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1 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.

L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Edgardo V. Casas1, Jemar G. Raquid2, Kevin F. Yaptenco3, and E. K. Peralta4

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1. ABSTRACT

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The optimum drying condition of water hyacinth was investigated to contribute possibly contribute in the improvement of present drying process. The effects of independent parameters (drying temperature, airflow raterate, and number of passes) on the responses were determined using the Response Surface Methodology. The response parameters was composed of (1) final moisture content, (2) moisture ratio, (3) drying rate, (4) tensile strength , and (5) browning index. Box and BenhkenBehnken experimental design represented the design of experiments that resulted in 15 drying runs. Statistical analysis evaluated the treatment effects. Drying temperature significantly affected the drying rate, moisture ratio, and browning index. Airflow rate has a significant effect in the drying rate only while number of passes significantly affected the drying rate and browning index. The optimized conditions for drying the water hyacinth were at drying temperature of 90C, airflow rate of 0.044m3/s, and number of passes equivalent to 5. .

Affiliate AssistandAssistant Professor. Agricultural and BioProcess Division. Institute of Agricultural Engineering. CollgeCollege of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology. University of the Philippines Los Baos, College, Laguna, Philippines. evcasas04@gmail.com
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Undergraduate student. Agricultural and BioProcess Division. Institute of Agricultural Engineering. CollgeCollege of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology. University of the Philippines Los Baos, College, Laguna, Philippines. ramejgdiuqar007@yahoo.com 3 Associate Professor. Agricultural and BioProcess Division. Institute of Agricultural Engineering. CollgeCollege of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology. University of the Philippines Los Baos, College, Laguna, Philippines. kfyaptenco@yahoo.com 4 Associate Professor. Agricultural and BioProcess Division. Institute of Agricultural Engineering. CollgeCollege of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology. University of the Philippines Los Baos, College, Laguna, Philippines. engelbert.peralta@gmail.com

2 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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. The best model that characterizes the drying of water hyacinth is a rational function expressed as:

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Keywords: optimized, drying parameters, water hyacinths, increase utilization, mitigate adverse environmental effects

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2. INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Background of the Study

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), popularly known to Filipinos as water lily, is a freefloating plants growing in freshwater. This invasive species is native to South America, with a fibrous tissue, high energy, and protein content and composed of more than 95% moisture content, primarily used as an ornament in garden ponds. However, due to its large population in water bodies, water hyacinth becomes undesirable and harmful to other aquatic species as well as aquatic ecosystem and on the proficient use of water. It causes many problems such as clogging of waterways, and reducing the flow of water. Moreover, it is also decreasing the dissolved oxygen level in the water, needed by many aquatic species like fish (Tacio, 2010).

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3 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Nowadays, there are different practical applications to utilize the abundance of water hyacinth, in such a way; it becomes more useful rather than just a pest. Water hyacinth fibers are used in paper production, as well as, rope production. In many parts of Asia, It is used as an animal feeds like in pigs, ducks, and fishes. In addition to that, water hyacinth is also used as fertilizers. It can also be used to aid the process of water purification either for drinking water or for liquid effluent from sewage systems. It is also used as raw materials in handicraft making. In the Philippines, the most common utilization method is applied in handicraft making. Water hyacinth fibers are used as handicraft materials. The fibers are woven into baskets, matting, and furniture. According to Abella (2010), the water hyacinth handicraft industry in Laguna is now on its growth stage since it is in the period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit improvement. Moreover, these handicraft products are exported in other countries like in Europe, Japan, and Korea. In order to use water hyacinthhyacinth, as a raw material for handicraft making, removal or reduction of its water content must be done first that can . This can be achieved by drying process. Currently, sun drying is common being practice of lowering the moisture contentsd. After gathering from the water bodies, the stems of water hyacinth were subjected to sun drying for one week. However, this present drying system has many drawbacks. Sun drying does not properly dry the stalks as well as being time-consuming. According to Gulifardo (2007), stated that sun drying is not a good method of drying because it is prone to losses primarily due to insect infestation and microbial attacks. He also reported that sun dryingsun-drying method lacks

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4 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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control on the quality of the product. Another problem with sun drying is that it is highly dependent on climate making sun drying an inefficient method of drying.
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1.2 Significance of the Study

In any handicraft industry, the major factors, which consider in the success of this business, are high quality of product and labor productivity. With the growing demand of water hyacinth handicraft products in the international market, production of these products must possess a good quality. One way to make it is by improving the present process of drying. Proper drying will prevent rotting and growing of molds because it lessens the moisture content of the product. Determining the right combination of drying parameters will be helpful to achieve the satisfactory quality of the product, as well as, making the drying operation more economical. Since, drying is a vital factor in attaining a good quality of handicraft product, thus, improving and optimization of drying is essential. This study determined the optimum heated-air drying condition for water hyacinth. Results of this study would be helpful in the development of drying operation more effective for drying water hyacinth.

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1.3

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Objectives of the Study

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The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum drying parameters for water hyacinth.

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Specifically, ithis Study t aimed: To determine the effects of air temperature, air flow rate, and dewatering on the responses such as drying rate, moisture ratio, browning index, tensile strength, and final moisture content; To find out the optimum drying condition for the heated-air drying of water hyacinth; and 1.4 To establish develop a drying model equation for water hyacinth.

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Scope and Limitations of the Study

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This study was limited to the heated-air drying process. Only the air temperature, airflow rate, and number of passes in the roller (for dewatering purpose) were considered as independent parameters. A sheet metal roller was used to dewater the samples, which is normally used for forming metal sheet into smooth cylinders. The clearance between the rollers was maintained constant at 3.5mm, though pressures exerted by the roller would be more telling in influencing the water removal during drying.

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1.5 Time and Place of Study

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This study was conducted from March 2011 to March 2012 at the Agricultural Bio-Processing Division, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology, University of the Philippines Los Baos.

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1.6 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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1.6.1 Water hyacinth


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Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed belonging to the floating-type category. Gangstad (1986) described that the extensive root system of this plants are not anchored in soil, instead, floating on the water surface

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Figure 1. Water hyacinth (Source: humanflowerproject.com)


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Water hyacinth normally found in freshwater areas of temperate and tropical regions of the world. It grows in a water environment having a pH of 7 and a high abundance of nitrogen, phosphorusphosphorus, and potassium. The optimum temperature for the growth of this plant is between 28C to 30C. The composition of water hyacinth is dominated by a high percentage of water. According to the National Academy of Science (1977), water hyacinth usually has 5% dry matter. In addition to that, it has a high nitrogen content whichcontent that at least 80% of it is in the form of protein. Based on Bureau of Animal Industry of the Republic of the Philippines, The leaves and roots of the water hyacinth have protein contents of 18.7% and 11.8%, respectively. The fiber contents of leaves and roots of the water hyacinth is 17.1% and 7.9%, respectively, (Patent storm, 2011).
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According to Tacio (2010) discussed that, this plant is originated from South America and is introduced into other countries as ornaments in ponds. . . However, it becomes a pest or weed as it grows rapidly in many lakes and rivers all over the world. It is considered as the most productive plants on earth. In the Philippines, these plants invaded the Laguna de Bay as well as Rio Grande de Mindanao in Cotabato, Philippines.
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1.6.2 Water hyacinth: an aquatic weed

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Water hyacinth is considered as invasive and a pest which greatly disturbs and destructs the aquatic ecosystem and the proficient use of water. According to Gupta (1973) mentioned , water hyacinth as cause clogging of waterways. . . Further, he reported that the presence of this plant increased the evapotranspiration of water and this high water loss resulted in the abandonment of many village ponds in India. He added that another problem brought by this plant is it impedes the water flow, which becomes a major problem when it occurs in flood control canals and channels. This is due to the fact thatbecause it will result to in flooding. Moreover, Tacio (2010) reported that water hyacinth mats also jeopardized the survival of many aquatic species. . . It blocks the penetration of sunlight into the water and it lessens the dissolved oxygen level of the water. Sunlight and oxygen are vital to the
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growth and survival of fishes. It also becomes a breeding site for mosquitoes and other diseasecarrying organisms. Moreover, snakes and crocodile hide among the weeds (Pace project, 2011).

