. have been entrusted to special bodies.. generally referred to as the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN). 277-8. 2. al-Mashriq. ranging from self-help finance . regional and local hierarchies. which was set up in 1988 in Geneva for promoting awareness of the importance of the built environment in both historic and contemporary contexts. Modem Nizai Ismailis do not engage in proselytisation activities. JRAS (19381. the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture. experienced repression and religious persecution almost uninterruptedly from the fall of Alamat until recent times. education and housing services. Daftary. While Aga Khan III pioneered modem educational reforms in his community. 178-203. he has launched innovative programmes for the preservation and regeneration of the cultural heritages of the Muslim societies. "&hm Nizai-yi Quhisw". 298-315. religious matters of general interest to the community. pp.

Ch. 9. " N W Kuhistanr". 1966). 1947). 49-50. and W. in his Tasnifdt. 102. Eli. 64. p p 22-3. ed. 583-4. 115-18. On the Recognition of the Imam (2nd edn. al-Din Mar'ashr.1219. History of Islamic Philosophy. 58. Haft bab. 49-50. 19331. "Anjedm". 56. 28. 21-2. 25-6. 21. 3. Bahar.. 58. 67-94 A.Si va shish sa&fa.75. 247-63: 17. text pp. 124-5.101. Kalam-i pir. Daftary. 333. pp. Ivanow [Bombay. V. See also Ivanow. 13. 617. E. 76-7. and Poonawala. translation pp. 114-16. vol. 52. p. 3 (19591. 132-3. 8. 52-66. 91. On Anjudm and its Nizan antiquities. E. pp. BiobiblioP P ~ Y . and Khaki Khurasm. Zhizn i tvorchestvo Nizciri-Persidskogo poeta (Moscow.69. I. text pp. See. 660. C. lsmaili Literature. tr. pp. 48-52. Ibid. 58. 1067. 26. B a d a k h s h . 20. translation pp. W. 44-5. 100. Boldyrev. pp. I I 32. 86-7. 100. 120. 37. ed.zz. 2-3. Ta'rikh-i Badakhshan. Pandiydt-i jawdnrnardi. 81ff. 41ff. Subh. 97. 64. 18ff. ed. 1271-2.. Denison Ross (2nd edn. 104. Mim Muhammad Haydar Dughlat. Persian trans. 245. 48. Tauer (Prague. 19-20. Shiism. 19601. 25.. al-Qalqashandr. 217-21. Z. Sayyid Suhrab Vals". The Persian Encyclopaedia of Islam. and his "Badakhshan". pp. 332-5. 85 1-4. part 2. 88. lm. pp. Haft bab. 81-2. see W. Aqomand.i gulshan-i rdz has been edited with French translation by Corbin in his Trilogie Isma6lienne. tr. 6-7. NS. text pp.. 61. . For some of the earliest historical references t o the Nizaris of Quhistan in the immediate aftermath of the Mongol conquests. 611ff. text pp.1.' al-asraz. Kalm-i pir. 27. translation pp. 133-30. 72. Ivanow. Corbin and 0. text pp. 220-2. 49-62. Pand~yat-I ~awanmardi. 332.407.53-70.68. London. translation pp. 5. Guzida-yi maqdldt-i tahgqi. pp. alSiddiqi (Calcutta. 69-70. W. 9. 146. p. pp. 95-6. 107. 58. pp. translation pp. a S d i poem preserved in the N i z m community of BadakMm. Claude Cahen. and his Fasl dar baydn-i shindkht-i imam. P P 91-207. 215-33. 880. ed. Khayrkhwah. and his Tasnifdt. pp. English trans. vol. ed. pp. pp. Semenov. Abu Ishaq Quhistani. N. 795. 73145. and Fas]. See also Corbin. Khayrkhwah-iHarati. ed. 59. 66. ed. in Le ShI'isme Imdmite. N & m al-Din S h m i . 134711968]. and tr. v01. Kalam-i pir. 62. I 1316. S. pp. pp. and V. 1-75. 29-31. 881. 18. 39ff. Rewe d'Etudes Idamiques. 52. pp. 136. 11. 1972)~ 104-20. W. 263-7.994-5. ed. "Le Shi'isme et le Soufisme". text pp. pp. 66. pp. Sadri. 6.. Istoryo Shughnana (Tashkent. 113ff. de Bruijn. Ibn Barn@. 25-6. p. 493ff. 71-63. 89-90. H. These references may be found in N i m Quhistmi's Diwan. Abii Ishaq Quhistani. pp. 36-7. translation pp. tr.1137. 83-4. I 8. 26.93-4. 77.text pp. 1342. Ta'rikh ndma-yi Hardt. Engtish smmmary pp. 62-3. H. 12. 13g-40. 1935). 9. pp.1224. and F. 29 (19611. 66-8. 674-5. Muhammad al-Harawi. 2. Diwdn. 