A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT

IN
National Thermal Power Corporation LTD
Ramagundam

A
PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED TO
KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY
In Partial Fulfillment of Requirement For The Award Of The
"Master of Business Administration"
By
K.REKHA REDDY
(070 18C-l028)
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF
Mr. E. MANOHAR
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE
KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY,WARANGAL
GODAVARIKHANI, KARIMNAGAR DIST -505209
2006-08
1
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this project ‘‘STRESS MANAGEMENT”
done in NTPC Ramagundam is original work by him for the award of partial
fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION in HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT to
"UNIVERSITY P.G. COLLEGE’’ Godavarikhani “KAKATIYA
UNIVERSITY” is record of bonified work carried out by me.
I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that not
been submitted to any other University / Institution for the award of any
degree.
K. REKHA REDDY
07018C-1028
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am very thankful to management of the "National Thermal Power station,
Ramagundam, for extending their-cooperation in completion of project
work.
I am thankful to Prof. Thirumala Rao Garu, Principal of University post
Graduate College, and my Lecturer Mr. E. Manohar Sir, who constant
guidance had given very valuable suggestions in completing my project
successfully.
It is my immense pleasure to thank Sri. P.Gopal Rao (Deputy GMRR)
NTPC, Ramagundam who gave me an opportunity do my project work in an
esteemed organization RSTPSINTPC Plant.
My sincere thanks to Sri A.Monoharan, HR Manager (RR-ED) for making
it convenient to undertake project work at NTPC, Ramagundam.
I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude Sri Rajesham Sir, Officer
(HR). My project guide who guide me precisely and without his timely
instructions his report would not have seen light.
I am also grateful to all the Executives and staff of the NTPC,
Ramagundam, for having me an opportunity in their organization to carry on
my project work & their support in bringing out this case study successfully.
K. REKHA REDDY
07018C-1028
UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE
KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY
GODAVARIKHANI, PIN-505209
3
CERTIFICATE
This is certifying that the project work entitled ‘‘STRESS
MANAGEMENT”, being submitted by.
K.REKHA REDDY
07018C-1028
In partial fulfillment for the award of "MASTER OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION" at UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE
COLLEGE, GODAVARIKHANI, KARIMNAGAR is a bonafide work
carried out under my supervision.
PROJECT GUIDE
E. MANOHAR
Faculty Member
Department of Business Management
University Post-Graduate
College,
Godavarikhani-505209
CONTENTS
Chapter-1 : Introduction 6-28
Introduction of Stress
Organizational Stress
Sources of Stress
Consequences of Stress
4
Management of Stress
Chapter-2 : Organization Profile 29-
42
Chapter-3 : Data Analysis &
Interpretation 43-
60
Chapter-4 : Findings and Suggestions
Conclusions 61-
63
Chapter-5 : Questionnaire
Bibliography 64-
68
5

INTRODUCTION
6
Stress has been called “the invisible”. It is a disease that may affect
you, your organization, and any of the people in it, so you cannot afford to
ignore it.
EVOLUATION OF STRESS:
The Garden of Eden began as a tranquil stress environment. However
when Adam was given the tantalizing chance to eat the forbidden fruit, he
was trust into mankind’s first stressful situation. Adam was offered a choice
and, as we know, decision-making is the breeding ground for conflict,
frustration and distress.
DEFINITION:
Stress in individual is defined as any
interference that disturbs a persons’ healthy
mental and physical well being. It occurs when
the body is required to perform beyond its
normal range of capabilities.
Stress is the way that you react physically,
mentally and emotionally to various
conditions, changes and demands in your life.
High levels of stress can affect your physical
and mental well being and performance.
The results of stress are harmful to
individuals, families, society and
organizations, which can suffer from
“organization stress”. Ivancevich and
Matteson define stress as individual with the
environment.
Behr and Newman define job stress as “a
condition arising from the interaction of people
and their jobs and characterized by changes
within people that force them to deviate from
their normal functioning”.
7
Stress is a dynamic condition, which an
individual is confronted with an opportunity,
constraint or demand related to what he or she
desires and for which the outcome is perceived
to be both uncertain and important. Stress is
associated with constraints and demands. The
former prevent you from doing what you
desire, the latter refers to the loss of
something desired.
Stress is highest for those individuals who
perceive that they are uncertain as to whether
they will win or lose and lowest for those
individuals who think that winning or losing is
certainty.
Canadian physician Hans Selye (1907-
1982) in his book the stress of life 1956
popularized the idea of stress. According to
Selye, the General Adaptation Syndrome
consists of three phases.
Ce level begins to decline irreversibly. The
organism collapses.
• Alarm Reaction: The first is the alarm phases. Here the individual
mobilizes to meet the threat. The alarm reaction has two phases. The
first phases includes in initial “stock shock phase” in which defensive
mechanism become active. Alarm reaction is characterized by
autonomous excitability; adrenaline discharges; increase heart rate,
ulceration. Depending on the nature & intensity of the threat and the
8
condition of the organization the period of resistance varies and the
severity of symptoms may differ from “mild invigoration” to “disease
of adaptation”.
• Resistance: The second is the phase of resistance. The individual
attempts to resist or cope with the threat. Maximum adaptation occurs
during this stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction
disappear. It the stress persist, or the defensive reaction proves
ineffective, it may overwhelm the body resources. Depleted of energy,
the body enters the phase of third.
• Exhaustion: Adaptation energy is exhausted. Sings of the alarm
reaction reappear, and the resistance level begins to define
irreversibly. The organism collapses.
Pestonjee has attempted / identified three important sectors of life in
which Stress originates. These are
4 Job and the organization
4 The social sector
4 Intrapsychic sector
Job and organization, refers to the totality of the work environment
(task, atmosphere, colleagues, compensation, policies, etc.). The social
sector refers to the other such factors. The Intrapsychic sector encompasses
those things, which are intimate, and persona, like temperament, values,
abilities and health. It is contended that stress can originate in any of these
sectors or in combinations thereof.
9
In the figure below it can be seen that the magnitude of stress
emanating from the stress to learner limit of the individual to handle these
stress. This indicates a balanced state.