Due to its undesirable effects to the water ecosystem, several control methods were employed to minimize the population of water hyacinth. In addition to that, there are certain ways arise on the practical application and potential use of this plant. One of this is in handicraft industry.
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Water1.6.3 Water hyacinth in Handicraft Making

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As a material for handicraft making, water hyacinth generated livelihood programs for many Filipinos. According to the Agribusiness Week wrote that, members of the Buhi Ecumenical Development Association, Inc. (BEDAI) of Buhi, Camarines Sur, are engaged on the usage of this plant in many handicraft items. Among the products out of water hyacinth are table runners, placemats, canisters, bags, slippersslippers, and wall dcor. In Laguna, one of the livelihood projects of the government is the Comprehensive livelihood and Emergency Program. One of its sub-programs is the Water hyacinth Development Program. It which aims to provide employment through water hyacinth gathering and semi-processing. Moreover, this program also intends to develop a barangay-based livelihood enterprise that
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utilize and transform water hyacinth into useful products. Since this program was implemented, 15 towns of Laguna have participated. Nine of them were engaged and trained into water hyacinth handicraft making while the rest were on green fertilizer and charcoal making (Abella, 2010) . Another livelihood project has been developed in Taguig City. Morelos (2008) reported that each barangay in Taguig processed water hyacinth into different products. Christmas decors, lanterns, and novelty items are some of this example. . . Furthermore, Las Pias City
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government, in coordination with the Villar Foundation, is also active in utilizing water hyacinth as source of livelihood (Echeminacla, 2011). Abella (2010) studied about the status, problems and prospect of water hyacinth handicraft produced in Laguna. She noted that there is a great opportunity for the water hyacinth handicraft due to the high demand in the world market and the increase on the preference for environmentfriendly products. However, she reported that climatic condition in the Philippines is one of the problems that hinder the development of the water hyacinth handicraft industry. On the other hand, Araral (2009) cited a case of improper drying and preservation of water hyacinth, . He reported that a businessmana businessperson from Laguna, named Cesar Pasco, exported several container vans of water hyacinth handicrafts but,but after just a week, all those products sent back to him due to the presence of molds in the products. Improper drying and preservation of water hyacinth stems was considered as the main reason for the mold formation. From this application and potential use of water hyacinth, the drying process is vital in attaining

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good quality products. Although, no data is currently available or establish regarding the standard quality attributes of a dried water hyacinth fibers used for handicraft making. 1.6.4 Drying
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According to Henderson and Perry (1987) defined , drying ais the process of removing moisture of the material until it reaches a desired level and it achieve equilibrium with the storage environment. . . This process is commonly used in food preservation since the shelf life of a material is highly dependent on its moisture content. . . A high moisture content will increases microbial activity, hence, deteriorating the quality of a material.

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1.6.5 Theory of Drying

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Heat transfer and mass transfer are the two fundamental mechanisms that occur in the drying process of solid materials. Heat, in the form of latent heat of vaporization, is brought to the material mainly via convection with a little fraction of radiation and conduction. Air is used as a means for the heat flow from the surrounding to the material. The mass transfer is in liquid or vapor form from the interior of the material and as vapor from the surface (Henderson and Perry, 1987).
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1.6.6 Factors affecting the Drying


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There are several factors affecting the rate of heat and mass transfer, which also influences the rate of drying. This includes the drying air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and thickness. Temperature. . Drying air temperature has the most significant effect on the rate of drying. The drying rate has a directly proportional relationship with temperature. A higher temperature resulted in faster drying rate. This is due to the temperature dependence of the material properties related to drying. Relative Humidity. Relative humidity is a considerable factor in the determination of the final or equilibrium moisture content of the material. Moreover, it also has a great influence on total drying time. Since the evaporation rate of water is dependent on the partial pressure of water vapor in the air surrounding the product and the pressure on the products surface, hence, at constant air speed, a lower relative humidity, used for faster evaporation (Fernandez, 2007). Airflow. Airflow rate is only important during the first stages of drying. Many researchers do not considered this parameter in the determination of drying characteristics of a product due
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to the negligible effect of surface moisture movement resistance compared to the internal resistance. However, there are studies showing that airflow rate has a considerable effect on the product. Jose (2000) concluded that airflow rate has a great effect on the drying of carabao mangoes, being required to transfer energy to the product, to evaporate the water, and to carry the water vapor away. Thickness. . . According to Candelaria (1991), as cited by Jose (2000), one of the reasons, which hasten the drying, is that thinner layers reduce the distance travel by heat on the center of the material. Solpico (2007) found out that thickness has no significant effect on drying of cocoa trinitario variety. 1.6.7 Drying Curve Table 1. Mathematical models given by various authors for the drying curves Model No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Model Name Lewis Page Modified Page Henderson and Pabis Yagcioblu et. Al. Two Term Two exponential 8 Wang and Singh Term Model Equation References 16, 17 18, 19
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9 10 11 12

Thomson Diffusin approach Verma et. Al. Modified and Pabis Henderson

13

Simplifie

Fick\s

diffusion equation 14 Modified equation II 15 Midili and Kukuk Page

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The amount of residual moisture of a material at any time during drying operation is illustrated in a drying curve. Typically, there are four stages of drying. . . The first stage of drying is the initial induction stage, which corresponds to the initial unsteady state heating period. . After this, the drying process continues in the second stage, which is the constant rate period. In the constant rate period, the drying occurs at the surface. Drying is similar to the evaporation of water from a free surface. In addition to that, there is a linear relationship between moisture content and time during this stage. The surface temperature of the material is constant since heat gained by the material is lost through evaporation. Furthermore, the drying rate is

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greatly influenced by the drying environment that includes drying air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity. The mode of heat transfer is mainly via convection. At the end of this period, critical moisture content is reach, which defined as the moisture content at which surface saturation cannot be maintained, and the drying rate begins to fall. . . Falling rate period constituted the last two stages of drying. . . It is divided into two zones: the first falling rate in which the evaporation occurs from a saturated surface of decreasing area; and the second falling rate period or the sub-surface drying. . In this stage, the property of the material has a great influence on the drying rate or moisture movement.

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1.6.8

Tensile Strength

According to Joseph (1986), tensile strength is obtained by determining the required force to break a fiber cross-sectional mass equivalent to one unit of the measure used. The term designated to the individual strength of fibers is called tenacity. This defines how strong the material is.

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1.7 Dewatering and Crushing


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Crushing is a type of size reduction whichreduction, which deals with the application of force in a unit to be reduced in excess of its strength. . . Failure results by rupture of the material in many directions. A new surface and particle characteristic depends upon the material property and the force application method, a form of size reduction commonly applied in sugarcane juice extraction, as well as in breaking the forage crops structure to hasten up drying. One of the most common crushing equipment is a rigid roll or bed whichbed, which can be seen in sorghum mill. In addition, double roller, with or without serrated surfaces, produce uniform product (Henderson and Perry, 1987).
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1.8 Browning

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Browning is considered acceptable if it give boost in the appearance and flavor of foods. The browning reaction rate is dependent on several factors such as drying temperature, pHpH, and moisture content of the product, heat treatment period, and in nature and concentration of the reactants. This reaction affects the color of the product and causes textural change (Unido, 2011).

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. . For water hyacinth as a handicraft material, browning is desirable since it is an indicator that the product is already dried (sun drying).
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1.9 Related Studies on the Drying of water hyacinth

Few studies have been conducted concerning the drying characteristics of water hyacinth. Opia (2008) found out that temperature 95C and petioles split into half obtained the highest drying rate. She also found out that temperature and thickness has no significant effect on the tensile strength of the dried plant. Moreover, the rehydration ratio has an inversely proportional relationship with the percent shrinkage of petiole. She suggested that drying not below 95C would not harm the dried product. The preceding review presents information on the importance of drying of water hyacinth and on the drying characteristics of water hyacinth. However, optimization of drying on water hyacinth has not been done yet. The results of this study may contribute on to the proper drying of water hyacinth and hopefully contribute to the development of an efficient drying system.

