You are on page 1of 27

Q.1WhatarethefunctionsthatHRattemptstofulfillinanyorganization. Answer: TheHumanResourcesdepartmentisresponsibleformanyvariedfunctionsincluding employment,safety,training,wage,andsalaryadministrationandresearchanddevelopment. Ahumanrelationsprogramrepresentsanattemptatenhancingemployeemotivationand workplacemorale. TheFunctionsthatHRattemptstofulfillinanyorganizationareasfollows: i. HumanResourcePlanning:Estimatingtheneedforresourcesinorderachievethedesired businessresults.HRplanscanbebothshortterm/immediateaswellaslongterm/strategic. TheHRteampartnerswiththelinemanagerstounderstandthebusinessgoalsandtargets fortheyearandtogetherplantheHRneedsinordertomeetthegoals.

ii. AcquisitionofHumanResources:Staffingtheorganizationwiththerightmixofskillsand competenciesattherighttime.ItalsoincludesHRinitiativeslikepromotionsandinternal jobpostingtofulfillthisrequirementforhumanresources.Staffingteamsinorganization areusuallyseparategroupofspecialistswhoworkcloselywiththelinemanagersto understandtheskillsandcompetenciesneededforthejobandengagetogethertoelectthe besttalentfortheopenposition. iii. TrainingandEmployeedevelopment:Focusesonmanagingtrainingactivitiestoupgrade skillsandknowledgeaswellassoftskillslikethereambuildingandleadership.Thetraining teamisagainagroupofHRspecialistwhoproposesthetrainingprogramandconsultswith thelinemanagerstoensurethattheprogramachievesthedesiredoutcomes iv. Buildingperformancemanagementsystems:Focusesontherightprocessestosetgoalsfor performanceasindividual/teamsandrelatedmeasurementmethods.ThisiscoreHR activityandissupportedbytheHRgeneralist. v. RewardsSystems:Establishingappropriatecompensationsystemsandrewardmechanism thatwouldrewardthedesiredoutcomeandresultsinaccordancewiththecorporate values.TheagainformsapartofHRgeneraliststasks.Howemployeesprogressinan organization,howtheyarepaidw.r.tinternalandexternalmarketfactors,whatemployee benefitsareofferedaresomeaspectsthatthisfunctionredresses. vi. Humanresourcesinformationsystems:Asystemthatwouldtakecareofoperational transactionsformthetimeanemployeejoinstillthetimeemployeeexits,likepersonal files,compensationadministration,payroll,benefitsadministrationandissuinglettersand testimonials.ThattaskissupportedbyasseparateHRoperationteamwhoactsasanHR helpdeskandprovidesinformationtotheemployee/managers.

Q.2.DiscusstheculturaldimensionsofIndianWorkforce. Answer: TheHumanResourceManagementpracticesinIndianorganizationsareaparodyofsorts. ThereisastrongfoundationthatisasimpleextensionoftheHRpracticesfromtheestablished westernorganizationsandthedevelopedcountries.Wecanfindtheculturalimpactonthe hiringpractices,compensationstandards,benefitsandstatutorybenefits,performancelinked rewardsandpayout,whichthoughinstepwithinternationalHRMpracticeshaveaflavortheir own. Thefoundationforunderstandingtheuniqueworkpracticesatacountrylevelcanbebestis understoodbyfirstunderstandingthecultureaspectsofthecountrysworkforce.The pioneeringworkdonebyDutchScientist,GeertHofstedeisausefultoolinunderstandingthe culturaldifferencesusedtodifferentiatecountries.Heidentifiedfiveculturaldimensions aroundwhichcountrieshavebeenclusteredandtheyarepowerdistance,uncertainly avoidance,individualism,masculinityandlongtermorientation. PowerDistance Powerdistanceistheextenttowhichlesspowerfulmembersofinstitutionsandorganizations acceptthatpowerisdistributedunequally.Countriesinwhichpeopleblindlyobeyofsuperior havehighpowerdistance. Highpowerdistancecountrieshavenorms,valuesandbeliefsthatsupport: Inequallyisgood;everyonehasaplace;somearehigh,somearelow. Mostpeopleshouldbedependentonaleader, Thepowerfulareentitledtoprivileges,and Thepowerfulshouldyieldthepower Indiascore77onpowerdistance,indicatinghighpowerdistanceasaresultoftheinequalities bothatthelevelofsocietyaswellastheattheworkplace.Indianorganizationtypicallyhave hierarchicalstructures,policiesyieldpowerandsubordinationisacceptable. Thedimensionofhighpowerdistanceattheworkplacecanbebestunderstoodas: Peopledislikeworkandtrytoavoidit ManagersbelievethattheymustadopttheoryXleadershipstyle,thatis,theymustbe authoritarian,andforceworkerstoperformandneedtosupervisetheirsubordinatedclosely.

Organizationalstructureandsystemstendtomatchtheassumptionregardingleadershipand motivation Decisionmakingiscentralized. Thoseatthetopmakemostofthedecision.Organizationtendstohavetallstructures. Theywillhavealargeproportionofsupervisorypersonaland Thepeopleatthelowerleveloftenwillhavelowjobqualifications Suchstructuresencourageandpromoteinequalitybetweenpeopleatdifferentlevels. UncertaintyAvoidance Uncertaintyavoidanceistheextenttowhichpeoplefeelthreatenedbyambiguoussituation, andhavecreatedbeliefsandinstitutionsthattrytoavoidthese. Indiascores40indicatinglowtoaverageuncertainlyavoidancecharacterizes.Countrieswith lowtoaverageuncertainlyavoidancehavepeoplewhoaremorewillingtoacceptthatrisksare associatedwiththeunknown,andthatlifemustgooninspiteofthis Specifically,highuncertainlyavoidancecountriesarecharacterizedbynorms,valuesandbeliefs whichacceptthat: Conflictshouldnotbeavoided Deviantpeopleandideasshouldbetolerated, Lawsarenotveryimportantandneednotnecessarilybefollowed, Expertsandauthoritiesarenotalwayscorrectandconsensusisnotimportant. Lowuncertaintyavoidancesocietysuchasourshaveorganizationsettingwithlessstructuring ofactivities,fewerwrittenrules,morerisktakingbymanagers,higherlaborturnoverand moreambitiousemployees.Suchanorganizationencouragesemployeestousetheirinitiative andassumeresponsibilityfortheiractions.DenmarkandGreatBritainaregoodexamplesof lowuncertaintyavoidancecultures.Germany,JapanandSpaintypifyhighuncertainty avoidancesocieties. Individualism Individualismisthetendencyofpeopletolookafterthemselvesandtheirfamilyonly.The oppositeofthiscollectivismwhichreferstothetendencyofpeopletobelongtogroupandto