61-142. For the best expression of these intellectual interests among the Badakhshani N i a . 20-1. Aba Ishaq Quhistani. See also M. pp. 14. pp. Nasr. 16. 19841. 33. Ivanow. Ivanow (Bombay. pp. 302. pp. 227-53. Zafar-ndma. ed. 77.KoIdm-i p z . Fida'i Khurasani. pp. Biobibliogmphy. PP. A. 19691. pp. and J. published in Rewe Iranienne d'Anthropologie. roo. 964. Badakhshr and Surkh Afsar. and M-ad-Bda and Shah-Bda. pp. ed. 92-3. "Tombs of Some Persian Ismaili Imams". Alphabetic Catalogue. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 135811979). I 8981. 116ff. vol. 23. Ivanow. "Le Probleme du Shfisme dans 1'Asie Mineure Turque prkottomane". 30. 14 (1938). 116. 19701. Gibb and C. pp. text pp. M. Cold. 10. Mole. 110. and tr. Berthels (Moscow. 160-87. 28. Baiburdi. 20. 82. I. Haft bdb. 86. 21-2. 406.. pp. 94. Shadow of God. p. Ivanow (3rd edn. translation pp. 84-5. Allah al-'Umari. 67-9.A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS adabiyydt dar Iran (Tehran. B. Fascicule 7 (Tehran. 45-6. see also Imam Quli Khaki Khurasani. Wydar Amuli. 66-84. M. 11ff.238. The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam (Chicago. ed. 19611.. Hodgson. 103. 137011gg1). pp. 408. 12. H. 106. 197z). 1953). 19. Marshall C. W. Ta'rlkh-i Slstdn. 13. 11. A. Elz. I. Diwan. 106ff. ~ojff. 19701. Khayrkhw~h. 1996). Ujaqi (Tehran. 9. Si. Ta'iikh-i Badakhshdn. 38-9. vol. 19441. pp. The Travels of Ibn Battiitn. 1371-3/1992-4). p. 77. pp. 8. translation pp. 14. Sometimes by the Dagger: The Role of the Isma'ilis in Marnlak-Mongol Relations in the 8thl1qth Century". p p 35. 23. 2. A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia. 59. Zindigi va dthrfr-i Nizriri (Tehran. 1315. for instance. 3. 48. pp. S. Beckingham (Cambridge. Ivanow (Leiden. pp. Sumda (Tehran. and Sharaf al-Dm 'A11 Yazdi. 632-3. pp. 634-5.. 89-90. A. ed. Ta'rikh-i Gildn va Daylamistdn. 121. NasafI's Zubdat al-haqd'iq has been included in a collection of Ismaili works recovered and edited from Badakhsbn under the title of Pani risala dar bayon-i dfdq va anfus.. "Badakhsh-. 1-174.1292. Tehran. 63-4. 111-12. R. pp. 109-21. 267-8. and K.. vol. "Les Kubrawiya entre Sunnisme et Shiisme aux huitikme et neuvieme siecles de l'htgire". T. and C. F. 753-4. 80. 55. see KhayrkhwA. ?68. 13 1-61.108-9. P. 86.. For an excellent summary description of Quhistm's political situation at this time. 326ff. 19-20. and his Sufi Essays (London. The Venture of Islam: Consc~enceand Historyin a World Civilization (Chicago.216-17. Poonawala. vol. Berthels and Baqoev. See the following works of Khayrkhwah: Tasnifdt. 40-1. Kishavarz (Tehran. 724-5. and tr. 37-8. 53. 37.. ed. and his Tasnifdt. History of the Saffands. pp. 89.1083. Risala. 96. pp. EIR. ed. 500. . 48. 495-6. Daftary. M. 13-17. pp.429-407. 72-3. pp. 41'324. vol. and Charles Melville. 1937-56). 1359-60. 78. S. W. 106.67. In particular. 4. Amir Arjomand. z8ff. 13. 642-3. 53-4. 103. Babayan. vol. 24. 19741. 46. 32-6. This anonymous N W commentary entitled Ba'di a t t a ' d d t . Bombay. translationpp.. pp. u:H. 331. Bosworth. Zafar-nama. A.11963. ed. Mediaeval Isma'ili History.. 6zff. 19. 58. see Sayf b. 388. 92. and H a h . ibn Fad1 vol. 866. in Daftary. Urunbayev (Tashkent. pp. 1916). 860. EIz. 44. Barthold. F. I 18 ff. Hiddyat al-mu'minw. 47.s of the early A n j u b period. 1958-94)~ I. vol. a treatise written in 85611452 See also F. "Sometimes by the Sword. I 5. also his Tasnifdt. 88. Yahya in a collection entitled La Philosophie Shi'ite (Tehran and Paris. K. z ~ f f . "ShughnW'. in Le SMisme Imdmite (Paris. 116-17. Masalik al-ab~ar. Musaffa (Tehran. pp. 67-8. pp. see Sayyid Suhrab Val1 Badakhshm~. 202. M. pp. and elsewhere in his poetry. 49. 22. Ivanow's introduction to his edition of the Chirdghndma. P. Elias and E. see Bosworth. text pp.