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2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

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22.1 Materials and Equipment The materials and equipment used in the study comprised of the following:
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1. Water hyacinth 2. Dryer 3. Electronic balance 4. Carbolite oven 5. Knife 6. Drying tray 7. Ruler 8. Feeler gauge 9. Steel tape 10. Manometer 11. Konica Minolta TM CR-10 color reader

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12. Instron Universal Testing Machine 13. Roller 14. Resealable plastic bags 15. Sling psychrometer

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22.2 Methods

22.2.1 Sample Preparation

Water hyacinth samples were collected from Laguna de Bay. The leaves and roots of the plant were cut off. Only the stem of the plant was acquired. Then, the stem of the sample was cut into a length of 40 cm.

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22.2.2 Dewatering

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The prepared samples underwent dewatering using a sheet metal roller. The roller, as shown in Figure 2, was prepared with a clearance of 3.5 mm. Before passing in the roller, the weight of the prepared samples was determined. Each sample was passed in the roller at specified number of passes (4, 6, and 8). After passing in the roller, the samples, weighed again, and placed in the pre-weighed drying tray.

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Figure 2. Roller

The following equation below computed the percentage of water removed by dewatering:

(Equation 1)

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Where: Wi is the weight of the sample before passing in the roller Wf is the weight of the sample after passing in the roller

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22.2.3 Initial moisture content Determination

The air oven method determined the initial moisture content of the sample. .

. Three

replicates, each weighing 25grams of fresh dewatered samples, were prepared. The Carbolite oven dried the prepared samples for 72hours as shown in Figure 3.

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24 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Figure 3. Carbolite oven.

Equation (2) below computed the initial moisture content presented byas: (Equation 2)
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where: MCi is the initial moisture content Wi is the initial weight of the sample Wf is the final weight of the sample

22.2.4 Airflow Rate Determination

The orifice flow calculation was used to measure the airflow rate. Using the equation below, the airflow rate at different blower opening setting was determined (Gasho.org, 2010).
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25 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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(Equation 3)

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where: C is the orifice coefficient =coefficient = 0.65 (as cited in Palunday,2007, 2007) K = Constant = 4,005= 4,005 when P is expressed in In. of Water

P is the Pressure differential across the orifice Q is the Flow rate in cubic feet per minute (CFM) A is the Total orifice area expressed in square feet (orifice diameter = 8.5cm) A fluid passing thoughthrough an orifice constriction will experience a drop in pressure across the orifice. This change can be used to measure the flowrateflow rate of the fluid. To calculate the flow rate of a fluid passing through an orifice plate, enter the parameters below. (The default calculation involves air passing through a medium-sized orifice in a 4" pipe, with answers rounded to 3 significant figures.)
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26 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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A web based calculator is available with the following inputs and possible outputs http://www.efunda.com/formulae/fluids/calc_orifice_flowmeter.cfm, 2010):

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Inputs Pipe (inlet) diameter upstream of orifice, Di: Orifice diameter (less than the inlet
8 cm 10 cm

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diameter), Do: Pressure difference across the orifice, Fluid density, p:


10 Pa

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27 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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1.29

kg/m^3

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Flow Coefficient, Cf:


0.7

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Answers 1. Velocity 76 at the m/ inlet, Vi: s Volume tric 13 Flowrate .9 Flow l/s
l/s m/s

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rate, Q: 0. Mass 01 Flowrate 79 Flow kg rate: /s


kg/s

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Calculate Again

Default Values

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28 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

Formatted Formatted

... ...

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... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Equations used in this Calculator

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As

long

as

the

fluid

speed

is

sufficiently

subsonic

(V <

mach

0.3),

the,

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the incompressible Bernoulli's equation describes the flow reasonably well. . Applying this equation to a streamline traveling down the axis of the horizontal tube gives,

(Equation 4)

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where location 1 is upstream of the orifice,orifice and location 2 is slightly behind the orifice. It is recommended that location 1 be positioned one pipe diameter upstream of the orifice, and location 2 be positioned one-half pipe diameter downstream of the orifice. . Since the pressure at 1 will be higher than the pressure at 2 (for flow moving from 1 to 2), the pressure ddifference as defined will be a positive quantity. From continuity, the velocities can be replaced by cross-sectional areas of the flow and the volumetric flowrateflow rate Q,

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... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Solving for the volumetric flowrateflow rate Q gives,

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The above equation applies only to perfectly laminarlaminar, inviscid flows. . For real flows

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29 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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(such as water or air), viscosityviscosity, and turbulence are present and act to convert kinetic flow energy into heat. To account for this effect, a discharge coefficient Cd is introduced into the above equation to marginally reduce the flowrateflow rate Q,

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Since the actual flow profile at location 2 downstream of the orifice is quite complex, thereby making the effective value of A2 uncertain, the following substitution introducing a flow coefficient Cf is made,

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where Ao is the area of the orifice. As a result, the volumetric flowrateflow rate Q for real flows is given by the equation,

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(Equation 5)

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The flow coefficient Cf is found from experiments and is tabulated in reference books; it ranges from 0.6 to 0.9 for most orifices. Since it depends on the orifice and pipe diameters (as well as the Reynolds Number), one will often find Cf tabulated versus the ratio of orifice diameter to inlet diameter, sometimes defined as

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(Equation 6)

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30 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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The mass flowrateflow rate can be found by multiplying Q with the fluid density,
(Equation 7)

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(http://www.efunda.com/formulae/fluids/calc_orifice_flowmeter.cfm, 2010)

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22.2.5 Drying

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The samples were dried using the laboratory dryer that operated at desired drying conditions. The drying temperatures used were 70C, 80C, and 90C. . On the other hand, the airflow rates were 0.041m3/s, 0.047m3/s, and 0.053m3/s. The dryer was first conditioned with a dummy sample for 30 minutes to 1 hour until the specified drying set-up was stabilized. Then, the prepared samples were placed inside the dryer. The weight of the samples will be measured at 30 minute30-minute interval. The drying of the samples continued until no change in weight occurred for two successive readings. . The moisture content at which the product is no longer losing water, and no change in weight occurred is the dynamic equilibrium moisture content. The dried samples were placed inside the reseable plastic bags as shown in Figure 4.

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31 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Figure 4. The dried water hyacinth inside the reseable plastic bag.

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22.3 Experimental Design

The Box and Behnken Design of experiment matrix was used in this study. A three-level fractional factorial three-parameter experiment design resulting into 15 drying runs was used. Table 1 lists the parameters used for this experiment that resulted in 15 runs using the Box and

32 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Behnken design tabulated in Table 2.

Table 1. The independent and dependent parameters explored in the experiment.


INDEPENDENT SYMBOL USED PARAMETER CODED PARAMETER DEPENDENT PARAMETER

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-1

Temperature, X1 C Content(Y1) Air flow, m3/s X2 0.041 0.047 0.053 Moisture Ratio (Y2) Drying rate (Y3) Number of Tensile Strength (Y4) passes in the roller X3 4 6 8 Browning Index (Y5) 70 80 90 Final Moisture

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Table 2. Combination of the three independent parameters for the 15 drying runs.

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33 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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TEMPERATURE RUN C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 80 90 80 80 90 80 80 70 90 80 80 70 90 70 70

AIRFLOW m3/s 0.053 0.047 0.041 0.047 0.047 0.041 0.047 0.047 0.053 0.047 0.053 0.053 0.041 0.041 0.047

NO. OF PASSES 8 4 8 6 8 4 6 8 6 6 4 6 6 6 4

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34 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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22.2. 3.14 Response Parameters

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2.4.1

Drying Rate. Equation (4) calculated the drying rate for the complete drying period

represented as:
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(Equation 4)

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Where: MCi is the initial moisture content MCf is the final moisture content

2.4.2
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35 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Moisture Ratio. Equation (5) below estimated the moisture ratio, which represents the proportion of moisture removal at a given time interval

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(Equation 5)

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Where: MC is the moisture content at time t MC0 is the initial moisture content (dry basis) MCe is the dynamic equilibrium moisture content 2

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.4.3 Browning Index. Konica Minolta TM CR-10 color reader ,as shown in Figure 5, was used to obtain and measure the L, a, b values of the samples after drying. Three measurements taken at random locations for each sample represented the values that calculated Browning index (BI) using the equation (6) (De Vela, 2011).