ORGANIZATION-INDIVIDUAL NORMAL
INTERACTION PATTERN
S.T.L – STRESS TOLERANCE LEVEL
In the figure we find that job and organization loads have increased
and have made a dent in the personality. In this stage, we find minor surface
changes taking place, which are quite manageable.

MINIOR SURFACE CHANGES
Adaptation attempt
a) Extra effort
b) Excessive concern of task
c) Worries
d) Anxiety
10
In the stage three and the figure below, we find that job and
organizational loads have become unmanageable and interact with
intrapsychic loads. This is the stage at which he negative
consequences of the stress become apparent. Most of the stress related
diseases emerge at this point. When the situation persists we move
into the next stage in which we start operating beyond the “stress
tolerance limit”.

MAJOR SURFACE DISFIGURATION
Frantic copying
1. Extra ordinary effort
2. Worry and anxiety about the self
3. Onset of physiological symptoms
4. Aggressive tendencies
Several types of breakdowns and cracks are observable in this stage
i.e., fourth stage. If unchecked the situation may culminate into the last and
most intense phase wherein complete disintegration of personality takes
place. At this stage, the individual requires proper psychological and
medical care. The figure below depicts the fourth and fifth stage.
STRESSORS OR LOADS
11

BREAKDOWNS AND CRACKS: FAILURE IN COPING
A. Work related symptoms
Lack of concentration
Affected clarity of thinking & decision – making
Frequent absenteeism
Affected team work
Aggressive behavior
B. Physiological symptoms
Headache / Migraine
Insomnia
Lack of appetite
Digestive disorders
Sexual disorders
Temperamental changes.
Pestonjee has also developed a model to explain how we cope with
stress reactions. It is called the BOUNCE model because the behavioral
decomposition taking place due to stress tense to get reflected in
interpersonal reactions. The reactions are received & analyzed by the
environment, which in turn, bounce back signals to the individuals to bring
about a change either at the orgasmic level or at the response level.
THE BOUNCE MODEL
STRESSORS
12
BORNOUT STRESS SYNDROME (BOSS):-
Boss can lead to at least four types of stress related consequences such
as, depletion of energy reverses, lowered resistance to illness, increased
dissatisfaction and pessimism and increased absenteeism and inefficiency at
work.
Veningle and spradley have identified five distinct stages of BOSS.
HONEYMOON STAGE:-
This stage can be describe as accounting for the euphoric feeling of
encounter with the new job such as excitement, enthusiasm, challenge and
pride. Dysfunctional features emerge in two ways first; the energy reverses
are gradually depleted in coping with the demands of a challenging
environment. Second, habits and strategies for coping with stress are formed
in this stage which is often not useful in coping with later challenges.
FUEL SHORTAGE STAGE:-
This stage can be identified as composed of the value feelings of loss,
fatigue and confusion arising from the individual’s overdraws on reverses of
adaptation energy. Other symptoms are dissatisfaction, inefficiency, and
fatigue and sleep disturbances leading to escape activate such as increased
eating, drinking & smoking.
CRISIS STAGE:-
13
When these feelings and physiological symptoms persist over period
of time, the individual enters the stage of crisis. At this stage he develops
“escape mentality” and feels oppressed. Heightened pessimism, self-
doubling tendencies, peptic ulcers, tension headaches, chronic backaches,
blood pressure.
HITTING THE WALL STAGE:-
This stage of BOSS is characterized by total exhaustion of one’s
adaptation energy, which may mark the end of one’s professional career.
While recovery from this stage elude may be resourceful to tide over the
crises.
TYPES OF STRESS:-
• It the stress for the day to day adaptability of man to his
environment and results in the maintenance of internal steady
state (homeostasis) it is know as neustress. For example, one
produces neustress in order to breath, work.
• Stress is through of in negative terms. It is thought to be caused
by something bad (for example the boss gives a formal
reprimand for poor performance). It the stress response is
unfavorable and potentially disease producing, this is known as
distress. Constant worry in a susceptible individual can lead to
ulcers.
If the stress response is favorable and results is favorable and results
in improvement in physical and / or mental functioning, it is called estruses.
This is the positive, pleasant side of stress caused by stress caused by good
things. For examples an employee is offered a job promotion at another I.
14
DEFINING STRESS AT WORK
Change in working practices, such as the introduction of new
technology or the alternation of new technology or the alternative of targets,
my cause stress, or stress may be built into an organizations’ structure.
Organizational stress can be measured by absenteeism and quality or work.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS:-
Stress affects as well as the individual within them. An organization
with a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrial
and customer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control is
suffering from organizational stress.
FOLLOWING THE PAT OF STRESS THROUGH IN
ORGANIZATION:-
The below chart shows one example of the structure of a department
in an organization, indicating typical causes of stress that may effect stress at
certain levels in the structure, and particular.

