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IEMS

5701 Wireless Communica7ons


Part II: Radio Wave Propaga7on Basics Antenna Basics

Electromagne7c Waves
Wireless signals propagate in the air in form of electromagne7c waves

Recalling Some High School Physics


Sta7c electric eld

Sta7c magne7c eld

Recalling Some High School Physics


Amperes Law

Faradays law of induc7on

Electromagne7c Field
Electric eld E(x, y, z, t) Magne7c eld B(x, y, z, t) If either E or B are 7me dependent, then both elds must be considered together as a coupled electromagne7c eld using Maxwells equa7ons

Star7ng at the Beginning


Maxwells Equa7ons published in 1865 A set of par7al dieren7al equa7ons that form the founda7on of classical electrodynamics

EM Wave Propaga7on in Free Space


Maxwells equa7ons in a simple media with no current and free charge:
iE = 0 iB = 0 E= B t

B = 0 0

E t

These equa7ons predicts EM waves

Radio Spectrum

Radio Spectrum

What Happens When an EM Wave Encounters a New Media Reec7on Dirac7on ScaVering Absorp7on

Reec7on
Wave hits an object with dimension much larger than the radio wavelength will be par7ally reected o the surface of the object Amount of reec7on depends on the incident angle, materials, etc.

Dirac7on
Apparent bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings The eect of dirac7on is most pronounced when the wavelength is roughly similar to the dimensions of the dirac7ng objects

ScaVering
Waves are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non- uniformi7es in the propaga7on medium Rayleigh ScaVering:
EM wave scaVered by par7cles that are much smaller in diameter than the wavelength

Absorp7on
The absorp7on of EM wave is o[en called aVenua7on The energy of EM wave is taken up by some maVer and transformed to other forms of energy, e.g., heat

Update
We have learned how radio waves propagate in the open air We now discuss
Antennas: to convert EM waves in a wired circuit to EM waves radiated in the open air and vice versa

A Simplied Block Diagram of Wireless Communica7on System


Example: speech or music transmission via microphone

Antenna

Radia7on PaVerns

Omni-direc7onal

Direc7onal

Direc7onal

Direc7onal

Antennas and Antenna Arrays

Antenna Parameters
Eciency: the ra7o of power actually radiated by an antenna to the electrical power it receives Bandwidth: the range of frequency within which the performance of the antenna conforms to a specied standard Direc7vity: the ra7o between the maximum radia7on intensity radiated by the antenna in the maximum direc7on and the intensity radiated by a hypothe7cal isotropic antenna radia7ng the same total power

Antenna Parameters (Contd)


Aperture of an antenna: the area that captures energy from a passing radio wave Gain: the ra7o between the intensity radiated by the antenna in a given direc7on at an arbitrary distance divided by the intensity radiated at the same distance by an hypothe7cal isotropic antenna For example: G =
4 A 2

Reciprocity Between Transmit and Receive Antennas


A transmit antenna setup can be used to serve as a receive antenna The antenna gains are the same, i.e., Gr=Gt