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36 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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(Equation 6)

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where: (Equation 7)

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Figure 5. Konica Minolta TM CR-10 color reader.

2.4.4

Tensile Strength. The Instron Universal Testing Machine, as illustrated in Figure 6 to determine the tensile strength of the dried sample. . Cutting the dried sample in a dumbbellshaped form as shown in Figure 7 prepared the samples for testing. No standard has been

37 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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established on the tensile specimen shape for water hyacinth.


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Figure 6. Instron Universal Testing Machine.

38 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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10cm 1cm

2cm

Figure 7. The tensile specimen.

The samples, properly aligned and placed between the two grips in the machine, were subjected to tensile tests at a preset crosshead speed of 10mm/min (as cited in Opia, 2008) until it broke. Equation (8) as Opia, (2008) used computed the tensile strength or tenacity of the dried samples represented by:
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(Equation 8)

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where: maximum load is in Newton Linear density is in g/km or mg/m

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Equation (9) determined the linear density presented as:

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39 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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(Equation 9)

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Where: Length of the sample is in meters Weight of the sample is in milligram

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The test is valid if the break occurred at the middle section of the sample otherwise invalid as shown in Figure 8. The length and weight of the sample was also measured using the electronic balance. This data was used for strength computation.

40 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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(a)

(b)

Figure 8. (a) Valid test sample and (b) Invalid test sample.

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Figure 8. (a) Valid test sample and (b) Invalid test sample 22.45

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Final moisture content determination. (Equation 10) estimated the final moisture content (Casimina, 2010):
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(Equation 10)

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41 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Where: MCf = final moisture content MCt = moisture content at time t Wf = final weight, g Wt = weight at time t, g
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22.56 Statistical Analysis

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In analyzing the data, the analysis fit the data to the second order quadratic model for all the responses using RSREG pgrogram of illustrated as:

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(Equation 11)

42 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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the Response Surface Regression of SAS v8 software performed the analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis and regression coefficient calculations. . In determining the optimum values for temperature, airflow, and number of passes, the Response Surface Regression of STATISTICA v7was used. Additionally, the Curve Expert 1.4 was used to generate the model drying equations from the calculated Moisture Ratio (MR). .

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43 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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The study determined the optimum heated-air drying condition of water hyacinth. Fifteen (15) drying runs, which resulted from Box and Behnken design of experiment, were performed. The resulting data were analyzed to find out whether the independent parameters (drying air temperature, airflow rate, and number of passes in the roller) affect the response considered.

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33.1 Dewatering and Initial Moisture Content


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Dewatering, as pre-drying treatment is primarily done to decrease the water content of the water hyacinth samples, in such a way, it will speed up the drying process. In this study, crushing method through the use ofusing a roller was considered. The number of passes in the roller is considered as independent parameter. The amount of water reduced and initial moisture content at each 15 runs was summarized in Table 3. The percentage of water removal due to crushing ranged from 2.42% to 9.49%. The highest reduction of water was attained at run no.14 while the lowest was attained at run no.11. However, there is no direct relationship established between the number of passes and the percent of water removed. Aside from reducing the water content, the physical properties of the sample is also affected by this process. The thickness of the sample was reduced in size, as well as, the surface area

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44 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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became flatten. In addition, the clearance between the rollers is maintained constant (3.5mm) resulting to lessen the variability of thickness among the samples. From this, the effect of thickness in the drying process is diminished. However, the presence of damage or breakage in the samples after passing in the roller was observed.existed.
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Table 3. The percentage of water removed and initial moisture content at each drying set-upRUN. MCinitial RUN (%wb) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 93.45 92.60 93.20 92.81 92.87 93.40 94.32 94.22 94.16 94.43 5.49 7.32 4.46 9.38 3.66 3.05 2.42 3.07 4.88 2.42 %water removed

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45 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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11 12 13 14 15

93.57 92.21 93.35 93.84 92.80

2.40 8.64 3.13 9.49 4.40

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Determining for the initial moisture content of sample at each set-up, run no.10 obtained the highest initial moisture content of 94.43% while run no.12 attained the lowest initial moisture content of 92.21%. This result may be attributed to the effect of crushing method. Run no.10 obtained low amount of water removed compared to run no.12, which exhibited a high amount of water removed. 33.2 Analysis Effects of the Independent Variables on Responses Variables
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The summary of data on the responses at each drying set-up is presented in Table 4. . Furthermore, Figures 9 to 13 the graphically illustrated the data in each response. As shown in Figure 8, run no.9 achieved the highest drying rate of 0.322 %MC/min while run no.12 obtained the lowest drying rate of 0.216 %MC/min. This was expected since run no.9 possessed the highest drying air temperature of 90C as well as highest airflow rate of 0.053m 3/s.

46 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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On the other hand, run no.12 has the lowest drying air temperature of 70C but highest airflow rate of 0.053m3/s. Drying at high temperature decreases the drying time, in this way, the drying rate increases. This only shows that temperature affects the drying rate.

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Moisture ratio (MR) is another response being investigated. The obtained values of this response at each drying run are illustrated in Figure 9. The highest value is 0.132 which is attained by run no.13 while the lowest value is 0.096 which attained by run no.8. It could be noted that run no.13 has the highest drying temperature of 90C set-up. On the other hand, run no.8 possessed the lowest drying temperature of 70C set-up. This implies that drying air temperature influences the moisture ratio. Table 4 summarizes the data on the response variables investigated in drying water hyacinth and discussed in the following sections
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Final Moisture Contents

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The final moisture contents attained by each drying run ranged from 6.21%wb in run no.3 due probably to
the highest number of passes in the roller that squeezed out most of the initial water prior to drying the samples, while run no.4 obtained the highest

final moisture content of 8.96%wb at the end of drying probably due to the high initial

47 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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moisture content at the initial stage or prior to passing to the roller for squeezing the water from
Mean Plot of final moisture contents by run Mean = 7.5088-0.0941*x+0.0089*x^2 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 1 3 5 7 Run 9 11 13 15

Field Code Changed

FMC

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

the samples

Figure 9. Mean plot of final moisture contents of water hyacinths samples by run

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48 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Mean Plot of moisture ratio by run Mean = 0.1281-0.0016*x+6.4913E-5*x^2 0.135 0.130 0.125 0.120 0.115 0.110 0.105 0.100 0.095 0.090 1 3 5 7 Run 9 11 13 15

Field Code Changed

MOISTURE RATIO

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 10. Mean plot of moisture ratio by run


Mean Plot of drying rates by run Mean = 0.2904+0.0019*x-0.0004*x^2 0.34

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0.32

0.30
Drying rate, g/s

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

0.20 1 3 5 7 Run 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

49 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Figure 11. Mean plot of drying rates by run


Mean Plot tensile strengths by run Mean = 0.012-0.0006*x+3.8064E-5*x^2 0.015 0.014 0.013
Tensile strength, N

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0.012 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 1 3 5 7 Run 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 12. Mean plot of tensile strengths by run .


i.

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Final Moisture ContentsAverage Drying Rates


Moisture Ratio (MR) Tensile Strength

Browning Inde

The final moisture contents attained by each drying run ranged from 6.21%wb in run no.3 due probably to the highest number of passes in the roller that squeezed out most of the initial water prior to drying the samples, while run no.4 obtained the highest final moisture content of 8.96%wb

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50 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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at the end of drying probably due to the high initial moisture content at the initial stage or prior to passing to the roller for squeezing the water from the samples (Table 4) and Figures 9-17.
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51 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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52 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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1.2.1ii.