15
Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious; anyone who is not
performing well due to increases the amount of pressure on their colleagues,
superiors, and subordinates.
The cause may range from unclear or overlapping job descriptions, to
lack of communication, to poor working conditions, including “sick building
syndrome”.
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS:
There are three categories of potential stressors:
♣ Environmental factor
♣ Organization factor
♣ Individual factors
Environmental factors:
Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an
organization. Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainties.
Political uncertainties:
16
If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderly
manner, there would not be any type of stress.
Technological uncertainties:
New innovations can make an employee’s skills and experiences
obsolete in a very short period of time. Technological uncertainty therefore
is a third type of environmental factor that can cause stress. Computers,
robotics, automation and other forms of technological innovations are threat
to many people and cause them stress.
Organization factors:
There are no storages of factors within the organization that can cause
stress; pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in a limited time period,
work overload are few examples.
Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. They include the
design of the individual’s job working conditions, and the physical work
layout.
Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of
the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role overhead is
experienced when the employees is expected to do more than time permits.
Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly
understood and employee is not sure what he / she is to do.
Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack
of social support from colleagues and poor.
Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially
among employed with a high social need.
Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the
organization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions are
made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect an
employee are examples of structural variables that might be potential
sources of stress.
Potential sources Consequences
17
Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the
organizations senior executive. Some executive officers create a culture
characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealistic
pressures to perform in the short-run impose excessively tight controls and
routinely fire employees who don’t measure up. This creates a fear in their
hearts, which lead to stress.
Organizations go through a cycle. They are established; they grow,
become mature, and eventually decline. An organization’s life stage - i.e.
Where it is in four stage cycle-creates different problems and pressures for
employees. The establishment and decline stage are particularly stressful.
Individual factors:
The typical individual only works about 40 hrs a week. The
experience and problems that people encounter in those other 128 non-work
hrs each week can spell over to the job.
Family problems:
National surveys consistently show that people hold family and
discipline, troubles with children are examples of relationship problems that
18
create stress for employee and that aren’t at the front door when they arrive
at work.
Economic problems:
Economic problems created by individuals overextending their
financial resources are another set of personal troubles that can create stress
for employees and distract their attention from their work.
19
20
CAUSES OF STRESS
Society the working world and daily life have changed almost beyond
recognition in the past 50 years. These changes have contributed to a major
increase in stress.
Stress is caused from both outside & inside the organization & from
groups that employees are influenced by & from employees themselves.
Stressors:
The agents or demands that evoke the potential response are referred
to as stressors. According to Syele a stressors is “Whatever produces stress
with or without functioning hormonal or nervous systems”.
Extra organizational stressors:
Extra organizational stressors have a tremendous impact on job stress.
Taking an open system perspective of an organization, it is clear that job
stress is not just limited to things that happen inside the organization, during
working hours. Extra organizational stressors include things such as social /
technological change, the family, relocation, economic & financial
conditions, race & class, residential or community conditions.
Organizational stressors:
Besides the potential stressors that occur outside the organization,
there are also those associated with the organization itself. Although the
organization is made up of groups & individuals, there are also more macro-
level dimensions unique to the organization that contains potential stressors.
21
MACRO-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL STRESSORS:
POLICIES
O Unfair, arbitrary performance reviews.
O Rotating works shifts.
O Inflexible rules.
O Unrealistic job descriptions.
STRUCTURES
O Centralization; Lack of participation in decision making.
O Little opportunity for advancement.
O A great amount of formalization. JOB
O Interdependence of departments. STRESS
O Line-Staff conflicts.
PHYSICAL CONDITIONS
O Crowding & lack of privacy.
O Air pollution.
O Safety hazards.
O Inadequate lighting.
O Excessive, heat or cold.
PROCESS
O Poor communication.
O Poor / inadequate feedback about performance.
O Inaccurate / ambiguous measurement of performance.
O Unfair control systems.
O Inadequate information.
GROUP STRESSORS:
The group can also be a potential source of stress. Group stressors can
be categorized into three areas.
1. Lack of groups cohesiveness:-
“Cohesiveness” or “togetherness” is a very important to employees,
especially at the lower levels of the organizations. If the employee is
denied the opportunity for this cohesiveness because of the task
design, because the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or
because the other members of the group shut the person out, this can
be very stress producing.
2. Lack of social support:-
Employees are greatly affected by the support of one or more member
of a cohesive group. By sharing their problems & joys with others,
22
they are much better off. It this type of social support is lacking for an
individual, it can be very stressful.
3. Intra-Individual, interpersonal & inter-group
conflict:-
Conflict is very closely conceptually or hostile acts between
associated with in compatible or hostile acts between intra-individual
dimensions, such as personal goals or motivational needs / values,
between individuals within a group, & between groups.
INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS:
In a sense, the other stressors (Extra organizational, organizational, &
Group stressors) all eventually get down to the individual level. For
example, role conflict, ambiguity, self-efficacy & psychological hardiness
may all affect the level of stress someone experiences.

23
CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS
The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality. The
same level of stress affects different people in different ways & each person
has different ways of coping. Recognizing these personality types means
that more focused help can be given.
Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who is
experiencing high level of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers,
irritability, difficulty in making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accident
proneness, and the like. These can be subsumed under three categories:
C Individual consequences
C Organizational consequence
C Burnout
Individual consequences:
Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect the
individual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer directly or
indirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for it. Individual
consequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychological
and medical.
+ Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the
person under stress or others. Behaviorally related stress symptoms
include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating
habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and
sleep disorders.
+ Psychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental
health and well-being from or felling depressed. Job related stress
could cause dissatisfaction, infact it has most psychological effect on
the individual and lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom.
+ Medical consequences of stress affect a person’s well being.
According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress could create
changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases
blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart attacks.
24
Organizational consequences:
Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect on the
organizations. These include decline in performance, withdrawal and
negative changes in attitude.
· Decline in performance can translate into poor quality work or a drop
in productivity. Promotions and other organizational benefits get
affected due to this.
· Withdrawal behavior also can result from stress. Significant form of
withdrawal behavior is absenteeism.
· One main affect of employee stress is directly related to attitudes. Job
satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer,
along with motivation to perform at higher levels.
Burnout:-
A final consequence of stress has implementation for both people and
organizations. Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops when
an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and few sources
of satisfaction.
25
Managing stress in the work place
Every responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understanding
the nature of individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourself
and others.
Reduction or elimination of stress is necessary for psychological and
physical well being of an individual. Efficiency in stress management
enables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful situations instead of
avoidance. Strategies like tie management, body-mind and mind-body
relaxation exercise, seeking social support help individual improve their
physical and mental resources to deal with stress successfully.
Apart from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to deal
with stress providing them with the service of counselor is also useful.
Many strategies have been developed to help manage stress in the
work place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared toward
organizations.
Individual coping strategies:
Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have been
proposed.
Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under stress
exhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as performance, strained
26
relationship with co-workers, absenteeism alcoholism and the like.
Employees under stress require help in overcoming its negative effects. The
strategies used are:
Exercise:-
One method by which individual can manage their stress is through
exercise. People who exercise regularly are known to less likely to have
heart attacks than inactive people are. Research also has suggested that
people who exercise regularly feel less tension and stress are more conflict
and slow greater optimism.
Relaxation:-
A related method individual can manage stress is relaxation. Copying
with stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adopt.
Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regular
vacations; people can also relax while on the job (i.e. take regular breaks
during their normal workday). A popular way of resting is to sit quietly with
closed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon.
Time management:-
Time management is an often recommended method for managing
stress, the idea is that many daily pressures can be eased or eliminated if a
person does a better job of managing time. One popular approach to time
management is to make a list, every morning or the thins to be done that
day. Then you group the items on the list into three categories: critical
activities that must be performed, important activities that should be
performed, and optimal or trivial things that can be delegated or postponed,
then of more of the important things done every day.
ROLE MANAGEMENT:-
Some what related to time management in which the individual
actively works to avoid overload, ambiguity and conflict.
SUPPORT GROUPS:-
This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain support
group. A support group is simply a group of family member or friends with
whom a person can spend time. Supportive family and friends can help
people deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can be
particularly useful during times of crisis.