lookafterotherinexchangeforloyaltyIndiascore48onindividualism,indicatingsomewhat lowscores,thereforetendingtowardsamorecollectisticsociety. Collectivistcountriesbelievethat: Onesidentityisbasedononesgroupmembership, Groupdecisionmakingisbestand Groupprotectindividualsinexchangefortheirloyaltytothegroup Organizationsincollectivistsocietiestendtopromotenepotisminselectingmanagers.In contrast,inindividualismsocieties,favoritismshowntofriendsandrelativesisconsideredtobe unfairandevenillegal.Furtherorganizationsincollectivistculturebasepromotionsmostlyon seniorityandage,whereasinindividualistsocieties;theyarebasedononesperformance. Finallyincollectivistcultures,importantdecisionsaremadebyolderandseniormanagersas opposedtoindividualistcultures,wheredecisionmakingisanindividualsresponsibility. IndividualismiscommonintheUS,Canada,Australia,DenmarkandSweden.Thepeopleof India,Indonesia,andPakistan&NumberofSouthAmericancountriesexhibitcollectivism. Masculinity Masculinityreferstoasituationinwhichthedominantvaluesinasocietyaresuccess,money andothermaterialthings.Hofstedemeasuredthisdimensiononacontinuumrangingfrom masculinitytofemininity.Indiascores56tendingtobeclosedtomasculinitythanfeminity. Inhighlymasculinesocieties,jobsareclearlydefinedbygender.Therearemensjobsand womensjobs.Menusuallychoosejobsthatareassociatedwithlongtermcareers.Women usuallychoosejobsthatareassociatedwithshorttermemployment,beforemarriage. Q.3.ExplaintheneedforHumanResourcePlanningsystem. Answer: Planningisconsideredtobethefirststepfortaskperformance.Humanresourceplanning activityisthemostimportantandcrucialstepinbuildingandgrowinganorganization.Itisthe processbywhichthemanagementdetermineshowanorganizationshouldmovefromits currentmanpowerpositiontoitsdesiredmanpowerposition.Throughhumanresource planning,themanagementstrivestohavetherightnumberandrightkindofpeopleattheright placeattherighttimetodothingswhichresultsinboththeorganizationandindividual receivingthemaximumlongrangebenefit.

Theorganizationsbusinessplantoinvestinaparticularproduct/marketoraservicewilldrive theHRPactivitytowardshiringtomeetthebusinessneed.Intheeventanorganizationis divestingorshuttingdownaparticularbusinessunitoramanufacturingdivisiontheHRP activitieswouldfocusontheredeploymentoftheworkforcethatwillberenderedunemployed asaresultofthebusinessdecision.Anorganizationwantingtoretainitscurrentmarketshare andrevenueprojectionatstatusquowouldbesupportedbyHRPactivitiesthatarelimitedto onlyfillingpositionsfallingvacantduetonaturalorganizationalattrition.HencetheHRPfocus inaorganizationsiscloselylinkedtothebusinessplanandactsasabridgebetweenwhatan organizationwishestoachieveandhowitwillgoaboutachievingitw.r.t.thehumanresources requirements. HumanResourceplanningisamandatorypartofeveryorganizationsannualplanningprocess. Everyorganizationthatplansforitsbusinessgoalsfortheyearalsoplansforhowitwillgo aboutachievingthemandthereintheplanningforhumanresource. i. Tocarryonitswork,eachorganizationneedscompetentstaffwithnecessary qualifications,skills,knowledge,workexperienceandaptitudeforwork. Sinceemployeesexitanorganizationbothnaturallyandunnaturally,thereisanon goingneedforhiringreplacementstafftoaugmentemployeeexit.Otherwisework wouldbeimpacted. iii.
Inordertomeettheneedformoreemployeesduetoorganizationalgrowthandexpansion, thisinturncallsforlargerquantitiesofthesamegoodsandservicesaswellasnewgoods.This growthcouldberapidorgradualdependingonthenatureofthebusiness,itscompetitors,its positioninthemarketandthegeneraleconomy.

ii.

iv.
Oftenorganizationsmightneedtoreplacethenatureofthepresentworkforceasaresultofits changingneeds,thereforetheneedtohirenewsetofemployees.Tomeetthechallengeofthe changedneedsoftechnology/product/serviceinnovationtheexistingemployeesneedtobe trainedornewskillsetsinducedintotheorganization.

v.
Manpowerplanningisalsoneededinordertoidentifyanorganizationsneedtoreduceits workforce.Insituationswheretheorganizationisfacedwithsevererevenueandgrowth limitationsitmightneedtoplanwelltomanagehowitwillreduceitsworkforce.Optionssuch asredeploymentandoutplacementcanbeplannedforandexecutedproperly.

Q.4.ElucidatetheclassificationofwagesintheIndianSystem. Answer:

Thesalaryorwageorcompensationsystemsaredesignedtoensurethatemployeesare rewardedappropriatelydependingonwhattheydoandtheskillsandknowledgerequiredfor doingaspecificjob.Thebasicpurposeofwageandsalaryadministration,alsotermedas compensationmanagementistoestablishandmaintainequitablewageandsalaryprograms. Theotherobjectiveistodesignandimplementanequitablelabourcoststructure.i.e.,an optimalbalancingofconflictingpersonnelinterestssothatthesatisfactionofemployeesand employersismaximized. Awageisacompensation,usuallyfinancial,receivedbyaworkerinexchangefortheirlabor. TheInternationallabourOrganization(ILO)inoneofitspublicationsclassifiedwagesasunder: Theamountnecessaryformeresubsistence; Theamountnecessaryforhealthanddecency;and Theamountnecessarytoprovideastandardofcomfort.

InIndia,wagesareclassifiedas: Minimumwage Fairwage Livingwage

Letuslookattheseindetail, MinimumWage AminimumwagehasbeendefinedbytheCommitteeas"thewagewhichmustprovidenot onlyforthebaresustenanceoflife,butforthepreservationoftheefficiencyoftheworker.For thispurpose,theminimumwagemustprovideforsomemeasureofeducation,medical requirementsandamenities".Inotherwords,aminimumwageshouldprovideforthe sustenanceoftheworker'sfamily,forhisefficiency,fortheeducationofhisfamilymembers, fortheirmedicalcareandforsomeamenities.Itisverydifficulttodeterminetheminimum wagebecauseconditionsvaryfromplacetoplace,industrytoindustryandfromworkerto worker.However,theprinciplesfordeterminingminimumwageswereevolvedbythe GovernmentandhavebeenincorporatedintheMinimumWagesAct,1948,theimportant principlebeingthatminimumwagesshouldprovidenotonlyforthebaresustenanceoflifebut alsoforthepreservationoftheefficiencyoftheworkersbywayofeducation,medicalcareand otheramenities. FairWage AccordingtotheCommitteeoffairwages,itisthewagewhichisabovetheminimumwage butbelowthelivingwage.Thelowerlimitofthefairwageisobviouslytheminimumwage;the

upperlimitissetbythecapacityoftheindustrytopay.Betweenthesetwolimits,theactual wagesshoulddependonconsiderationsoffactorssuchas: i. ii. iii. iv. Theproductivityoflabour; Theprevailingratesofwagesinthesameorneighboringlocalities; Thelevelofnationalincomeanditsdistribution;and Theplaceofindustryintheeconomy.

LivingWage Thiswagewasrecommendedbythecommitteeasafairwageandasultimategoalinawage policy.Itcouldbedefinedasawagelevelthatallowstheearnertoaffordadequateshelter, foodandtheothernecessitiesoflife.Thegoalofthelivingwageistoallowemployeestoearn enoughincomeforasatisfactorystandardofliving.Inotherwords,alivingwagewastoprovide forastandardlivingthatwouldensuregoodhealthfortheworkerandhisfamilyaswellasa measureofdecency,comfort,educationforchildren,andprotectionagainstmisfortunes. Q.5.Ms.S.SharmaistheGeneralManagerHRofaprivateeducationalgroup.Sheisplanning forthepromotionpolicyforthefacultymembers.Thenormsarealsoruledbythegovernment policyandcriteria.Moreovertheoptionstopromotearelimited.SuggestMs.Sharmathe alternativewaytoverticalpromotion.Whatarethechallengesinimplementingthatoption? Answer: InVerticalPromotion,employeesarepromotedfromoneranktothenexthigherrankinthe samedepartmentordivision.Thisisbasedonthebeliefthatthisleadstoeffectiveutilizationof experiencegainedinthesamedepartment.Italsogivesanopportunitytotheemployeestogo upwhileincreasingtheirspecializationintheirareaofoperation.However,ithasgotone disadvantage.Thevacanciesmaybeveryfewinadepartment. MeSharmacanpromoteFacultymembertoaProfessor,butInthisCaseabiggestchallengefor MeSharmais,aLecturerworkinginaparticularDepartmentmaynotbecomeaProfessoror theHeadoftheDepartmentunlesshissuperiorsdie/retire/resign.Thismakestheperson frustrated.Besides,thistypeofpromotionlimitsaperson'scontactwithotherdepartments anddoesnotpermithimtoenhancehisknowledge/expertisewitheachyear'sexperience. Becausehisexperiencewouldbeoneortwoyear'sknowledgemultipliedby10to15years rotation.Ifhedoesnotgethispromotionattherighttimesincetheroomatthetopislimited hewillalsostartdislikinghisjob/organization.Asaresult,hebecomescounterproductive.