Average Drying Rates

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Mean Plot of drying rate by run

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Mean = 0.2904+0.0019*x-0.0004*x^2 0.34

0.32

0.30

Drying rate, %/min

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

0.20 1 3 5 7 RUN 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 139. Average Drying rate of 15 Drying Treatments.

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iii.

Moisture Ratio (MR) Figure 14 illustrates the average moisture ratio calculated from the 15 drying runs. Run 8

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exhibited the lowest MR while Run 13 showed the highest value of MR.

53 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Mean Plot of MR by run Mean = 0.1281-0.0016*x+6.4883E-5*x^2 0.135 0.130 0.125 0.120 0.115

Field Code Changed

MR
0.110 0.105 0.100 0.095 0.090 1 3 5 7 RUN 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 104. Average Moisture Ratio(MR) of 15 Drying Treatments iv. Tensile Strengths . Tensile strength is a mechanical property that measures the force required to pull or break an object. As shown in Figure 1015, run no.12, subjected to 70C drying temperature, an airflow rate of 0.053m3/s and number of passes equivalent to 6, exhibited the highest tensile strength of 0.0137N/Tex. On the other hand, run no.7 havingno.7-having temperature of 80C, airflow rate of 0.047m3/s, and 8 passes drying set-up, attained the lowest tensile strength of 0.007N/Tex.

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54 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Mean Plot of Tensile strength by run 0.015 0.014 0.013 0.012

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Tensile strengt, N

0.011 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 1 3 5 7 run 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 1115. Tensile Strength of 15 Drying Treatments.

In terms of final moisture content, Figure 11 shows the final moisture content of 15 drying treatments. The highest value of final moisture content that the dried sample exhibited was 8.96% which occurred at run no.4 while the lowest value was 5.29% which obtained by run no.6.
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55 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Final Moisture Content 9.5 9.0 8.5
final moisture content

Field Code Changed

8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

run

Figure 1216. Final Moisture Content of 15 Drying Treatments


3D Surface Plot (Spreadsheet1 5v*15c) MCfinal = Distance Weighted Least Squares

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8 7 6 5 4

56 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Figure 17. Surface plot of moisture contents as affected by temperature and no. of passes on the roller.
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BLastly, browning index, which evaluates the browning color of the sample, is also considered in this study. The value for 15 drying treatments is illustrated in Figure 12. It shows that run no.6; conducted at 80oC, 0.041m3/s airflow rate, and 5 passes, obtained the highest browning index among the entire drying runs. The lowest value is obtained at run no.5 in spite of conducted at temperature of 90C, airflow rate of 0.047m3/s, and number of passes equivalent to 8. This may be due to other factors contributing to browning such as oxidation and residual enzyme activity(Unido,2011).
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57 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Final Moisture Content 9.5 9.0 8.5
final moisture content

Field Code Changed

8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

run

Figure 16. Final Moisture Content of 15 Drying Treatments v. Browning Index


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58 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Mean Plot of browning index by run Mean = 78.9331-4.2*x+0.1557*x^2 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 1 3 5 7 Run 9 11 13 15

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Browning Index

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 17 Browning Index of dried samples by run Run 5 showed the lowest browning index while Run 6 had the highest browning index among experimental runs conducted in optimizing the drying parameters of water hyacinths. This shows that samples dried at higher temperatures (above 80o) will have higher probability of having brownish color than those dried at lower temperatures due to the effects of temperatures on color. Additionally, browning index is significant at 95% level while drying rate is significant at 90% level in cross-product model. The lack of fit test measured the failure of the model to represent the data obtained from the experiment. It was found out that the lack of fit was not significant for all of the response variables except in moisture ratio. The non-significant lack of fit is good since it indicates that the data in the experiment fit the generated models.

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59 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Mean Plot of browning Index Mean = 77.625-3.6001*x+0.1274*x^2 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 1 3 5 7 run 9 11 13 15

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Browning Index

Mean Mean0.95 Conf. Interval

Figure 13. Browning index of 15 Drying Treatments. 4.2.6

Effects of the Independent Parameters on the Responses

60 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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The effects of airflow rates, air temperatures, and number of passes on the roller are summarized in Table 5. Drying air temperatures significantly affected the average drying rates in each experimental run, moisture ratio, and browning index of the dried samples of water hyacinths but had no pronounced effects on final moisture contents of dried samples of water hyacinths as well as tensile strengths. The airflow rates were only significant in the average drying rates of the dried samples. On the other hand, the number of passes on the roller prior to drying the samples had significant contributions in the average drying rates and browning index.

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Table 5. ANOVA of the significance of the independent parameters. SUM OF SQUARES PARAMETER drying final mc rate temperature airflow passes 0.01729** 0.00177** 0.000842* 2.482607ns 3.528331ns 6.04483ns ratio 8.510E-04* 9.792E-05ns 1.290E-03ns strength 1.008E-05ns 5.084E-05ns 4.292E-04ns index 757.78750** 355.3798ns 1190.233**
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moisture

tensile

browning

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** - significant at 95% * - significant at 90% ns - not significant

61 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Based on the result of ANOVA, as shown in Table 5 shows that, temperature significantly affected drying rate and browning index at 95% level. Moreover, moisture ratio is also significantly affected by this parameter at 90%level. The result for the effect of temperature in drying rate is expected. This is due to the fact thatbecause drying temperature and drying rate has a directly proportional relationship. Increasing temperature reduces the drying time which resulted in faster drying rate. In addition, more moisture is absorbed when temperature is high. In terms on the effect in browning index, this may be due to effect of temperature on the pigment production of plants. According to Unido (2011), higher temperature can reduced the amount of pigment resulting to browning phenomena. On the other hand, no effect is established in final moisture content and tensile strength. This result confirmed the data of other investigation. As Opia (2010), concluded, temperature has no significant effect in the final moisture content and tensile strength of the product. Airflow rate affected significantly the drying rate at 95% level of significance but failed to influence the rest of the responses. Since air is the medium of heat transfer on the product thus, different rate of airflow might affect the time of drying. The Lastly, number of passes significantly affects drying rate and browning index. The dewatering process by passing in the roller might result to the opening of the porous spaces whichspaces that have an effect on the process of drying. Meanwhile, the effect of number of passes in browning may be attributed to the physical damage acquired during the dewatering process (passing in the roller). According to Unido (2011), the color of the plant changed when

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62 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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the tissue is bruised, cutcut, or exposed to any number of abnormal conditions. This injured tissue darkens on exposure to air. Figure 14 to 18 depict the surface plots for each response as affected by temperature, airflow rate, and number of passes.

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8.5 8 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5

Figure 1417. Surface plot for Final moisture content vs. airflow rate and drying air temperature.

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63 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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3D Surface Plot (Spreadsheet1 5v*15c) MCfinal = Distance Weighted Least Squares

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8 7 6 5 4

(a)

64 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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0.13 0.125 0.12 0.115 0.11 0.105

(b) Figure 185. Surface plot for Moisture ratio vs. airflow rate and drying air temperature.
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3D Surface Plot (Spreadsheet1 5v*15c) Drate = Distance Weighted Least Squares

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0.32 0.3 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.2

(a)

(b)

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65 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Figure 19a6. Surface plot for drying rate vs. airflow rate and drying air temperature Figure 19b. Surface plot of drying rate as affected by temperature and no. of passes on the roller.
3D Surface Plot (Spreadsheet1 7v*15c) Tensile strength = Distance Weighted Least Squares

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0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004

(a)

(b)

Figure 20a. Surface plot of tensile strength vs. airflow rate and drying air temperature Figure 20b.Surface plot of tensile strength as affected by temperature and no. of passes on the roller

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Figure 19b. Surface plot of drying rate as affected by temperature and no. of passes Figure 1720. Surface plot for tensile strength vs. airflow rate and drying air temperature.
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66 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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3D Surface Plot (Spreadsheet1 7v*15c) Browning index = Distance Weighted Least Squares

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90 80 70 60 50

(a)

(b)

Figure 1821. Surface plot for browning index as affected by vs. airflow rate and drying air temperature (a) and as affected by temperature and no. of passes on the roller (b).