Ascese et Renoncement en Inde (Paris. 9. Mulla Abdul Husain. 6639. The Nirairari tinent [Delmar. 19921. . See Poonawala. p. 27-47. 314. 17. Shadow of God. Poonawala. pp. The Origins of the K h o j a s and their Religious Life Today (Wiinburg. 29-68.. 174-81.. Ta'rikh-i Firishta. Algar. 104. pp. "Kh6djan'. better known as Firishta. Nanji. Abdullah (ed. 29. A. Mujtaba Ali. Kiya. Poonawala. 49. 338-9. 39-43. Asani. 76. I (Leiden. For some listings of the gindns. see Muhammad Qasim Hindfi Shah Astzabadi. and Ali S. 163-370. Ishraqi (Tehran. Ivanow. 274-5. Kh& Khurasani. 9.D. pp. 50. pp. 12-92. "The Ismaili Ginans as Devotional Literature". 1989). 286-323. pp. Moir. 71-4. Diwrfn. I. 75-1 16. for the Bohas of India (Ahmedabad. in G. IsmP'& Tradition in the Indo-Pakistan SubconNanji. in W. pp. pp. Biobibliography. Ta'rikh-i adabiyydt. 361. Abdul Husain. Madhnhib a1-Islam (Lucknow. For a wide selection of ginhns in English translation. 584. pp. NY. Revue de I'Histoire des Religions. Kulke (eds]. pp. Hinduism Reconsidered (Delhi. A. Nuqtawiynn yd PisZkhdniyan (Tehran. pp. pp. and Qa& Ahmad al-Qumml. Madhnhib. The SMa of India (London. 1991 J. are such as ~ & m m a d 'Ali b. Mulla Jiwabha'i. pp. Songs of Wisdom. z81ff. in R. pp. Misra. pp. John N. "Satpanth". 1964)~ 10-12. pp. Khuldqat al-tawd&. pp. 614. 40. and Kassam. 1937). Collectanea. 35. 266-7. 281-97. vol. "The Nuqmwi Movement of M e a d Pisikhani and his Persian Cycle of Mystical-Materialism". See Also Fran~oiseMallison. M. 41. also known as Satpanthis and Momnas. pp. pp. 339-62. pp. 525. The Bohras (New Delhi. 47. Tasnifnt. Biobibliography. vol. John A. vol. 36. Nizdri lsmd'ili Tradition. JRAS (19961. and C. See also Hasan 'Ali Isma'ilji. see Muhammad 'Ali. 3. see V. vol. pp. 198-9. 125-6. Shackle and Z. Misra. 19601. 27-31. Kassam. Mawsim-i bahlir. Lists of the Da'iidi and Sulaymani dd'is may be found in Abdul Husain. "The K m a d of Raiasthan Priests of a Forgotten Tradition". 117-38. vol. McGxegox led. and Asani. Gukare Daudi. Songs of Wisdom.). 3. Devotional Literature in South Asia (Cambridge. pp. Najm al-Gham Khm. 1980). 1992). Mass. and H. vol. 10. 66ff. pp. Biobibliography. 557.. 5. zoff. 44. EIz. pp. 324-6. pp. Momand. Poonawala. pp. N. 213-31. Akhbdr. 31.A S H O R T HISTORY OF THE ISMAILIS LATER DEVELOPMENTS "Sufis. pp. S. 1163.). pp. 61-6. $afa. Madelung. 54. 2.448-50. Lucknow. and her "La Secte Ismatlienne des N i a r i ou Satpanthi en Inde: HCtQodoxie Hindoue ou Musulmane!". Briggs (Bombay. Mediaeval Isma'ili History. a8. vol. pp. 37. 62-74. 271-5. 114-17. Collectanea. in S. Amanat. Communities in Guiarnt (Bombay. 42. Ivanow. pp. A. "Shums Tabrez of Multan". 12. vol. The Harvard Collection of Ismaili Literature in Indic Languages (Boston. NS.1. 1301-11/1884+~3). "Some Specimens of Satpanth Literature". 19-70. vol. 381. S. pp. "Imam Shah". 95. 30. 39. 39-44. Hooda. Pui Shams (Albany. pp. On this schism and the later history of the Lmm-Shahis. pp. Bnjh Nirafijan. 54-65. pp. in S. Isma'ilji. 3. 46. Muslim pp. p. NY. 359. pp. 19361. On Shah Tahir. 1953)~ pp. Ivanow. pp. 8. 19-28. Nizdri 1smd'i. Bouez led. 12 (1936). 62-141. 1359-63/1980-4). 45-6. Hollister. Songs of Wisdom. Asani. 