WecouldsuggesttoMs.SharmatoconsidertheHorizontalpromotionsasanalternativewayto verticalpromotion.Underthispolicy,anemployeemaybetransferredfromapositioninone departmenttoapositionofhigherrankinanotherdepartmentortothesamerankina differentdepartmentifthetransfergiveshimanopportunitytoacquiregreaterknowledgeand widerexperience.E.g.ifaSeniorLecturercannotgetpromotioninaparticularDepartmentfor obviousreasons,hemaybetransferredasRegistraroftheUniversityorasControllerof ExaminationsorDirectorofDistanceEducation.However,thereisonedifficulty.Unlessthe personisquitedynamicandintelligent,hemayfindthenewassignmentatoughoneand irksome.Tosome,itmaybeacauseforfrustration. However,formany,Horizontalpromotionevenifitisonlyapaperpromotionisachallenge sinceitallowsthemjobrotation. Q.6 ABCisanorganizationthatwantstorevisetheHRpolicies.Beforedoingthatitwantto havesomedetailsaboutthefollowing: Whattheemployeesthinkaboutthecompany? Whatdotheythink,inthecompanyisgoingwell? Whatpracticesinthecompanytheythinkarenotdoingwell? Getthefeedbackonmanagerialeffectiveness. Suggestthesuitablemethodtocollecttheemployeeopinionandexplainthemethod. Answer: Employeesurveytechniqueshavedevelopedsignificantlyoverthepastfewyears,withweb basedtechnologiesitiseasierandcheaperthanevertocollectandmanagedata.Inthepast, anyHRdriveninitiativewasseenastacticalandoflittlerealbenefittotheorganizationasa whole.NowmanyenlightenedorganizationsseeHRandemployeesurveysasapowerful businessimprovementtool. Customersnowhaveagreaterrangeofchoicesthaneverandarebecomingincreasinglybetter informed.Thisinturnmeansthatmanyhaveveryhighexpectationsand,iftheyfeeltheyare beingshortchangedinanyway,theytaketheinitiativeandswitchtheirallegiance.This reductioninconsumerloyaltycancreatedifficultiesinretainingexistingcustomers,causing organizationstoincreasetheamounttheyspendonengagingnewcustomers. Consumerchoicehasalsobroughtgreatercompetitivenesstothemarketandinmany situationsitisdifficultforanorganizationtodifferentiateitselffromthecompetitioninterms ofproductionrange,qualityandprice.Asaresult,themaindifferentiatorfororganizationshas tobethequalityofservicethatthecustomerreceives.Itisvitalforeveryinteractiontobea positiveone,notjustforthecustomer,butfortheemployeeaswell.Ifthecustomerishappy,

theyspendmoremoney,whichnaturallyimprovestheorganizationsoverallbusiness performance. DifferentTypesofEmployeeSurveyPrograms Annualclimateandemployeesatisfactionsurveysarebyfarthemostpopularkindofemployee surveyactivity.However,thefollowingtypesofsurveyprogramsarealsogaininginpopularity: Combiningemployeeandcustomersatisfactionstudies. Procedure/policyevaluation. Alignmentofemployeesbehindnewproductdevelopment. Alignmentofemployeesbehindorganizationalrebrandingandrepositioningefforts. Managingemployeesthroughorganizationalchangeprograms(e.g.merger, acquisition/downsizing,etc.). Internalcustomerserviceevaluations. Internalcommunicationsevaluations. Evaluationanddesignofdifferentbenefitsschemes. DefiningEmployeeSurveyGoalsandObjectives Beforestartingonastaffsurveyprocess,itisvitaltodefineasetofobjectivesforthesurvey. Withouttheseobjectives,thesurveyprogramwilllackfocusanditwillbedifficulttoraise enthusiasmforthesurveyamongyourkeyinfluencersanddecisionmakers.Allemployee surveyprogramsneedtobeseenasacompanywideinitiativethatisdrivenbymanagersand employeesfromacrossthewholeorganizationandnotsomethingthatissolelyinitiatedand managedjustwithinHR DecidingontheAppropriateSurveyMethodology Definingobjectivesattheoutsetwillhelptodeterminethemethodologybecause,tomeetthe desiredobjectives,youwillneedtoconsiderthefollowing: Areallemployeesaffectedandshouldallemployeesneedtobeinvolved? Willchangesandimprovementactionberequiredatdifferentlevelsacrosstheorganization?

Howwillmanagersandemployeesbeengagedintheimprovementprocess? Howwillawarenessofthesurvey,itsresultsandimprovementsberaisedandmanaged amongemployees? Howwilltheprogressofimprovementactionsbereviewed,monitoredandcommunicated overtime? Quantitativeandqualitativeresearchmethodscanbothbehighlyeffectiveinemployee surveys.Itisessential,though,toensurethatthecorrectmethodologyisusedforthetypeof surveybeingconducted. Employeesatisfactionsurveysarethemostcommonformofquantitativeresearch.Thereare occasionswhenbothmethodologiescanbeeffectivelycombined.Forexample,inanemployee satisfactionsurvey,youmaydecidetousefocusgroupsbeforedesigningthesurveyinorderto determinethesurveycontentand/orpilotquestionnaire. EmployeeSatisfactionSurveysItisworthwhileexaminingemployeesatisfactionsurveysin moredetailgiventhattheyarethemostpopulartypeofemployeesurvey. PreSurvey DuringtheSurvey PostSurvey BetweenSurveys ANINTRODUCTIONTOEMPLOYEESURVEYTECHNIQUES PlanningforEmployeeSatisfactionSurveys Thefollowingoutlinessomeofthefactorsthatshouldbecommunicatedateachstageofthe process: PreSurvey Objectivesofthesurvey,rationaleforthesurveyandhowtheresultswillbefedback Useanindependent,thirdpartyagencyfordatacollectionandanalysis Timingofthedatacollection Seniormanagementcommitmenttothesurvey

Importanceofgettingagoodresponseratesothatallemployeeopinionsareheard Importanceofparticipation Methodologytobeused Assurancethatthestudywillprotectanonymityandpreserveconfidentiality. DuringtheSurvey Reminderoftheobjectivesandassurancethatactionwillbetaken Assurancethatindividualsurveyscannotbeseen Regularremindersandanoticeofwhenthesurveycompletionperiodwillend Howtheresultswillbeactedupon Updateoncurrentresponserate Reinforcetheimportanceofparticipation Howemployeescanparticipateandwhatemployeesshoulddoifhavingproblemsaccessing orcompletingthesurvey Reinforceanonymityandconfidentialityoftheresults PostSurvey Thankemployeesforparticipatingandcommunicatehowresultswillbeshared Finalresponserate(Companywidevs.BusinessUnits/Divisions) Detailonhowemployeesshouldgetinvolvedintheimprovementactionplanningprocess Localresultsandlocalimprovementactionplanning Providetoplevelsummaryresults Reminderoftheactionplanningprocess BetweenSurveys Highlightandrecognizesuccessfulexamplesofactionplanningandprogressmade Recognizethecontributionsofteamsandindividualstotheactionplanningprocess