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67 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Table 6 presents the ANOVA on the regression analysis as analyzed by SAS 8. Results showed that drying rate is significant at 95% level in terms of linear model. Furthermore, drying rate and browning index are significant in both quadratic and total model. Additionally, browning index is significant at 95% level while drying rate is significant at 90% level in cross-product model. The lack of fit test measured the failure of the model to represent the data obtained from the experiment. It was found out that the lack of fit was not significant for all of the response variables except in moisture ratio. The non-significant lack of fit is good since it indicates that the data in the experiment fit the generated models. Coefficient of Variation (CV) determines the data variability relative to the mean. A low value of CV is desirable since it signifies more consistency of data values. If the value is more consistent then the variation is less. ANOVA pointed out that drying rate obtained the lowest CV value of 2.84%, indicating some degree of accuracy of the data gathered (especially weights of samples at particular designated time intervals). On the other hand, tensile strength has more variation among the responses since it obtained the highest CV value of 24.02% possibly due to the high sensitivity of the Instron machine during tensile force measurements.

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68 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Table 6. The ANOVA showing the significance of response surface regression model. SUM OF SQUARES SOURCE df final mc ratio Linear quadratic cross 3 product total 9 model lack of fit pure error total error Coefficient of 15.13 variation, CV r2 0.6035 0.7955 0.9845 0.3286 0.9114
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moisture

drying rate 0.016889** 0.00104**

tensile strength 0.00000261ns

browning index 79.237108ns

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3 3

2.948175ns

0.000761*

4.990845ns 0.00009483ns

0.000008974ns 1028.441736**

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1.84265ns

0.000114ns

0.000956** 0.000004274ns

620.815352**

9.781668ns

0.00965ns

0.018884** 0.000015858ns 1728.494196**

3 2 5

5.355825ns 1.07126 6.427025

0.000241** 0.000007418 0.000248

0.000252ns 0.000011576ns 4.62E-05 2.98E-04 0.000020823 0.00003299

146.701531ns 21.258213 167.959745

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5.8573

2.83389

24.0236

9.7641

69 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Coefficient of determination (r2) is another parameter used to analyze the regression model. It measures how well the model represents the data. Among the responses, drying rate generates the highest value with 0.9845. This means that 98% of variation in the drying rate can be explained by the model generated (Gomez and Gomez, 1984). In contrast, tensile strength attained the lowest value with 0.3286. It could be noted that tensile strength ,which has the least r2 value, is not significantly affected by the independent parameters; whereas, drying rate which had the highest value of r2 and is greatly affected by the independent parameters. Table 7 presents the values of regression coefficients of the second order polynomials model for each of the responses. The generated model is based on the coded data in of the form of:

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Y= k0 + k1X1 + k2X2 + k3X3 + k11X12 + k21 X22 + k22 X32 + k31 X1 X2 + k32 X1X3 + k33 X2X3

(Equation 9)
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where: k = coefficient

70 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Y = response parameter X1(drying temperature), X2(airflow rate), X3(passes) = independent variables

71 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Table 7. Regression Coefficients of the second order polynomials. Response parameter COEFFICIENT FinalMC MR rate (Y1) k0 k1 k2 k3 k11 k21 k21 k31 k32 k33 -55.601 0.74867 1093.06 1.92542 -0.005 -2.7083 -6805.6 0.03 -22.708 -0.2694 (Y2) -0.2821 0.00665 2.64991 0.01166 -2E-05 -0.0593 38.9815 0.00014 -0.2333 -0.001 (Y3) -1.3332 0.02055 17.1542 0.05747 -0.0015 0.17188 -254.48 -0.0001 -0.9383 -4E-05 strength (Y4) 0.02527 -0.0016 2.30104 -0.002 1.3E-05 -0.0139 -14.688 2E-05 0.38125 -0.0001 index (Y5) -324.83 14.8829 -13578 -4.6229 -0.0777 34.5707 137070 -0.5548 365.95 3.16781 drying tensile browning

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72 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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The regression equation for each response, based on above Table 7 and following equation (9), is presented below:

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Y1= -55.601+ 0.74867X1 + 1093.06X2 + 1.92542X3 -0.005X12 -2.7083X22 -6805.6X32+ 0.03X1 X2 -22.708X1X3 -0.2694X2X3 equation (10)
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Y2= -0.2821+ 0.00665X1 + 2.64991X2 + 1.92542X3 -0.005X12 -2.7083X22 -6805.6X32 + 0.03X1X2 -22.708X1 X3 -0.2694X2X3 equation ( 11)
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Y3= -1.3332+ 0.02055X1+ 17.1542X2 + 0.05747X3 -0.0015X12 +0.17188X22 -254.48X32 0.0001X1X2 --0.9383X1 X3 -4E-05X2X3 equation (12)
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Y4= 0.02527-0.0016X1+ 2.30104X2 -0.002X3 +1.3E-05X12 -0.0139X22 -14.688X32 +2E-05X1X2 +0.38125X1 X3 -0.0001X2X3 equation (13)
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Y5= -324.83+14.8829X1-13578X2 -4.6229X3 -0.077X12 +34.5707X22 +137070X32 -0.5548X1X2 +365.95X1 X3 +3.16781X2X3 equation (14)
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4.3 Optimum drying conditions

The optimum combination of three independent parameters (drying air temperature airflow rate number of passes) was determined and analyzed by STATISTICA v7.0 that employed 100 iterations to arrive at the optimum condition for drying water hyacinth. Based on the result, the

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73 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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optimum drying condition for water hyacinth is temperature of 90C, airflow rate of 0.044m3/s and number of passes equivalent to 5. With 68.89% desirability, the following predicted values for each response could be attained as shown in Table 8. Highlighted values show the predicted values at optimum conditions. Figure 19 presents the plot of responses at optimum conditions of the independent parameters tested with desirability profile.

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74 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Profiles for Predicted Values and Desirability


Temp 10.500 8.7440 7.3586 5.9733 4.0000 .15000 .13860 .12944 .12028 0. .08000 .36000 .32235 .30529 .28824 0. .18000 .01600 .01427 .01136 .00844 .00500 90.000 66.683 53.157 39.630 30.000 0. .5 1. 0. .5 1. 1. .5 1. .5 0. .5 1. Airflow rate No. of passes Desirability

5.2868 8.9610 7.1239 .09619 .13240 .11429 .21635 .32191 .26913 .00702 .01378 .01040 43.388 77.932 60.660 Desirability

.68894

70.

90.

.041 .044

.053

4. 5.

8.

Figure 1922. Predicted responses at optimum conditions with desirability.

Browning Index

Tensile strength, N

Drying rate, g/s

MOISTURE RATIO

FMC

75 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Table 8. Predicted responses at optimum conditions of independent parameters. Predicted Factor Factor Drying * level FMC MR rate Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Airflo 0.041 w rate Airflo 0.044 w rate Airflo 0.047 w rate Airflo 0.05 w rate Airflo 0.053 w rate No. of 4 6.5234 0.1267 0.3020 0.011162 62.67069 0.65749
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Predicted

Predicted

Predicted Tensile strength 0.011873 0.010781 0.01033 0.010522 0.011355

Predicted Browning

Desirability
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Value index 50.0879 56.6854 59.396 58.21972 53.15656 0.00000 0.46367 0.50572 0.57325 0.68893

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70 75 80 85 90

7.2519 7.6497 7.8001 7.7031 7.3586

0.1100 0.1166 0.1221 0.1263 0.1294

0.2157 0.2490 0.2751 0.2938 0.3052

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6.8755

0.1299

0.2943

0.01084

59.56775

0.65168

7.3586

0.1294

0.3052

0.011355

53.15656

0.68893

7.7206

0.1296

0.3116

0.011605

50.10358

0.68760

7.9614

0.1304

0.3134

0.011589

50.40883

0.66245

8.0812

0.1320

0.3106

0.011307

54.07229

0.62155

76 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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passes No. of 5 passes No. of 6 passes No. of 7 passes No. of 8 passes *highlighted values represented the optimum conditions for drying water hyacinth
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7.3586

0.1294

0.3052

0.011355

53.15656

0.68893

7.6546

0.1301

0.3084

0.011269

49.97804

0.68226

7.4116

0.1287

0.3115

0.010902

53.13515

0.67572

6.6296

0.1253

0.3145

0.010256

62.62789

0.63171

4.4

77 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Verification of the Optimum Drying Conditions

After determining the optimum values, three (3) validation runs were performed to compare and verify the validated response against the predicted response. . Table 9 shows the average responses obtained by the three verification runs at optimum conditions.