117-27. vol. Hollister. 9-26. Fyzee. The Ismn'ilis. vol. pp. vol. thesis. Muslim Communities. lourno2 of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 19. Ta'rlkh-i adabiyydt. 55-137. . 234-40. pp. see also W. and Daftary. A k h b a al-du'at al-akramin (Rajkot. 265-80. W. alQadl Niir Allah al-Shiishtari. 169-259. p. in W. Subhan.452-4. lsmaili Hymns. PP 582-4. 25-7. see W.da'wa in the Indian subcontinent is analysed in A. vol. Tazim R. EI2. 13756/1955-6). 117-22. See also W. See the following works of Dominique-Sila Khan: "L'Origine IsmaClieme du culte Hindou de Ramdeo Pir". Burhdn-i ma'dthir (Hyderabad. pp. Shi'a of India.. 45. 19781. These develo~ments narrated in the traditional Bohra lustories. EIz. D. 1997). p. 502-3. pp. Ali S. 1948). 312-14. 1972). pan 2. pp. 101. Ivanow. 43. 54.Khayrkhwah. C. "Niu Satgur". 200-1. On this schism. and A. pp. 4. 18321. 57&. Poonawala. zro (19931. 1. ~ g z o )pp. 33. Kassam. Ali S. in Daftary. Safavid Persia (London. 433. 307. Shackle and Moir. 144-5. 505. cited in S. This section is largely based on my The Isma'ilis. Biobibliography. where the author sums up her personal impressions of modem Satpanth studies.). 34. I 39-41. Mediaeval Isma'ili History. Muslim Communities. and I. where the relevant references are cited. 38. 60-1. Ismaili Hymns from South Asia: An Introduction to the Ginans (London. Ismaili Literature. EIz. pp. 1jzo/rg411. 291. "The Dasa Avaara of the Satpanthi Ismailis and Imam Shahis of Indo-Pakistan" (Ph. pp. 5 55-7. vol. see Ivanow. Ivanow. 105-1 3. Volume (Lahore. 19361. in Charles Melville (ed. 133-77. "N&awiyyal'. 19951. 298-311. Ivanow (ed. and A. Mawsim-i bahdr (Bombay. 110-12. GuLzare Daudi. The coxpus of the ginan literature is comprised of some one thousand separate poems. 1992). pp. Gulzare Daudi. The ginanic tradition on the commencement and early history of the N i m . 46. pp. 31. pp. "A Forgotten Branch". A. Safa. Ivanow. Elz. "Satpanth". Ta'rikh-i alfi. his "The Isma'ili Gindns: Reflections on Authority and Authorship". 5. J. Poonawala.G Tradition. 50-96. z51-70. and his "Shah Tahir". "Hinduism as Seen by the Nizari Isma'ili Missionaries of Western India: The Evidence of the Ginan". 8. and I. 'Ali b. I 9921. in Daftary. 364-9. "Pir Shams or Shams al-Din". 'Aziz Tabataba. 1924)~ 316-17. r g ~ s ]pp. 662-70. ed. 8.]. Asani. The Bnjh Niradjan: An Ismaili Mystical Poem (Cambridge. Nanji. pp. 36-7. 308. I. see also S. pp. and Conversions and Shifung Identities: Ramdev Pir and the IsmaiLis in Rajasthan (Delhi. pp. and Gulshan Khakee. and Misra. Majdlis al-mu'minin (Tehran.274ff. Kassam. 101-12. 2. pp. pp. 3-54. Najm al-Ghani K ~ u . its Saints and Shrines (revised edn. Songs of Wisdom and Circles of Dance: Hymns of the Satpanth Ismd'ai Muslim Saint. Professor Muhammad Shafi' Presentation . Sontheimer and H. Dervishes and Mullas: The Controversy over Spiritual and Temporal Domination in Seventeenth-Centu~yIran". 32. vol. Badrispresswala. ed. pp. pp.. Sufism. 93-103. 1996). especially pp. Harvard University. pp. Engineer. 1-19. 99-130. 22-3. "The Sect of h a m Shah in Gujrat". Eh. 109-18.

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