27
BEHAVIORAL SELF-CONTROL:-
In ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposes
exercise of self-control on the part of an employee. By consciously
analyzing the cause and consequences of their own behavior, the employees
can achieve self-control. They can further develop awareness of their own
limits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to various
stressful situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals control
over the situations rather than being solely controlled by them.

COGNITIVE THERAPY:-
The cognitive therapy techniques such as Elli’s rational emotive
model and Meichenbaum’s cognitive strategy fir modification have been
used as an individual strategy for reducing job stress.
COUNSELING:
Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate a
diverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives him
a comprehensive view of the employee as client and enable him to deal the
issues of work related problems in a larger context with his awareness of the
inter-relationship among problems in adjustment with self, other and
environment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice-versa,
the employee would receive help regarding the problem in all life.
One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individual
can use these skills to improve the quality of life in offer domains like
family, social support and self, thus reducing the negative carry of
experiences in these domains into the work life which might effect his
occupation mental health.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES:-
The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting stressors
and prevent occurrence of potential stressors.’
Two basic organizational strategies for helping employees manage
stress are institutional programs and collateral programs.
28
Work Design Stress Management programs
Work schedules Health promotions programs
Culture Other programs
Supervision
Institutional programs:-
Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken to
established organizational mechanism for example, a properly designed job
and word schedules can help ease stress. Shift work in particular can
constantly have to adjust their sleep and relaxation patterns. Thus, the design
of work schedules should be a focused of organizational efforts to reduce
stress.
The organization’s culture can also used to help to manage stress. The
organization should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mix of
work and nonworking activities.
Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role in
overload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential manager source of
overload. If made aware of their potential for assigning stressful amounts of
work, supervisors can do a better job keeping workloads reasonable.
COLLATERAL PROGRAMS:
In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, many
organizations are turning to collateral programs. A collateral stress program
in an organizational program specifically created to help employees deal
with stress. The organizations have adopted stress management programs,
health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this purpose.
29
30
COMPANY PROFILE
Energy is important parameter in the overall economic development
activity of any country. It has become synonymous with progress in all
fields of activities. Its standard of living in the words of DAGLI is as
follows it is said that the difference between a starving Indian peasant and a
prosperous American farmer is that behind his elbow the India farmer has
almost nothing while his American counterpart has thousands of hours
power. This, it is energy, which is the dividing line between any substance
economy and a highly developed economy. India is poor and American is
rich because America consumes nearly 50 times as much energy as is
consumed by India. Energy is at the heart of the modern industrial society. It
could also be effective weapon in the battle against object poverty.
There is a close correlation between energy consumption and level of
economic development. Energy means “capacity of doing work”. There are
various sources of energy but in India the important sources are coal,
hydroelectricity. Oil and natural gas, nuclear fuels fire wood and animal
wastes. Despites the development of various sources in the energy sector,
the fact still remains that low last energy sources like fire wood, cattle drug
and vegetable wastes account for as much at 45 percent of energy
consumption in the country.
Power development in India began in 1897 when a 200KW hydro
station was first commissioned at Darjeeling, in 1899 a first steam station
was set up in Calcutta with a total of 100kw. There after, a series of hydro
and steam power station were commissioned. But the power development
was not in a systematic and planned manner in the country. Therefore, in
order to achieve the objective of promoting the co-ordination development
and rationalization of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity
on a regional basis throughout the country in the most efficient and
economic way the state electricity board (SEBs) was constituted in the
various states of the country under the provisions of the electricity (supply)
act 1948. These SEBs, were to enjoy the monopoly in respect of generation,
transmission and distribution of electricity in the country. After constitution
of SEBs, there was phenomenal improvement in the development of
installed capacity and power generation. The efficiency of working of power
31
plant and their maintenance have been unsatisfactory as a result of which the
power generating capacity already created could not have been fully utilized.
Power is the single factor, which changed the way of living. The
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, established on November 7
th
in 1975, has become the most important infrastructure input for improving
the standard of living to meet the growing demand and to fulfill the needs of
the country. Just in 29 years this company has grown to be the largest
producer of power in the country. NTPC the NAVARATNA power giant
today generates one fourth of the total power in the country and it is ranked
9
th
largest thermal power generating utility in the world.
Keeping the significance of power supply in sight, NTPC has been
chosen for the purpose of the study as it has many units under its control.
Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station (RSTPS) has been selected for
the study.
BRIEF HISTORY OF NTPC:
“Power” The single factor which changed the way in which man lived
for millions of years, has become the most important infrastructure input for
improving the standard of living both directly as well as indirectly by way of
contributing in the economic development to make available to the nation
reliable & quality power in increasingly large quantities. NATIONAL
THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LTD was formed in 1975; NTPC
Ramagundam unit with approved capacity of 260MW and installed capacity
of 21OOMW is the largest Thermal Power plant powering South India's
growth. Ramagundam unit of NTPC credited with first ISP 14001 certified
Super Thermal Power Station in our country.
NTPC a front runner in the Indian Power sector in one of the larges &
the best power utilities of the world, there by contributing of India's
emergence as one of the world's leading economies. The World Bank, in its
performance audit report on NTPC's projects observed that.
"NTPC record in plant construction, cost containment & operating
efficiency has been exceptional, while as an institution it has broken new
ground in Organization & Management, successfully navigated the
transition from constructions to operating company & generally coped quite
well with the problems of rapid expansion".
32
Two corporations The National Hydro Electric Power Corporation
(NHPC) & National thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) were set in 1975
-76 in the center sector as a step to achieve the objectives. The company
started functioning in March 1976 with the appointment of a chairman &
Managing Director.
LOCATION:
The 2100 MW Ramagundam Super Thermal Project is located in
Karimnagar District of Andhra Pradesh to the South of river Godavari. The
project is linked to the south Godavari Coal field or the Singareni Collieries.