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Table 9. Comparison between the predicted and verified values at each response.
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RESPONSE Final Moisture

PREDICTED

VERIFIED

ERROR (%)

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7.3586 Content Moisture Ratio Drying Rate Tensile Strength Browning Index 0.129437 0.305295 0.011355 53.15656

7.335005

0.320

0.121972 0.280532 0.010899 54.25077

5.767 8.111 4.017 2.058

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78 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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As shown in the Table 9, the verification run obtained an average final moisture content of 7.34%wb, moisture ratio of 0.122, 0.281%wb/min for drying rate, 0.011N/Tex for tensile strength, and browning index of 54.25. It also showed that final moisture content attained the lowest percent error of 0.32% thus obtaining the most accurate result among the responses. In contrast, the highest percent error value is obtained by drying rate with 8.11%. These verification results validated the established optimum conditions within the range of independent parameter values tested. 4.5 Thin Layer Drying Modeling for Water hyacinth
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Curve Expert 1.4 analyzed the drying data and generated the model equation that best represent the data for 15 drying runs. Table 10 presents the best regression model describing the MR vs. time. Moreover, it also includes the standard error(s) and correlation coefficient(r) which depict the goodness of fit of the model. Low s value, in particular approximating zero, is desirable. On the other hand, high r-value approaching 1 is desired. Based on these criteria, run no.6 obtained the best model and is described by rational function model shown below.

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79 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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(Equation 1115)

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...

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Where: MR = moisture ratio (dimensionless) and x = drying time, minutes

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Showing that not all drying models of agricultural materials do not always fall in the exponential, logarithmic, and Page models. In addition, Figure 20 23 to 34 37 illustrates the generated model for 15 runs.

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Table 10. . The best fitbest-fit model for 15 drying runs.

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RUN

MODEL

COEFFICIENT a =1.00005523042E+0

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Harris Model 1 y=1/(a+bx^c)

b =3.30183500112E-002 0.999775 c =1.46668439402E+0 0.00702

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... ...

a =1.00004473005E+000 Harris Model 2 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.72426998311E+000 b =1.30928391619E-002 0.999842 0.00625

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...

... ...

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... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

80 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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a =1.00005215880E+000 Harris Model 3 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.54992776612E+000 b =2.39857648115E-002 0.999811 0.00642

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

a =1.00005652566E+000 Harris Model 4 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.54628769281E+000 b =2.26207802164E-002 0.999822 0.00623

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

a =9.99974113763E-001 b =4.11336454945E-002 Harris Model 5 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.42897052299E+000 0.999597 0.00997

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a =1.00000413749E+000 b =-3.07074708753E-003 Rational Function c =9.87235806713E-002 6 y=(a+bx)/(1+cx+dx^2) d =3.84339630684E-004 0.999996* 0.00088

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

Harris Model

a =1.00005859539E+000

0.999739

0.00753

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

81 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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y=1/(a+bx^c)

b =3.57582990477E-002 c =1.44622888295E+000

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Table 10. . . Continued

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a =9.99973074346E-001 Rational Function 8 y=(a+bx)/(1+cx+dx^2) b =-2.96250878191E-003 c =1.78121101892E-001 d =-5.00855559474E-005 0.999969 0.00236

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Harris Model

a =1.00002252503E+000

0.999835

0.00639

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Formatted Formatted

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

82 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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y=1/(a+bx^c)

b =3.55091977548E-002 c =1.55481149148E+000

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

a =1.00005195841E+000 Harris Model 10 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.51673974815E+000 b =2.88889379873E-002 0.999788 0.00681

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

a =1.00006073191E+000 Harris Model 11 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.54812594422E+000 b =2.30702158390E-002 0.999784 0.00687

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

a =1.00040497838E+000 b =3.55494618261E-002 Harris Model 12 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.29290400827E+000 0.998872 0.01358

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

a =1.00011096476E+000 Harris Model 13 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.63096327027E+000 b =1.26392023222E-002 0.999759 0.00726

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14

Rational Function

a =9.99924438129E-001

0.999972

0.00225

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83 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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y=(a+bx)/(1+cx+dx^2)

b =-2.89792856124E-003 c =9.11988779985E-002 d =4.98218837768E-005

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a =1.00015477627E+000 Harris Model 15 y=1/(a+bx^c) c =1.34811348987E+000 b =3.60377446995E-002 0.999542 0.00865

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*Evolved as the best- fit model for MR.

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S = 0.00700203 r = 0.99977477

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1 .1

2 0 .9 0 .7 3 5

MR

0 .5

7 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0 8 0
0.0 55.0 110.0 165.0 220.0 275.0 330.0

time (min)

Figure 2023. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.1.

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84 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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S = 0.00625029 r = 0.99984199

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 49.5 99.0 148.5 198.0 247.5 297.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 2124. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.2.

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S = 0.00641993 r = 0.99981133

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.1 0 2 3 5 7 8

0 .9 0 .7

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1

0 0 .0

0.0

55.0

110.0

165.0

220.0

275.0

330.0

time (min)

Figure 2225. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.3.

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85 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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S = 0.00623052 r = 0.99982200

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.1 0 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 55.0 110.0 165.0 220.0 275.0 330.0

0 .9 0 .7

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 2326. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.4.


S = 0.00996773 r = 0.99959658

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5 7 8 0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

0.0

49.5

99.0

148.5

198.0

247.5

297.0

time (min)

Figure 2427. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.5.

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86 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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S = 0.00087454 r = 0.99999616

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.1 0 2 3 5 7 8 0

0 .9 0 .7

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

0.0

66.0

132.0

198.0

264.0

330.0

396.0

time (min)

Figure 2528. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.6.


S = 0.00753282 r = 0.99973918

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0 1 .1 0 .9 0 .7 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 55.0 110.0 165.0 220.0 275.0 330.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 2629. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.7.


S = 0.00235607 r = 0.99996917

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0 1 .1 0 .9 0 .7 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 71.5 143.0 214.5 286.0 357.5 429.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

87 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Figure 3027. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.8.


S = 0.00639047 r = 0.99983521

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 49.5 99.0 148.5 198.0 247.5 297.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 2831. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.9.


S = 0.00680783 r = 0.99978782

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5

MR

0 .5

7 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0 8 0
0.0 55.0 110.0 165.0 220.0 275.0 330.0

time (min)

Figure 2932. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.10.

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88 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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S = 0.00686616 r = 0.99978409

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 55.0 110.0 165.0 220.0 275.0 330.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 3033. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.11.

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S = 0.01358103 r = 0.99887169

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.1 0 2 3 5

0 .9 0 .7

MR

0 .5

7 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0 8 0
0.0 71.5 143.0 214.5 286.0 357.5 429.0

time (min)

Figure 3134. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.12.

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89 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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S = 0.00726257 r = 0.99975903

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 55.0 110.0 165.0 220.0 275.0 330.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 3235. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.13.

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S = 0.00224589 r = 0.99997208

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0 1 .1 0 .9 0 .7 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 71.5 143.0 214.5 286.0 357.5 429.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 3336. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.14.

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90 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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S = 0.00865136 r = 0.99954211

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1 .1 0 .9 0 .7

0 2 3 5 7 8 0
0.0 71.5 143.0 214.5 286.0 357.5 429.0

MR

0 .5 0 .3 0 .1 0 .0

time (min)

Figure 3437. Moisture Ratio vs., time of run no.15.