Seniormanagementendorsementandsupportofthefinalactionplan/surveyoutcomes Detailedplansforthenextsurvey Highlightanyareaswhereactioncannotbetakenandthereasonsforthis Highlighttheimpactofactionplanningoncustomerserviceandbusinessperformance ElectronicandWebEnabled Increasingly,organizationsarestartingtomovetowardselectronicmethodsofsurveyingtheir employeesandthemostcommonmethodishostingawebenabledsurvey. QuestionnaireDesign Thedesignofthequestionnaireisimportantasitcanhaveasmuchinfluenceovertheresponse rateasthemethodofcompletion. Thekeyincentive Incontrasttotheweakinfluenceofincentives,researchshowsthatemployeesaremorelikely toparticipateinanemployeesurveyiftheybelievethattheresultswillbeactedupon.The goldenruleofthistypeofsurveyisthat,ifyoudonotintendtoactontheresults,thendonot conductthesurveyinthefirstplace. ResultsAnalysisandReporting Therearemanydifferentwaysofanalyzing,cuttingandreportingresultsandeachorganization hastodecideindividuallyonthebestmethodfortheirneeds. IMPROVEMENTACTIONPLANNING BackgroundAsnotedearlier,theguidingprincipleofemployeesurveyisthat,ifyouarenot preparedtoactontheresults,thendonotconductthesurveyinthefirstplace.Youhavespent timeandeffortgettingemployeesenthusiasticaboutthesurveyandtheynowhavehigh expectationsthattherewillbeimprovementactivityinwhichtheywillbeinvolved. Improvementactionplanningshouldbetopdownprocesswheretheprioritiesforthe organizationareidentified,communicatedandacteduponattheseniormanagementlevel. ThenmovingdowntoDivisionalandUnitlevels,localteamsshouldidentifyandtacklethe thingsthattheyhavedirectcontroloverandescalateanythingelsebackupwards. PrioritizingImprovementActionsPrioritizationofimprovementactionsshouldbetakenunder consideration.Someorganizationsstrugglewithimprovementactionplanningbecausetheytry totacklefartoomanyimprovementactionsatonceandstartspreadingthevaluableresources

theyhavetoothinlyovertoomanyactions.Ourrecommendationisthatnotmorethanthree tofourimprovementactionsshouldbetackledatonetimeandthatfurtheractionsshouldnot bepursueduntilatleastoneoftheexistingactionshasbeenfullycompleted. Thespecificcomponentsoftheplanshouldbeasfollows: 1.Areaforimprovement:Whatistheproblem?Whatimpactisithavingonemployeesand customers?Whatiscausingtheproblem? 2.WhatNeedstoHappen:Specifythespecificimprovementactionthatisrequiredtoaddress theproblem. 3.HowItWillHappen:Specifytheprocessandactivitiesrequiredaspartoftheimprovement action. 4.Timelines:Itisimportanttohaveatargetdateforcompletingthedeliveryoftheaction.This setsthefocusthatanytargetdeliverydateisrealisticandachievableanditmaybestretchedif notmet. 5.ActionOwner:Itisimportantforonepersontobeallocatedownershipfortheaction.This doesnotnecessarilymeanthatthispersonissolelyresponsibleforthedeliveryoftheaction, buttheyareresponsibleforensuringthatthedeliverydoesactuallyhappen.Ownershipfor actionsshouldbespreadaroundtheteamsothatnoonepersonisoverburdened. 6.Resources:Specifyanddeterminewhatindividualresourcesarerequiredsuchaspersonnel, money,materialsorsupportfromotherpartsoftheorganization. 7.ImprovementTargets:Itisimportanttobeabletodeterminewhetherimprovementactions arehavingthedesiredeffectbysettingimprovementtargets.Thesurveycanbeusedasa sourceforthisbypullingoutappropriatequestionsandsettingtargetsforimprovingtheresults tothesequestionsinthenextsurvey. 8.MethodofMeasurement:Listthedatasourcesthatwillprovidetheinformationneededfor improvementtargets. 9.ReviewDates:Specifyallofthedateswhentheimprovementactionwillbereviewed. 10.ReviewofProgress:Thisstepshouldbecompletedaftereachreviewtooutlinetheprogress madeagainsttheaction. 11.CompletionDate:Thedatewhentheactionwasfinallycompleted. 12.Impact:Completedaftertheactionhasfinallybeendeliveredtodefinetheimpactand differencethattheimprovementactionhasmadetoemployees,customersandthebusiness overall.

Q.1Discussthefactorsaffectingrecruitment. Answer: Recruitmentormanpowerselectionprocessisthefirststepintheemploymentoflabourand themethodsthroughwhichlabourisbroughtintoindustryhasmuchtodowiththeultimate successorfailureofsuchemployment.Recruitmenthasbeenregardedasthemostimportant functionofpersonneladministration,becauseunlesstherighttypeofpeoplearehiredeven thebestplans,organizationchartsandcontrolsystemswouldnotdomuchgood. Allorganizations,whetherlargeorsmall,doengageinrecruitingactivity,thoughnottothe sameextent.Theabilitytoidentifythecorrecttalentfornotjusttherole/jobbutalsofromthe organizationalvaluesperspectivecanbesummarizedasthekeyrecruitingchallenge. Fewfactorsthatimpactthenatureofrecruitment: vii. Thesizeoftheorganization:thesmallertheorganizationthemoretheneedtocarefully scrutinizethecandidateforajobandthefitmenttotheorganizationalculture.Theriskin caseofjobcandidatemismatchcanproveequallyexpensiveforasmallerorganizationas comparedtothelargerone. Theemploymentconditionsinthecountrywheretheorganizationislocatedcritically impactstherecruitingstrategy.Themethodsforrecruiting,theselectiontoolsthatare mostsuitedandthelegalframeworkthatbearontheemployeraresomeaspectsthatneed tobeconsidered. Theeffectsofpastrecruitingeffortswhichshowtheorganizationsabilitytolocateand keepgoodperformingpeopleconstantlyreviewingtheeffectivenessoftherecruiting methodsandtheselectiontoolsused,evaluatingthesuccessatworkofthenewrecruits aresomemethodsusedbyorganizationstoensurethatqualityhiringpracticesareinplace. Workingconditionsandsalaryandbenefitpackagesofferedbytheorganizationthismay influenceturnoverandnecessitatefuturerecruiting;(v)Therateofgrowthoforganization thephaseinthelifecycleofthefirmisameasureoftherecruitingeffort. Thelevelofseasonalityofoperationsandfutureexpansionandproductionprogrammes ensuringthattherecruitmentnumberscomefromawellplannedHumanResourcePlanis criticaltoensurethatthereisnooverhiringorunderhiringoftherequiredtalentto achievetheorganizationalobjectives. Cultural,economicandlegalfactorsthesetooaffecttherecruitingandselectionmethods thatareused.

viii.

ix.

x.

xi.

xii.