NTPC ACTIVITIES:
1. Planning & Investigation of new sites, preparation of feasibility
prospect report & the designing as well as engineering of power
station.
2. NTPC also manages the 720 MW Badarpur Thermal Power Station in
Delhi & 270 MW BALCO Captive power plant (M.P)
3. Operation & Maintenance of Power Stations.
4. Research & development in area related to power generation
5. NTPC also bagged a turnkey contract for the construction of21 Sub -
stations from Nepal electricity authority.
6. The R &D using of NT PC has been instrumental in enhancing the
reliability of plant & equipment.
OBJECTIVES OF NTPC:
C To add generating capacity with in prescribed time & cost. To operate
& maintain power stations at high availability ensuring minimum cost of
generation. It has planned massive growth to make itself a 40,000 MW
company.
C To maintain the financial soundness of the company by managing the
financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility
practices.
C To function as a responsible corporate citizen & discharge social
responsibility, in respect of environment protection and rehabilitation.
The corporation will strive to utilize the ash produced at its stations to
the maximum extent possible through production of ash bricks,
building materials etc.
C To adopt appropriate human resources development policy leading to
creation of team of motivated and competent power professionals. To
introduce, assimilate & attain self sufficiency in technology, acquire
33
expertise in utility mgt. Practices to disseminate knowledge
essentially as a contribution to other constituents of the power sector
in the country.
C To develop R&D for achieving improved plant reliability
© To expand the consultancy operations & to participate in ventures
abroad.
CORPORATE OBJECTIVES:
O To add generating capacity with in prescribed time & cost.
O To expand the constancy operations & to participate ventures aboard.
O To maintain the financial soundness of the company by m aging the
financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility.
O To operate and maintain power stations at high availability ensuring
minimum Cost of generation.
O To develop (R&D) for achieving improved plant reliability.
O To develop appropriate commercial policy leading to remunerative
tariffs & minimum receivables.
O Implement strategic diversification in the areas of R&M. Hydro. LNG
and Non conventional and eco-friendly fuels and explore new areas
like transmission information technology etc.
O Promote consultancy.
O Make prudent acquisitions. Continuously develop competent human
resources to match world standards.
G Be a responsible corporate citizen with thrust on environment
protection rehabilitation and ash utilization.