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4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

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The study determined the optimum drying condition of water hyacinth. Investigations and analysis used Three independent parameters which include drying temperature, airflow rate, and number of passesparameters that include drying temperature, airflow rate, and number of passes were investigated and analyzed their effects on the following responses: (1) final moisture content (2) moisture ratio, (3) drying rate, (4) tensile strength, and (5) browning index. The study employed Box and Behnken design of experiment that resulted in 15 experimental drying treatments.

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91 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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... ...

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... ... ...

Experimental results revealed that drying temperature significantly affected drying rate, moisture ratio, and browning index. Airflow rate has a significant effect in the drying rate only while number of passes significantly affected the drying rate and browning index. The optimum drying condition for water hyacinth is temperature of 90C, airflow rate of 0.044m3/s and number of passes equivalent to 5 with a desirability of 68.69%. The predicted responses are 7.36%wb for final moisture content, 0.129 for moisture ratio, 0.305%MCwb/min for drying rate, 0.0113N/Tex for tensile strength, and 53.16 for browning index. Verification runs showed that the percent error for all of the responses ranged from 0.32% to 8.11% with final moisture content having the lowest and drying rate obtaining the highest. Regression analysis resulted in model equations that sufficiently illustrated moisture ratio with time. Rational function is the best model that characterizes the drying of water hyacinth with an equation expressed as:

Formatted

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Equation

(16)

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

where: MR is the moisture ratio; and x is the time in minutes The model was very much different from most models developed for agricultural products whichproducts that normally come in the form of exponential or exponential association.

Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted

92 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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5. RECOMMENDATIONS

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Future studies must consider the following:

93 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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1. Relative humidity should be considered as an independent parameter if the dryer has the capability to control this parameter since it is one of the factors affecting drying. 2. The clearance between the rollers can also be used as an independent parameter by adjusting it into different range. Better use force applied by the rollers during pressing that should have been included before other students studied it.

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6. REFERENCES

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94 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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ABELLA, A.A.S. (2010). Status, Problems, and Prospects of water hyacinth handicraft produced in Laguna. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos. Akpinar E. Midilli A, Bicer Y. Single layer drying behavior of potatoa slices in a convective cyclone dryer and mathematical modeling. Energy Convers Manage 2003; 44(10):689705. Akpinar E. Midilli A. Bicer Y. Exponential investigation of drying behavior and conditions of pumpkin slices via a cyclone dryer. J. Sci Food Agric 2003: 83(14): 1480-6. Ertiken C, Yaldiz O. Drying of eggplant and selection of a suitable thin layer drying model. J Food Eng 2004:63(3):349-59. Yagcioglu A. Degimencioglu A. Cagatay F. Drying characteritics of laurel leaves under different conditions. In: Bascetincelik A. editor. Proceeding of the 7th international congress on agricultural mechanization and energy, 26-27 May, Adana, Turkey. Faculty of Agriculture, Cukutova University, 1999.p.569-9. Yagcioglu A. K. Demir V. Gunhan T. Determination of the drying characteristics of laurel leaves. Ege University Research Fund Project Final Report, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Machinery Department, Project No. 99 ZRF 029, 2001. Lui Q. Bakker-Arkema F. W. Stochastic modeling simulation of agricultural dryer performance. J. Agricul Eng Res 1971: 16:223-44. OGallahan JR. Menzies, DJ. Bailey PH. Digital simulation of agricultural dryer performance. J. Agricul Eng Res 1971,:16:223-44.
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95 Optimized Drying Parameters of Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes.L) to Increase Utilization and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Effects on Waterways and Lakes in the Philippines

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Agrawal YC, Singh RP. Thin layer drying studies on short grain rough rice. ASAE Paper No. 3531, 1997.

ARARAL, R.K. (2009).FPRDI helps water hyacinth industry. Retrieved August 22, 2011 from http://diaryongtagalog.com

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CASIMINA, H.A. (2010). Optimized heated air dryingair-drying for reduction of ( hcn) content level in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz) leaves. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos Chhinnan MS. Evaluation of few selected mathematical models for describing thin layer dyring of in-hell pecans. Trans ASAE 1984:27(3):610-5.

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DE VELA, R.R. (2011). Drying and Color Kinetics of decorticated pineapple fibers. Unpublished masters thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos Diamante LM, Munro PA. Mathematical modeling of hot air dyring of sweet potato slices. Solar Energy 1993;51-271-6. Diamante LM, Munro PA. Mathematical modeling of the thin layer drying of sweet potato slices. Solar Energy 1993;51-271-6.

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ECHEMINACLA, E. (2011). Villar to send 'water lily warriors' to Cotabato City. Retrieved August 22, 2011 from http://www.philstar.com/Article

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FERNANDEZ, M. (2007). Optimization of the heated-air drying of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus lam.) Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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GANGSTAD, E.O. (1986). Freshwater Vegetation Management. Thomas Publication.

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GARIN, L.A. (2010). Optimization of drying of Cavendish Banana. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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GASHO.org (2010). Application Engineering Basics Orifice Flow Calculation. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://gasho.org/rotron%20pages/orifice GOMEZ, A. A.A., and K. A. GOMEZ. 1984. SatisticalStatistical Procedures in Agricultural Research. New York, Chichester, etc.: Wiley (1984), 2nd edition, paperback, pp. 680

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GULIFARDO, D.G. (2007). Optimization of the heated-air drying of banaba leaves for herbal applications. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos. GUPTA, O.P. (1973). Aquatic weed control for efficient water use. Henderson SM. Progress in developing the thin layer drying equations. Trans ASAE 1974; 17:1167-8.

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HENDERSON S.M. & PERRY R.L. (1987). Agricultural Engineering Processing. (3 rd ed.). Connecticut. The AVI Publishing Company, Inc. http://www.efunda.com/formulae/fluids/calc_orifice_flowmeter.cfm, Accessed August 2010)

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JOSE, J.J. (2000). Optimization of the heated-air drying of carabao mangoes. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos.

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JOSEPH, M.L. (1986). Introductory Textile Science.5 ed. CBC College Publication. Midilli A. KuKuk H. Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying of pistachio by using solar energy Convers Manage 2003:1111-22. Midilli A. Kucuk H, Yapar Z. A new model for single layer drying. Drying Technol 2002;20(7):1503-13. MORELOS, M.L. (2008). Water lily products made in Taguig. Retrieved November 9, 2010from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. (1977). Making aquatic weeds useful: some perspectives for Developing countries.

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OPIA, K.K. (2008). Drying Characteristics of water hyacinth. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos.

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Overhults DD, White GM, Hamilton ME, Ross IJ. Drying soybeans with heated air. Trans ASAE 1973:16:195-200. PALUNDAY, C.C. (2007). Air-drying Characteristics of pansit-pansitan. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos. Paulsen MR. Thomson TL. Drying endysus of grain shorughum. Trans ASAE 1973;16:537-40. Rahman MS, Perera CO, Theband C. Desorption isotherm and heat pump drying kinetics of peas. Food Res Int 1998; 30:485-91. Sharaf-Elden YI, Blaisdell JL, Hamdy MY. A model for ear corn drying. Trans ASAE 1980; 23:1261-5. SOLPICO, C. (2007). Drying and Milling Characteristics of cacao trinitario variety for optimum quality of cocoa powder. Unpublished undergraduate thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baos.
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TACIO, H. (2010). Water Lily: From Serious Pest To Profitable Crop. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.agribusinessweek.com/handicrafts-out-of-water-hyacinth/ Thomson TL, Peart PM, Foster GH. Mathematical simulation of corn drying. A new model. Trans ASAE 1968;11:582-6. UNIDO. (2011). Quality of Dried Foods. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from www.unido.org /fileadmin/import/32142_31QualityofDriedFoods.14.pdf Verma LR, Bucklin RA, Endan JB, Wratten FT. Effects of drying air parameters on rice drying models. Trans ASAE 1985;28:296-301.

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Wang, CY, Singh RP. A single layer drying equation for rough rice. ASAE Paper No. 3001, 1978. Westerman PW, White GM, Ross IJ. Relative humidity effect on the high temperature drying of shelled corn. Trans ASAE 1973; 16:1136-9. YACIUK, G. (1982). Food Drying. International Development Research Center. Canada.
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