Q.2.RightTimeisawatchmanufacturingcompany.Ithashired20peoplerecentlyforthe company.Theywillbeinvolvedinmanufacturing,assemblingofwatches.Theywillbeusing differentmachinesandtoolsforthis.Whattypeoftrainingisbestforthem?Whatmaybethe advantagesandlimitationsofthetrainingmethod? Answer: Trainingtypeandmethodhavetobechosencarefullyandinrelationtotheprogramdesign objectives. Themainobjectivesofindividualtrainingmethodscouldbe: DemonstrationofValue:Completedemonstrationofjobrequirementsenablesthe traineetograspthemeaningofideas,concepts,orproceduresvisually.Suchamethod canbeusedeffectivelyasanaidtoovercomethe"breakdownofcommunication". Traineesrememberthingsthattheyseeandhear,muchlongerthantheydoinformation theyreceivethroughtalksorreadingalone. ii. EngagingtraineeInterest:Oneoftheimportantfactorstobekeptinmindinchoosinga methodisitsabilitytoholdandarousetheinterestofthetraineeinthelearningsituation. Atraineehastoconsideralternativemethodsofpresentingtrainingmaterialto participantsinordertostimulatetheirinterestandfacilitateretentionofthematter.For instance,iftraditionallythematterhasbeenpresentedthroughlectures,perhapsaudio visualmethodscouldbeused,orinsteadprojectworkbeassignedwhichwouldmean learningbydoingorresearchingthesubjectoneself. iii. Appealtomultiplesenses:Fromthetrainerspointofview,itwouldbebeneficialto utilizeasmanyofthetrainerssensesaspossible,inordertoimproveretentionof learning.Thetrainerhastounderstandandidentifytheproblemareai.e.,hehasto examinewhetherthereisaproblemwiththemannerinwhichthetaskisdone.Secondly, selectingtheappropriatemethodwouldbedependentonthelevelofthetraineeinan organizationshierarchy.Finally,beforeselectingatrainingmethod,thetrainershould keepinmindaboutcosteffectiveness. Consideringtheaboveobjectives,thebestsuitedtrainingmethodhereisOntheJobtrainings. Itisapopulartechniqueforstronglymotivatingthetraineetolearnsinceitislocatedinthe artificialsituationofaclassroom.Thefactthatthesuccessofthesystemdependsalmost entirelyupontheimmediatesupervisor,thetrainer,meansthatthepersonnelunithasamajor responsibilityformakingagood,effectiveteacheroutofeverysupervisor.Thesupervisor typicallyfollowsasetprocedure(asillustratedinthetable)intraininganemployeetoperform i.

aparticulartask.Thesuggestionsaccompanyingeachsteparegeneralguidesevolvedfrom bothexperienceandresearch. TableonTrainingProcedure Step Instructor preparation Trainingpreparation Suggestions 1.Dividetaskintologicalpartstocreatelessonplans. 2.Selectteachingtechniquese.g.,demonstration. 1.Placetraineeatease. 2.Relatetrainingtotraineeneedse.g.promotion. Presentingthetask 1.Presentoverviewoftask. 2.Proceedfromknowntounknown,easytodifficult. 3.Adjustpacetoindividualdifferences. 4.Gothroughtaskandexplaineachstep. 5.Havetraineetellinstructorwhattodo. TryoutPerformance 1.Havetraineeexplaineachsteppriortoexecution. 2.Beawareoflearningplateaustosustainmotivation. 3.Providefeedbackonprogress. Followup 1.Positivelyreinforcecontinuouslyatstart. 2.Movetovariablepositivereinforcementscheduleastrainee matures. Advantages:Themainadvantageofonthejobtrainingisthatthetraineelearnsontheactual equipmentinuseandinthetrueenvironmentofhisjob.Secondly,itishighlyeconomicalsince noadditionalpersonnelorfacilitiesarerequiredfortraining.Thirdly,thetraineelearnsthe rules,regulationsandproceduresbyobservingtheirdaytodayapplications.Fourthly,thistype oftrainingisasuitablealternativeforacompanyinwhichtherearealmostasmanyjobsas thereareemployees.Finally,itismostappropriateforteachingtheknowledgeandskillswhich canbeacquiredinarelativelyshortperiodi.e.,afewdaysorweeks.

Disadvantages:Theprincipaldisadvantageofonthejobtrainingisthatinstructionisoften highlydisorganizedandhaphazardandnotproperlysupervised.Thisisduetosuchreasonsas theinabilityoftheexperiencedemployeetoimpartskillstothetrainee,thebreakdownofthe jobforthepurposeofinstructions,andthebackofmotivationonthepartofthetraineeto receivetraining.Further,theotherdrawbackisthelowproductivity,especiallywhenthe employeeisunabletofullydevelophisskills. Q.3.Writeanoteon360degreeappraisalmethod. Answer: Inanyorganization,ideallyeveryindividualneedstobeappraised.Theappraisalsystemshould beabletotakecareofthis,anditshallalsomeettheneedsandtheobjectivesofthe organization. Mostly,performanceappraisalhasbeenlimitedtoafeedbackprocessbetweenemployeesand Managers.However,withtheincreasedfocusonteamwork,employeedevelopment,and customerservice,theemphasishasshiftedtoemployeefeedbackfromthefullcircleofsources depictedinthediagrambelow.Thismultipleinputapproachtoperformancefeedbackiscalled "360degreeassessment"toconnotethatfullcircle. The360degreematrix Therearenoprohibitionsinlaworregulationagainstusingavarietyofratingsources,in additiontotheemployeesManager,forassessingperformance.Researchhasshown
Sub ordinate

Internal Customer

Superior

External Customer

Peer

Self

Peer

assessmentapproacheswithmultipleratingsourcesprovidemoreaccurate,reliable,and credibleinformation.Forthisreason,HRManagementsupportstheuseofmultiplerating sourcesasaneffectivemethodofassessingperformanceforformalappraisalandother evaluativeanddevelopmentalpurposes. Thecircle,orperhapsmoreaccuratelythesphere,offeedbacksourcesconsistsofsuperiors, peers,subordinates,customers,andonesself.Itisnotnecessary,oralwaysappropriate,to includeallofthefeedbacksourcesinaparticularappraisalprogram.Theorganizationalculture andmissionmustbeconsidered,andthepurposeoffeedbackwilldifferwitheachsource.For example,subordinateassessmentsofaManagersperformancecanprovidevaluable developmentalguidance,peerfeedbackcanbetheheartofexcellenceinteamwork,and customerservicefeedbackfocusesonthequalityoftheteamsoragencysresults.The objectivesofperformanceappraisalandtheparticularaspectsofperformancethataretobe assessedmustbeestablishedbeforedeterminingwhichsourcesareappropriate. Thecontributionsofeachsourceofratingsandfeedbackandtheprecautionswhendesigninga performancemanagementprogramthatincludes360degreeassessmentarediscussedbelow. vi. Superiors:Evaluationsbysuperiorsarethemosttraditionalsourceofemployeefeedback. ThisformofevaluationincludesboththeratingsofindividualsbyManagersonelementsin anemployeesperformanceplanandtheevaluationofprogramsandteamsbysenior managers. Whatdoesthissourcecontribute? ThefirstlineManagerisofteninthebestpositiontoeffectivelycarryoutthefullcycleof performancemanagement:Planning,Monitoring,Developing,Appraising,andRewarding. TheManagermayalsohavethebroadestperspectiveontheworkrequirementsandbe abletotakeintoaccountshiftsinthoserequirements. Thesuperiors(boththefirstlineManagerandtheseniormanagers)havetheauthorityto redesignandreassignanemployeesworkbasedontheirassessmentofindividualand teamperformance. MostGovernmentemployeesinanationalsurveyfeltthatthegreatestcontributiontotheir performancefeedbackshouldcomefromtheirfirstlevelManagers. Whatcautionsshouldbeaddressed? Researchdemonstratesthatappraisalprogramsthatrelysolelyontheratingsofsuperiors arelessreliableandvalidthanprogramsthatuseavarietyofotherratingsourcesto supplementtheManagersevaluation.

1.

2.

3.

1.