VISION OF NTPC:
‘‘TO BE ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST AND BEST
POWER UTILITIES. POWER INDIA'S GROWTH’’
CORE VALUES (COMIT)
1 Customer focus.
1 Organizational pride.
1 Mutual Respect and Trust.
1 Initiative and speed total quality.
1 Total Quality.
MISSION OF NTPC:
34
Make available reliable, quality power in increasingly large quantities
at appropriate tariffs, and ensure timely realization of revenues. Speedily
plan and implement power projects, with contemporary technologies.
DISTRIBUTION OF POWER OF NTPC RAMAGUNDAM
S.No State Distributed Percentage
Capacity (MW) (%)
1. Andhra Pradesh 580 27.619
2. Tamil Nadu 470 22.381
3. Karnataka 345 16.429
4. Kerala 245 11.667
5. Goa 100 4.762
6. Pondicherry 50 2.381
7. Unallocated 310 14.762
PERFORMANCES:
NTPC stations & the NTPC manage Badarpur station has been
accredited with “ISO 14001” for sound environment management system &
practices.
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE:
NTPC recorded a provisional turnover of Rs.30000 crores during
2004-05 as against Rs.25184 crores during 2003-04. The provisional net
profit after tax for 2003-04 is Rs.4905 crores, as compared to Rs.5500 crores
last year. The provisional Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return
on Net worth (RONW) are 12.31 % and 14.13% respectively for the year
2004-05. An interim dividend of Rs.400 Crores has been paid to the
Government for 2003-04.
The total out standings as on 31.10.2005 stood at Rs 26078.96 crores
including a principal amount of Rs.16049.55 crores.
35
STATION HIGH LIGHTS:
 Record haulage of coal in single day of 78,720 MT on 29 June 1998
Asian record.
 Station recorded highest loading factor of 99.4% for the yr 1999 2000
 Continuous run or VI unit (500MW) for 406 days, third best in the
world.
 Ramagundam 500MW unit-7 (stage-III) has successfully completed
one year of commercial operation on 25.03.06 without any tube
leakage. The unit generated 3802.492 MUs @ a PLF of 86.81%.
Considering the loss of generation of 297 MUs due to backing down,
the deemed, PLF is 93.590/0. The unit also has achieved a continuous
run of 97 days without tripping in the first year of operation itself.
 Ramagundam station achieved 47.94% (18.63 LMT) of Ash
utilization during the financial year against the target of 47% (18.20
LMT).
 Ramagundam & Simhadri were recommended for commendation
certificate for “storage commitment to Excel” by G1II.
 Ramagundam bagged “Innovative safety practices” award for the year
2005 from institution of Engineers.
 Ramagundam station bagged “Best Management award from Govt. of
AI” fur the year 2004-05.
 NTPC – Ramagundam bagged golden shied for the financial years
2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 for outstanding performance
in power generation.
Installed capacity of NTPC Projects:
Projects No. of Projects Commissioned Capacity
(MW)
NTPC OWNED 13 19,980
COAL 07 3,955
GAS/LIQ.FUEL
ONED BY JVCs
COAL 3 314
36
GRAND
TOTAL
23 24.249
Capacity power plant under JV with SAIL
Coal based projects:
Sl.No. Coal Based State Commissioned Capacity
1. Singrauli Uttar Pradesh 2,000
2. Kobra Chhattisgarh 2,100
3. Ramagundam Andhra Pradesh 2,600
4. Farakka West Bengal 1,600
5. Vidhyachal Madhya Pradesh 1,600
6. Rihand Uttar Pradesh 2,200
7. Kahalgoan Bihar 2,000
8. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 840
9. Tacher Kaniha Orissa 840
10. Unchahar Uttar Pradesh 3,000
11. Tacher Thermal Orissa 840
12. Simhadri Andhra Pradesh 3,000
13. Tanda Uttar Pradesh 440
Total 19,980
@ Capacity presently under implementation.
Vindyachal 1000 MW
Unchahar 210 MW
Kahalgoan State II
Phase I 1500 MW
Phase II 1000 MW
Gas Based Projects:
14. Anta Rajasthan 413
15. Auralya Uttar Pradesh 652
16. Kawas Gujarat 645
17. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 817
18. Jahanor-Gandhar Gujarat 648
19. Kayamkulam Kerala 350
20. Faridabad Haryana 430
Total 24,249
Grand total (Coal + Gas + JV)
37
Capacity Power station managed State Installed
By NTPC (MW)
21. Badarpur Delhi 705
Sterling Performance of 2005-06:-
1. The company takes a new name “NTPC Limited” aligned to its new
business plans.
2. The company market capitalization J11 crosses Rs. One trillion (Rs.
1,00,000 crore) and is one of the top three largest Indian companies in terms
of market cap.
3. A highest ever generation of 170.88 BVs during 2005-06 registering an
increase 017.40% over the generation of 159.11 BVs during 2004-05.
4. With 19.51% [including capacity of joint venture companies] share of
the total installed capacity of the nation, NTPC contributed 27.68%
electricity generated in the country during 2005-06.
5. Coal stations of NTPC achieved an operating availability of 89.95%.
6. Coal stations of NTPC recorded a PLF of 87.54%, which is the highest
for any financial year since inception; Tilt PLF during previous year was
87.51%.
7. 100% realization for the third year in succession.
8. Provisional and un audited net sales of Rs. 2,59,928 million during the
year 2005-06 as against Rs. 2,25,316 million for the year 2004-05. however,
provisional and un audited Gross Revenue is Rs. 2,86,473 million during
2005-06 as against Rs. 2,55,460 million for the year 2004-05.
9. Provisional and un audited net profit after tax for the year 2005-06is Rs.
57,076 million a compared to Rs. 58, 070 million during the year 2004-05.
10. Total capacity added during the year four years of 10
th
plan period
(2002-2006) increases to 4000 MW with another 500 MW getting added
during the far company to 24,249 MW (including capacity of Joint venture
companies).
11. Construction works on 9470 MW in progress.
12. Further projects with capacity of 3720 MW under bidding process.
13. Ratnagiri Gas and power supply Pvt Ltd formed \\ith NTPC having a
stake of 28.33% for taking over and operating the Dabhol power project.
14. The Government allots 7 mort’ coal mining blocks to NTPC for
capacity use taking the total mines allotted to 8 with an expected output of
50 MT per annum.
15. A consortium comprising of NTPC and two other members allotted an
exploration block in Arunachal Pradesh.
38
16. Capital expenditure incurred in 2005-06 on capital scheme was Rs.
71,879 million compared to Rs. 53,603 million in 2004-05 capital outlay for
2J0607 set at Rs. 1,13,250 million.
17. A USD 1 Bn medium Tern Note programme established. NTPC
becomes the first Indian corporate since 1997 to make successful offering of
10 year fixed rate amounting to USD 300 million.
18. Standard & Poor’s have revised outlook on the rating of the company
from stable to positive while affirming the ‘BB+’ issuer rating.
19. An interim divided o 20% for the financial year 2005-06 amounting to
Rs. 16,491 million.
20. Government has assigned NTPC the consultant role to modernize and
improve several plants across the country in the partnership ‘In Excellence’
program of the government.
21. Collaborating the government in the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen
Vidyutikaran Yojuna.
22. NTPC has also taken up Distribution Generation for rural electrification
of remote villages through non-conventional energy sources.
23. Simhadri project receivers international project management award
instituted by International project management Association (IMPA) NTPC is
the only Asian Company that has received this award.
24. Ranked 3
rd
“Great Place to work for in India” by M/S Grow Talent and
Business world 2005.
25. NTPC has achieved all the targets to be rated “Excellent” during 2005-
06 for the nineteenth year since inception of the MOU system.
NTPC ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS:
The organizations design is one of the main factors, which ultimately
determines the effectiveness of enterprises.
The board of directors is the supreme policy making body, which give
the direction to the activities of the organization. The head of this board is
the chairman & managing director who is also the full time chief executive
of the company. The members of this board are both full-time directors as
well as senior level officers.
39
The basic divisions, which are accountable to CMD, Are:
1. Technical and Engineering division.
2. Corporate Commercial division.
3. Operation Services division.
4. Corporate Finance division.
5. Corporate Human resources division.
6. Corporate Projects Division.
7. Vigilance division.
NTPC RAMAGUNDAM
The foundation stone for RSTPS was laid on 14-11-1978 by Sri.
Morarji Dessai then Prime minister of India.
Ramagundam a vibrant 2600 MW station is a largest Thermal Power
station in South India with three 200 MW & three MW and 1× 500 sets and
also one of the largest in the country. Its emergency has put the Southern
States one step ahead in their effort to meet their power requirement.
Third in the series super Thermal Power Station set up by NTPC
Ramagundam. It is situated in the interiors of Andhra Pradesh on the banks
of Godavari River in Karimnagar District of Telangana, just across the old
pitheads of Singareni Collieries.
Ramagundam has been raising at this time & earned the proud
destination of being the only station in the country to omission all the seven
units ahead of schedule, constructed at a cost of Rs. 1702 crores, the station
has been one of the largest recipient its of the world Bank. Its project
implementation & financial control has earned a path from the World Bank
“Ramagundam a be considered as the school for construction of Power
projects”. The major external financing sources are IBRD, IDA & OPEC.
Ramagundam generation proportion has achieved the Govt. of India
meritorious productivity award as many four times. The beneficiaries of
RSTOS are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa and Pondicherry.
The plant load factor for the year 2003-04 was 8.3% and it stood in
the fourth place the NTPC station.
To cater to the growing demand for power the seventh unit of 500
MW is being added. The station had required infrastructure facilities and the
commitment of the employee. The project after completion will be the
largest power station supplying power to the Southern Grid. The Honorable
Union Minister of the Power Sri. Suresh Babu in the presence if Sri. N.
Chandra Babu Naidu, Honorable Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh laid the
foundation on 11th Jan 2002 and completed ahead of schedule.
40
COMPANY AT GLANCE
Installed Capacity : 2600MW
Unit Sizes : 3X200MW
4X500MW
Units Commissioned : Unit- I October, 1983
Unit- II May, 1984
Unit- III December, 1984
Unit- IV June, 1988
Unit- V March, 1989
Unit- VI October, 1989
Unit- VII November 2000
Transmission System : 2400 cks -400KV
Source of Coal : South Godavari Coal fields
of Singareni Colleries
Water Sources : Sri Ram Sagar Project
Beneficiary States : Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka, Kerala, Goa and
Pondicherry.
Approved investment : Rs. 3877.68 crores
Coal Consumption : 8.6 million tones per annum
Water Consumption : 250 cusec
Coal Transportation : (MGR) Merry-or-round system
of 22.5 kms Indian Railway.
Total Land : 10,000 Acres.
41
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Discuss the research design, research problems, important of the
study, scope and significance of the study, source of data, questionnaire,
sample design statistically techniques used, and objective of the study and
limitations of the study.
RESEARCH DESIGN:
A research design is an arrangement of conditions for collection and
analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research.
Purpose with economy in procedure. It is the conceptual structure
within which research is conducted and it constitutes the blueprint for the
collection, measurement and analysis of data. It includes an outline of what
the researcher will do from within the hypothesis and its operational
implications to the final analysis of data.
The research design used for the study is descriptive design.
Descriptive research design includes surveys and fact finding enquires of
different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of
the state of affairs, as it exists at present.
SOURCE OF DATA:
The relevant data has been collected from the primary sources and
secondary sources. The primary data is collected by a questionnaire from the
employees. For this purpose of data collection, the questionnaire was
circulated among the employees to collect information. The secondary data
is collected by news paper company journals, magazines websites etc.
QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION:
The questionnaire was prepared after counseling with the officer.
Employee relations of the HR department of NTPC. The researcher prepared
a set of questionnaire. A four point scale “strongly agree to strongly
disagree” was used for this purpose.
SAMPLE DESIGN:
A sample of 150 respondents was taken using random sampling. The
researcher contacted the executive personally and brief summary of the
nature of the study and details in the questionnaire were narrated to them.
42
PERIOD OF STUDY:
The present study had been undertaken for period of 6 weeks, in
which it had divided into three stages as such. Stage I is of research problem
and collection the literature of the topic chosen. Stage II is of analysis and
interpretations by using different statistical tools, findings and
recommendations.
STATISTICAL TOOLS USED:
For the purpose of present study percentage analysis was used.
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY:
1. The sample size chosen is covered only a small portion of the whole
population of NTPC, Ramagundam.
2. The study is confined to limited period i.e. Six weeks.
3. Accuracy of the study is purely based on the information as given by
the respondents.
4. Data collected cannot be asserted to the free from crores, as the
sample size restricted to the employees.
HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT
43