2. Superiorsshouldbeabletoobserveandmeasureallfacetsoftheworktomakeafair evaluation.Insomeworksituations,theManagerorratingofficialisnotinthesame locationorissupervisingverylargenumbersofemployeesanddoesnothavedetailed knowledgeofeachemployeesperformance. 3. Managersneedtrainingonhowtoconductperformanceappraisals.Theyshouldbecapable ofcoachinganddevelopingemployeesaswellasplanningandevaluatingtheir performance. vii. SelfAssessment:Thisformofperformanceinformationisactuallyquitecommonbut usuallyusedonlyasaninformalpartoftheManageremployeeappraisalfeedbacksession. Managersfrequentlyopenthediscussionwith:"Howdoyoufeelyouhaveperformed?"In asomewhatmoreformalapproach,Managersaskemployeestoidentifythekey accomplishmentstheyfeelbestrepresenttheirperformanceincriticalandnoncritical performanceelements.Ina360degreeapproach,ifselfratingsaregoingtobeincluded, structuredformsandformalproceduresarerecommended. Whatdoesthissourcecontribute? 1. Themostsignificantcontributionofselfratingsistheimprovedcommunicationbetween Managersandsubordinatesthatresult. 2. Selfratingsareparticularlyusefuliftheentirecycleofperformancemanagementinvolves theemployeeinaselfassessment.Forexample,theemployeeshouldkeepnotesoftask accomplishmentsandfailuresthroughouttheperformancemonitoringperiod. 3. Thedevelopmentalfocusofselfassessmentisakeyfactor.Theselfassessmentinstrument (inapaperorcomputersoftwareformat)shouldbestructuredaroundtheperformance plan,butcanemphasizetrainingneedsandthepotentialfortheemployeetoadvancein theorganization. 4. Thevalueofselfratingsiswidelyaccepted.Morethanhalfofgovernmentemployeesfelt thatselfratingswouldcontribute"toagreatorverygreatextent"tofairandwellrounded performanceappraisal. 5. Selfappraisalsshouldnotsimplybeviewedasacomparativeorvalidationprocess,butasa criticalsourceofperformanceinformation.Selfappraisalsareparticularlyvaluablein situationswheretheManagercannotreadilyobservetheworkbehaviorsandtask outcomes. Whatcautionsshouldbeaddressed? 1. Researchshowslowcorrelationsbetweenselfratingsandallothersourcesofratings, particularlyManagerRatings.Theselfratingstendtobeconsistentlyhigher.This

2. 3.

viii.

1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

discrepancycanleadtodefensivenessandalienationifManagersdonotusegoodfeedback skills. Sometimesselfratingscanbelowerthanothers.Insuchsituations,employeestendtobe selfdemeaningandmayfeelintimidatedand"putonthespot." Selfratingsshouldfocusontheappraisalofperformanceelements,notonthesummary leveldetermination.Arangeofratingsources,includingtheselfassessments,helpto "roundout"theinformationforthesummaryrating. Peers:Withdownsizingandreducedhierarchiesinorganizations,aswellastheincreasing useofteamsandgroupaccountability,peersareoftenthemostrelevantevaluatorsof theircolleaguesperformance.Peershaveauniqueperspectiveonacoworkersjob performanceandemployeesaregenerallyveryreceptivetotheconceptofratingeach other.Peerratingscanbeusedwhentheemployeesexpertiseisknownorthe performanceandresultscanbeobserved.Therearebothsignificantcontributionsand seriouspitfallsthatmustbecarefullyconsideredbeforeincludingthistypeoffeedbackina multifacetedappraisalprogram. Whatdoesthissourcecontribute? Peerinfluencethroughpeerapprovalandpeerpressureisoftenmoreeffectivethanthe traditionalemphasistopleasetheboss.Employeesreportresentmentwhentheybelieve thattheirextraeffortsarerequiredto"makethebosslookgood"asopposedtomeeting theunitsgoals. Peerratingshaveproventobeexcellentpredictorsoffutureperformance.Therefore,they areparticularlyusefulasinputforemployeedevelopment. Peerratingsareremarkablyvalidandreliableinratingbehaviorsand"mannerof performance,"butmaybelimitedinratingoutcomesthatoftenrequiretheperspectiveof theManager. TheuseofmultipleRatersinthepeerdimensionof360degreeassessmentprogramstends toaverageoutthepossiblebiasesofanyonememberofthegroupofRaters.(Some agencieseliminatethehighestandlowestratingsandaveragetherest.) Theincreaseduseofselfdirectedteamsmakesthecontributionofpeerevaluationsthe centralinputtotheformalappraisalbecausebydefinitiontheManagerisnotdirectly involvedinthedaytodayactivitiesoftheteam. TheadditionofpeerfeedbackcanhelpmovetheManagerintoacoachingroleratherthan apurelyjudgingrole. Whatcautionsshouldbeaddressed?

1. Peerevaluationsarealmostalwaysappropriatefordevelopmentalpurposes,but attemptingtoemphasizethemforpay,promotion,orjobretentionpurposes(i.e.,the ratingofrecord)maynotbeprudent.Thepossibleexceptionisinanawardprogramas opposedtoperformanceappraisal.Peerinputcanbeeffectivelyusedforrecognition andawards. 2. Thereisadifferenceofopinionabouttheneedforanonymityofthepeerevaluators. Generally,itisadvisedthattheidentitiesoftheRatersbekeptconfidentialtoassure honestfeedback.However,incloseknitteamsthathavematuredtoapointwhere opencommunicationispartoftheculture,thedevelopmentalpotentialofthefeedback isenhancedwhentheevaluatorisidentifiedandcanperformacoachingorcontinuing feedbackrole. 3. Itisessentialthatthepeerevaluatorsbeveryfamiliarwiththeteammemberstasks andresponsibilities.Incrossfunctionalteams,thisknowledgerequirementmaybea problem.Inthesesituations,thegreatestcontributionthepeerscanmakepertainsto thebehaviorsandeffort(input)theemployeeinvestsintheteamprocess. 4. Theuseofpeerevaluationscanbeverytimeconsuming.Whenusedinperformance ratings,thedatawouldhavetobecollectedseveraltimesayearinordertoincludethe resultsinprogressreviews. 5. Dependingonthecultureoftheorganization,peerratingshavethepotentialfor creatingtensionandbreakdownratherthanfosteringcooperationandsupport.Avery competitiveprogramforrewardingindividualsintheagencywilloftenfurther compromisethevalueofpeerratingsystems. 6. Employeesandtheirrepresentativesneedtobeinvolvedineveryaspectofthedesign ofappraisalsystemsthatinvolvepeerratings. ix. Subordinates:Anupwardappraisalprocessorfeedbacksurvey(sometimesreferredtoas SAMfora"SubordinatesAppraisingManagers")isamongthemostsignificantandyet controversialfeaturesofa"fullcircle"performanceevaluationprogram.Bothmanagers beingappraisedandtheirownsuperiorsagreethatsubordinateshaveaunique,often essential,perspective.Thesubordinateratingsprovideparticularlyvaluabledataon performanceelementsconcerningmanagerialandManagerialbehaviors.However,thereis usuallygreatreluctance,evenfear,concerningimplementationofthisratingdimension.On balance,thecontributionscanoutweightheconcernsiftheprecautionsnotedbeloware addressed. Whatdoesthissourcecontribute? 1. AformalizedsubordinatefeedbackprogramwillgiveManagersamorecomprehensive pictureofemployeeissuesandneeds.ManagersandManagerswhoassumetheywill

2.

3.

4.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

sufficientlystayintouchwiththeiremployeesneedsbyrelyingsolelyonan"opendoor" policygetveryinconsistentfeedbackatbest. Employeesfeeltheyhaveagreatervoiceinorganizationaldecisionmakingand,infact,they do.Throughmanagerialactionplansandchangesinworkprocesses,theemployeescansee thedirectresultsofthefeedbacktheyhaveprovided. ThefeedbackfromsubordinatesisparticularlyeffectiveinevaluatingtheManagers interpersonalskills.However,itmaynotbeasappropriateorvalidforevaluatingtask orientedskills. Combiningsubordinateratings,likepeersrating,canprovidetheadvantageofcreatinga compositeappraisalfromtheaveragedratingsofseveralsubordinates.Thisaveragingadds validityandreliabilitytothefeedbackbecausetheaberrantratingsgetaveragedoutand/or thehighandlowratingsaredroppedfromthesummarycalculations. Whatcautionsshouldbeaddressed? Theneedforanonymityisessentialwhenusingsubordinateratingsasasourceof performancefeedbackdata.Subordinatessimplywillnotparticipate,ortheywillgive gratuitous,dishonestfeedback,iftheyfearreprisalfromtheirManagers.Iftherearefewer thanfoursubordinatesintheratingpoolforaparticularmanager,theratings(eventhough theyareaveraged)shouldnotbegiventotheManager. Managersmayfeelthreatenedandperceivethattheirauthorityhasbeenundermined whentheymusttakeintoconsiderationthattheirsubordinateswillbeformallyevaluating them.However,researchsuggeststhatManagerswhoaremoreresponsivetotheir subordinates,basedonthefeedbacktheyreceive,aremoreeffectivemanagers. Subordinatefeedbackismostbeneficialwhenusedfordevelopmentalpurposes.Italsocan beusedinarrivingattheperformanceratingofrecord,butprecautionsshouldbetakento ensurethatsubordinatesareappraisingelementsofwhichtheyhaveknowledge.For example,ifaManagersperformanceplancontainselementsthataddresseffective leadershipbehaviors,subordinateinputwouldbeappropriate.Itmaynotbeappropriate fortheemployeetoappraisetheManagersindividualtechnicalassignments. Onlysubordinateswithasufficientlengthofassignmentunderthemanager(atleast1year isthemostcommonstandard)shouldbeincludedinthepoolofassessors.Subordinates currentlyinvolvedinadisciplinaryactionoraformalperformanceimprovementperiod shouldbeexcludedfromtheratinggroup. Organizationscurrentlyundergoingdownsizingand/orreorganizationshouldcarefully balancethebenefitsofsubordinateappraisalsagainstthelikelihoodoffuelinganalready tensesituationwithdistrustandparanoia.

x.

1.

2.

1.

2.

3.

Customers:SettingCustomerServiceStandardsrequiresagenciestosurveyinternaland externalcustomers,publishcustomerservicestandards,andmeasureagencyperformance againstthesestandards.Internalcustomersaredefinedasusersofproductsorservices suppliedbyanotheremployeeorgroupwithintheagencyororganization.External customersareoutsidetheorganizationandinclude,butarenotlimitedto,thegeneral public. Whatdoesthissourcecontribute? Customerfeedbackshouldserveasan"anchor"foralmostallotherperformancefactors. Combinedwithpeerevaluations,thesedataliterally"roundout"theperformancefeedback programandfocusattentionbeyondwhatcouldbeasomewhatselfservinghierarchyof feedbacklimitedtotheformal"chainofcommand." Includingarangeofcustomersinthe360degreeperformanceassessmentprogram expandsthefocusofperformancefeedbackinamannerconsideredabsolutelycriticalto reinventingGovernmentEmployees,typically,onlyconcentrateonsatisfyingthestandards andexpectationsofthepersonwhohasthemostcontrolovertheirworkconditionsand compensation.ThispersonisgenerallytheirManager.Servicetothebroaderrangeof customersoftensuffersifitisneglectedinthefeedbackprocess. Whatcautionsshouldbeaddressed? Withfewexceptions,customersshouldnotbeaskedtoassessanindividualemployees performance.Thevalueofcustomerservicefeedbackismostappropriateforevaluating teamororganizationaloutputandoutcomes.Thisfeedbackcanthenbeusedaspartofthe appraisalforeachmemberoftheteam.Thepossibleexceptionsareevaluationsofsenior officialsdirectlyaccountableforcustomersatisfactionandevaluationsofindividual employeesinkey"frontline"jobspersonallyservinginternalorexternalcustomers. Customers,bydefinition,arebetteratevaluatingoutputs(productsandservices)as opposedtoprocessesandworkingrelationships.Theygenerallydonotseeorparticularly careabouttheworkprocesses,andoftendonothaveknowledgeofhowtheactionsof employeesarelimitedbyregulations,policies,andresources. Designingandvalidatingcustomersurveysareanexpensiveandtimeconsumingprocess. Thetimeandmoneyarebestspentdevelopingcustomerfeedbacksystemsthatfocuson theorganizationorworkunitasawhole.

Q.4.GivenbelowistheHRpolicyglimpseofZoomVideo,amultimediacompany 1.Itofferscashrewardsforstaffmembers 2.Itpromotesthecultureofemployeereferralandencouragespeopletoreferpeople theyknow,maybetheirfriends,ex.colleagues,batchmatesandrelatives. 3.Itrecognizesgoodperformancesandgivesgoodtitlesandtrophiestothepeoplewho performwellandalsofelicitatesthemintheAnnualDayofthecompany. Identifywhatallaspectsdoesittakecareof,basedondifferentlevelsofMaslowsNeed Hierarchy? Answer: Maslow'stheoryofbasicneedsdrawschieflyfromhumanpsychology.Hearrangedthehuman needsofanindividualinahierarchicalmanner.Maslowproposedanindividual'smotivationas apredeterminedorderofneedswhichhestrivestosatisfy.HismodelofHierarchyofNeeds indicatesthefollowingpropositionsabouthumanbehavior. ThecompanyZoomVideospolicytakescareoffollowingaspectsofMaslow'stheory: 1.OfferingcashrewardsforstaffmemberssatisfySafetyNeeds.Ifthephysiologicalneedsare relativelysatisfied,asetofneedsemergeforprotectionagainstdangerandthreats.Inan orderedsociety,apersonusuallyfeelssafefromextremesofclimate,tyranny,violenceandso on. 2.Promotingthecultureofemployeereferralandencouragespeopletoreferpeoplethey know,maybetheirfriends,ex.colleagues,batchmatesandrelativessatisfySocialNeeds.Ifthe physiologicalandsafetyneedsarefairlysatisfied,theneedsforloveandaffectionand belongingnesswillemergeandthecyclewillrepeatitselfwiththisnewcentre.Ifheisdeprived oftheseneedshewillwanttoattainthemmorethananythingelseintheworld. Anindividualdesiresaffectionaterelationshipswithpeopleingeneralanddesirestohavea respectedplaceinhisgroup. 3.Recognitionofgoodperformancesandgivinggoodtitlesandtrophiestothepeoplewho performwellandalsofelicitatingthemintheAnnualDayofthecompanysatisfyEsteemNeeds. Everyonehasaneedforselfrespectandfortheesteemofothers.Thisresultsinthedesirefor strength,confidence,prestige,recognitionandappreciation.Theseegoisticneedsarerarely completelysatisfied.Thetypicalindustrialandcommercialorganizationdoesnotoffermuch opportunityfortheirsatisfactiontoemployeesatthelowerlevels.