1. How often do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard
time” At the work place?

44
Options Response ( % )
Very often 9
often 26
Rarely 28
Very rarely 25
Never 12

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Very
Often
Often Rarely Very
rarely
Never
Response
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (52%) rarely
and very rarely says that they are busy at work place.
2. You think physical environment problem in the work place cause
Stress? ( Temperature, lighting, gases, dust )

Options Response ( % )
45
Strongly agree 26
Agree 36
Cannot say 16
Disagree 16
Strongly disagree 6
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
Opinion of study reveal that, majority of the respondents (62%) agree
with physical environment (Temperature, Lighting, Gases and Dust) causes
Stress.

3. You feel time pressure to complete work?

Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 10
46
Agree 41
Cannot say 13
Disagree 28
Strongly disagree 8

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
The finally yet importantly, the question asked about the
employees, majority of the employees (51%) of the NTPC agree and
strongly agree with above statement.
4. Do you feel lack of co-operation in office?
Options Response ( % )
Very often 9
47
often 26
Rarely 16
Very rarely 17
Never 32
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%)
faced lack of co-operation in office remaining (32%) of employees
never faced lack of co-operation in organization.
5. Family problems cause stress?

Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 19
Agree 41
48
Cannot say 11
Disagree 19
Strongly disagree 10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (60%)
strongly agree and agree with family problems causes stress.
6. Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems?
Options Response ( % )
Very often 5
often 17
49
Rarely 19
Very rarely 12
Never 47
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Very
Often
Often Rarely Very
rarely
Never
Response
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (47%) said
don’t love health problems like BP, sugar.
7. Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 39
Agree 36
50
Cannot say 11
Disagree 9
Strongly disagree 5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (75%)
agree with above statement that by doing physical exercise & yoga
stress will be reduced.
8. Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 40
Agree 37
51
Cannot say 14
Disagree 6
Strongly disagree 3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (77%)
agree with above statement that meditation & prayer to reduce the
stress.
9. Lack of communication causes stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 13
Agree 55
52
Cannot say 17
Disagree 9
Strongly disagree 6
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e

Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%)
agree with above statement i.e. lack of communication causes stress.
10.Spending time with your family reduces stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 35
Agree 44
53
Cannot say 9
Disagree 8
Strongly disagree 4
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (79%)
agree with above statement i.e. appending more time with family
reduces stress.
11.Improving working conditions, reduces the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 26
Agree 56
Cannot say 8
54
Disagree 7
Strongly disagree 3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Strongly
agree
Agree
Cannot
say
Disagree
Strongly
disagree

Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (82%)
agree with improving working conditions in office stress will be
reduce.
12.Rational allocation of work reduces the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 11
Agree 55
Cannot say 20
55
Disagree 10
Strongly disagree 4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e

Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (66%)
agree with rational allocation of work reduces the stress.
13.Financial motivations reduce the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 12
Agree 43
Cannot say 32
56
Disagree 10
Strongly disagree 3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (55%)
agree with above statement i.e. financial motivation reduces the stress.
14.Training & Development programs help to cope-up with new
technology reduces the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 16
Agree 52
Cannot say 21
57
Disagree 8
Strongly disagree 3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%)
agree with above statement i.e. training and development with
changes.
15.Need for family counseling is required?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 11
Agree 29
Cannot say 28
58
Disagree 19
Strongly disagree 13
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (40%)
agreed that family counseling is needed to plan and over come the
stress.
16.Relaxation reduces the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 32
Agree 48
Cannot say 13
59
Disagree 6
Strongly disagree 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e
Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (80%)
agree with above statement i.e. relaxation (holydays, leaves, family,
tours etc.) reduces stress.
17.Following safety precautions reduces the stress?
Options Response ( % )
Strongly agree 15
Agree 50
Cannot say 21
60
Disagree 10
Strongly disagree 4
0
5
10
15
20
25
Strongly
agree
Agree Cannot
say
Disagree Strongly
disagree
Respons
e

Interpretation:
As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (65%)
agree with above statement i.e. following safety precautions stress is
reduced.
61
FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS
FINDINGS:
The finding of the present revealed the following.
f Most of the respondent fall under law stress category.
f Thee is in significance relationship between stress &
demography factors i.e. age, experience & designation.
f The following dimensions of personal policies & practices of
the organization have contributed to stress among employees.
62
f Respondents who fall under the E2A & E5 grade are more
stressed in comparison with the other grade.
fThe organization falls a very tall structure of stress among hierarchy
& this is one of the reasons for employees being stressed.
f There is no significancant difference of stress among
employees working in plant & other departments.
f The employees working in the plat gave a positive response in
answering the questionnaire
SUGGESTIONS:
A Small percentage of the employees did have high stress. Person
facing stress at the organizational level of lot of psychological problems in
the form of decreased motivation, absenteeism low productivity targets not
being achieving etc. as a reedy for the above said employees facing stress
are advised to attend stress management courses which will help them to
build coping strategies and cause out their stress. The stress management
cause comprise of a package program consisting of:
+Relaxation
+Positive outlook towards works / responsibilities
+Self analysis through personality type testes
+Inter personal skill development
+Protection yoga cum meditation
+Time management
+Since T & D job related factors, performance appraisal & job
satisfaction were perceived stressful by the employees, the
employees should be counseled regarded the matter
+ At the individual level the employees could practice a relaxing
holiday (where in quality time is spent with the family) every
fortnight or mouth
+Realize excessive use of tea / coffee cigarette is not answer to
stress
+Try to get 6-7 hrs of continuous sleep per day
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION:
The present study was conducted at NTPC in Ramagundam.
The aim was to find the stress levels, personality type of the
63
employees. This was done using a detailed questionnaire. The study
reveled that fall under low stress category only a small percentage is
highly stressed & needed prevailing in the organization to some
extent.
At the end of the study, we can conclude that through there are
signs of stress among the employees & such stress is affecting their
behaviors, it can be controlled & reduced effectively.
This can be done by giving counseling & incorporating the
suggestions given here in at individual & organization level.

64
1. How often do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard time” At
the work place?
Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( )
Very rarely ( ) Never ( )
2. You think physical environment problem in the work place cause Stress?
(Temperature, lighting, gases, dust)
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
65
3. You feel time pressure to complete work?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
4. Do you feel lack of co-operation in office?
Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( )
Very rarely ( ) Never ( )
5. Family problems cause stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
6. Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems?
Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( )
Very rarely ( ) Never ( )
7. Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
8. Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
9. Lack of communication causes stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
10.Spending time with your family reduces stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
11.Improving working conditions, reduces the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
12.Rational allocation of work reduces the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
66
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
13.Financial motivations reduce the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
14.Training & Development programs help to cope-up with new technology
reduces the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
15.Need for family counseling is required?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
16.Relaxation reduces the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
17.Following safety precautions reduces the stress?
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( )
Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
18.Please offer suggestions if any for better management of work stress in
NTPC.
67
BIBLIORAPHY
Books for reference:
Fred Luthans : “Organization Behavior”
Mc Graw Hill
International
Edition.
68
Stephen P. Robin : “Organization Behavior –
concept Controversies &
Applications”
V. Ashwatha Ramaiah : “A celebration
called Life”
Unique consultants (P) Ltd.
V. K. Jain : “The management
journal of power
professionals”
NTPC Articles.
69

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