Q.5.Describetheemergingemployeeempowermentpractices. Answer: Itishumannaturetoexpressdiscontentmentwhenwefeelit.Whereverwehaveliterateand awarepeoplethisisanaturalprocesstofindfault.Thereishardlyanyorganizationwherethe employeesdonothavesomevoiceforgrievance.Theymayberealorimaginary,validor invalid,genuineorfalse.Whateverthenatureandthecause,itproducesunhappiness, frustration,discontent,indifferenceandpoormoraleamongsttheemployees.Ultimatelyit endswithanadverseeffectontheefficiencyandproductivityofanemployeeatwork. Intodaysorganizationsthefocusismovingtowardscollaborationattheworkplace.Oneofthe mostcommoninstrumentsestablishedinlargeorganizationshasbeentheEmployee SuggestionSchemes(ESS).TheESShasprovedeffectiveinallowingemployeesadiscrete methodofvoicingtheiropinionsandsuggestionforwhatcanbebettermanagedinthe company.Themanagementinvitestheemployeessuggestionsonall/anyissuethatisasource ofirritationfortheemployeesincludinggrievancesareopenforcomment.Whathoweveris differentisthattheemployeeisencouragedtoframeitasasuggestionandmakea recommendationforachange,ratherthantheclassicfaultfindingapproachaboutwhatis goingwrongorwhatisnotworkingwell.ThereareESSforms/templatesthatareleftin commonplacesortheemployeecandownloadfromthecompanyintranetandfillinthe suggestionforchangeanddropitinboxesleftcommonplaceslikethecoffeeareaorthelunch roomsetc..ThesesuggestionsarethencollatedbytheHRteamandonaquarterlybasisthe SuggestionCommitteemeetstoreviewallofthesuggestionsreceived.TheSuggestion Committeeincludeslinemanagers,HRrepresentativeandFinanceandFacilities& Administrationteammembersandseniormanagementrepresentativewhocanprovidethe necessaryguidanceforapprovalofthesuggestions.Thecommitteemeetsanddiscusseseach suggestionindepthandevaluatesthescopeforimplementationofthesuggestion.The feasibilityofimplementingthesuggestionanditsotherimplicationsareevaluatedcloselyand thesuggestionaccepted/setasideforfuturereview/rejected.Thereareawardsgivenawayfor excellentideasthathelpthecompanyoptimizecosts,productivityandimprovequality, customersatisfactionetc..TheHRthencommunicatesthesuggestioncommitteereportwithall employeesthroughamailorduringtheemployeesOpenhousesessions.Theemployeesopen housealsocalledtheallhandsmeetingisonemorecommunicationforumeffectivelyusedby theseniormanagementofacompanytoconnectwithitsemployees.Thisusuallyisaquarterly orahalfyearlymeetingtowhichallemployeesareinvited.Thereisabriefsharingofthe companysperformanceandtherestofthetimedevotedtoansweringanyqueriesthat employeesmighthaveonanyissuethatconcernsthecompanyanditsemployees.Thisisoften followedwithbyinformalinteractionsoverlunch/breakfast,whereonceagainemployeescan speaktotheseniorexecutivesandaskgeneralquestions.Oftenemployeesmightnotfeel

comfortableaskingtoughquestionsinanopenforum,hencetherearedropboxesprovided wheretheemployeecanwriteanddropaquestionoranopinionthathewantsthesenior managementtoanswer.Theemployeeneednotmentionhisnameonthequestionslip.Ifthe seniormanagementisunabletoansweraquestionthenandtherethesameisreviewed subsequentlybytheseniormanagementandaresponsesharedwithallemployeesovermailor postedonthenoticeboardorontheintranetsiteforeveryonetoread.Someorganizations alsooperateanemailcommunicationmethodwhereanyemployeewhohasaqueryoran observationcanwritehisquestiontothemailaliasandobtainaresponse.UsuallytheHRisthe custodianofthismailidandtheydothenecessaryreviewtosuitablyanswerthequestionsand seekthemanagersinputsonaasneededbasis.Theconceptoftaskforceisalsoacommon mechanismthatorganizationsusetobuildcrossfunctionalteams(withonerepresentative eachfromeachdepartment)thatwillworkonconcernsthatarecommonlyvoiced.Forexample aleadingmedicaltranscriptioncompanywantedtoreviewitsincentivepolicyandinorderto haveacollaborativeapproachputtogetherateamofemployeesoneeachfromeachofthe departmentsincludingrepresentativesfromHRandFinance.Theteamwasprovidedwithall thehistoricalinformationtheywouldneedandweregivenallof6weekstoworkontheproject andmakeapresentationtotheseniormanagementofthecompany.Afterthefirst presentationtothemandhavingincorporatedthefeedbackreceivedthetaskforcethen presentedthenewschemetotheemployees.Finallyitwasapprovedasapolicyandmade effective. Todaysorganizationsthereforeadoptacollaborativeapproachtoemployeeissues.Whilethe technologycompaniesaremoreinformalthetraditionalbrickandmotorcompanieshave formalprocesses.Whatevertheapproachwhetherformalorinformalemployeesare encouragedtoopenupandaskquestionsandperformascontendedemployees. Q.6.Writeanoteondirective,permissiveandparticipativetypeofleadership. Answer: Agoodleaderdisplaysgreatability,creativity,initiativeandconfidence.Headdsandgets cooperation,willingness,andbuildsemployeesmoraleandmotivation.Thereisaclassic debatablequestion:LeadersareBornandNotMade.Whateverbetheoutcomeofthis debate,thefactremainsthatleadersareofadifferentbreedandclassapart.Theyareordinary peoplewhodoextraordinaryConceptofLeadership.Leadershipisdefinedastherelationship inwhichonepersoninfluencesotherstoworkTogetherwillinglyonrelatedtaskstoattainthat levelwhichhedesires.Thatistosay,ifthereisnofollower,thereisnoleader. HaimandefinedLeadershipastheprocessbywhichanexecutiveoramanagerImaginatively directsguidesandinfluencestheworkofothersinchoosingandattainingspecifiedgoalsby

mediationbetweentheindividualandorganizationsinsuchamannerthatbothwillobtainthe maximumsatisfaction. Directivetypeofleadership:ThiscomesunderAutocratclassofleadershipHeisdirectiveand expectsobediencefromfollowers.(DoasIsayNot,asIdo)Hence,subordinatesdonotlike him. Authoritarianleadersprovideclearexpectationsforwhatneedstobedone,whenitshouldbe done,andhowitshouldbedone.Thereisalsoacleardivisionbetweentheleaderandthe followers.Authoritarianleadersmakedecisionsindependentlywithlittleornoinputfromthe restofthegroup. Researchersfoundthatdecisionmakingwaslesscreativeunderauthoritarianleadership. Lewisalsofoundthatitismoredifficulttomovefromanauthoritarianstyletoademocratic stylethanviceversa.Abuseofthisstyleisusuallyviewedascontrolling,bossy,anddictatorial. Authoritarianleadershipisbestappliedtosituationswherethereislittletimeforgroup decisionmakingorwheretheleaderisthemostknowledgeablememberofthegroup. Permissivetypeofleadership: ResearchersfoundthatchildrenunderPermissive(laissezfair)leadershipweretheleast productiveofallthreegroups.Thechildreninthisgroupalsomademoredemandsonthe leader,showedlittlecooperation,andwereunabletoworkindependently.Delegativeleaders offerlittleornoguidancetogroupmembersandleavedecisionmakinguptogroupmembers. Whilethisstylecanbeeffectiveinsituationswheregroupmembersarehighlyqualifiedinan areaofexpertise,itoftenleadstopoorlydefinedrolesandalackofmotivation. Participativetypeofleadership:comesunderDemocraticclassofleadership. Lewinsstudyfoundthatparticipative(democratic)leadershipisgenerallythemosteffective leadershipstyle.Democraticleadersofferguidancetogroupmembers,buttheyalso participateinthegroupandallowinputfromothergroupmembers.InLewinsstudy,children inthisgroupwerelessproductivethanthemembersoftheauthoritariangroup,buttheir contributionswereofamuchhigherquality. Participativeleadersencouragegroupmemberstoparticipate,butretainthefinalsayoverthe decisionmakingprocess.Groupmembersfeelengagedintheprocessandaremoremotivated andcreative.