Job at the Zoo Story

In high school, I needed money. I was able to drive, had a girlfriend, and like to go out with my friends. My folks didn't have much money and I needed to pay my own way. I had already done jobs working at restaurants and grocery stores and wanted to try something more interesting. While searching around, I stopped at the zoo. As it turned out, the zoo director liked my style and said he had an interesting job that he felt I could handle. We walked through the back alleys and tunnels of the zoo that most people never see until we got to the gorilla cage. But, it was empty. The director told me that their gorilla named Kong had caught a bug and was in quarantine for the next week. Kong was getting old and they were even now shopping around for a replacement since Kong just sits on a treebranch holding onto a rope all day. When the crowds started arriving on the weekend, they'd be disappointed to have no gorilla since everyone enjoys the gorilla exhibit, even a boring old gorilla. The director said he had a gorilla suit I could wear if I would be interested in sitting on the branch for 4 hours at a time so the people would at least have something to look at. It sounded good to me, not the usual high school job, so I told him I would. The next day I went to the zoo, put on the gorilla suit and climbed into the cage. I sat on the branch holding the rope and soon there was a crowd of children pressing their faces to the bars. It didn't take long for me to start getting bored, so I would scratch my armpits, thump my chest, and twirl the rope. About an hour passed and I began to really get into this gorilla stuff. I would grab the rope and swing across the cage. The kids thought it was great so I started swinging higher and higher. In the next cage there was a lion and he was becoming irritated by my antics and began to pace his cage and roar. I kept swinging and started to swing to the lion's side of the cage and would use my feet to push off of his bars. I could really swing out far and he roared even louder. It was actually pretty fun and the kids were really enjoying the show. All of a sudden I missed the bars, flew through, and dropped right into the lion's cage! I landed on my back and was stunned but immediately got up and ran to the front of the cage to the croud, screaming "Help me, help me, I'm not who you think I am!" Just as I yelled, the lion jumped on my back and knocked me to the ground. His head was at my neck and I was sure I'd never make it to graduation. Then he whispered in my ear, "Shut up stupid, or you'll get us both fired".

Pehli nazar mein Kaise jaado kar diya Tera ban baita hai Mera jiya

Jaane kya hoga Kya hoga kya pata Is pal ko milke Aa jee le zara Mein hoon yahan Tu hai yahan Meri bahon mein aa Aa bhi ja O jaan-e-jaan Dono jahan Meri bahon mein aa Bhool Ja aa O jaan-e-jaan Dono jahan Meri bahon mein aa Bhool Ja aa Baby i love u, baby i love you, baby i love you, baby i love you … so.. Baby i love u Oh i love u I love u I love u so Baby i love u Har dua mein shamil tera pyaar hai Bin tere lamha bhi dushwar hai Dhadhkon ko tujhe se hi darkar hai Tujhse hai rahtein Tujhse hai chahtein Har dua mein shamil tera pyaar hai Bin tere lamha bhi dushwar hai Dhadhkon ko tujhe se hi darkar hai Tujhse hai rahtein Tujhse hai chahtein Tu jo mili ek din mujhe Mein kahin ho gaya lapata (O jaan-e-jaan Dono jahan Meri bahon mein aa Bhool Ja aa ) ….. 2 (Kar diya Deewana dard-e-Kash ne Chain cheena isqh ke ehsaas ne Bekhayali di hai tere pyaas ne Chaya suroor hai Kuch to zaroor hai) ….. 2

Yeh dooriyan Jeene na de Hal mera tujhe na pata (O jaan-e-jaan Dono jahan Meri bahon mein aa Bhool Ja aa) ….. 2 Baby i love u, baby i love you, baby i love you, baby i love you … so.. Baby i love u Oh i love u Baby I love u I love u… The thieves were planning whenever in the night. Haphazard king appeared there to put on the mask. The thieves asked! Who are you? King said! I am also thief and I would like to join you. After asking some question they were agree and set him. After that they were talking. One thief said! I have the art to make anybody climb on the tallest building. Second said! I have the art to know the language of dog what is that saying. Third said! I have the art that I can easily open any kind of lock. After that they asked the king. Yes brother what art of you have? King answered. I have the art. If I open my mouth then biggest crime is pardon of anybody. All thieves decided to today we theft in Mehal of king. When he reached at Mehal then dog began to bark. One man said who know the language of dog. The dog is saying king with all of you. After listening his talking they had anger with him and said. Today you commit mistake of hearing the voice of dog. He had insisted. The dog is same saying. Afterward they used their art and thievishly things bring and hide these things at safe place. King sends

his policeman and caught them. When asked them then they said that is your time you use your art and give us the freedom. Then king leave them.

A noun is one of the most important words that you use either speaking or writing. It is the word that tells what you are talking about. A noun is a word that names something. There are names for persons, animals, places, and objects, that can be pointed out and recognized. There also names for substances, qualities, actions, and measures of time or quality. The following list includes examples of different kinds of nouns. Persons: Animals: Places: Objects: Qualities: Actions: Measures: student - John - girl elephant - cat - zebra home - New York - camp table - camera - computer kindness - heroism - beauty moving - cooking - writing month - pound - inch - hour

Substances: glass - mercury - water - meat

A pronoun is a word used in place of the noun. As pronouns can be used in place of nouns, they avoid the monotonous repetition of nouns. Many of the language errors that are commonly made are errors in the use of pronouns. Mistakes occur because some of the pronouns that we use constantly have a number of diffrent forms. There are 5 groups or classes of pronouns in English: personal interrogative demonstrative indefinite relative

Personal Pronouns
The personal pronouns are the most important group of pronouns. They are also the pronouns that will give you the most trouble uless you are familiar with the various forms that belong to each pronoun. A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows by its form whether it refers to the person speaking, the person spoken to, or the person or thing spoken of. All the personal pronouns, with the exeption of the pronoun it, refer to persons. First person Singular Plural I my mine me we our ours us

Second person Singular Plural you your yours you Singular he, she, it his, her, its you your yours your Third person Plural they their

his, hers, its theirs

him, her, it


Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are pronouns that are used in asking questions. The interrogative pronouns are: who (whose, whom), which, what. An interrogative pronoun also has another function to perform in the sentence, just as any other pronoun has. It may be the subject of the sentence, or it may be the object of the verb or of a preposition . Who is the manager of this firm? For whom are you waiting? Which is your bag? Whose bike did you borrow?

Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that point out definite persons, places or things. There are only two demonstrative pronouns: this with its plural these, and that with its plural those. This is my car. These are travel tickets. That is your razor. Those are Peter's shoes

Indefinite Pronouns
A large group of pronouns are called indefinite pronouns because they do not point out particular places, persons or things. Somebody took my umbrella. A few left the lessons early. Commonly used Indefinite Pronouns all any anybody anyone anything everybody everyone everything few many one one another ones other others

both each each one each other either

neither nobody none no one nothing

several some somebody someone something

Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that joins the clause which it introduces to its own antecedent. The antecedent of pronoun is the noun or pronoun to which it refers. The relative pronouns are who, which, that, and what. The pronoun who has two other forms, whose and whom. Who is used when the antecedent is is a person. That is used to refer to either persons or things. Which is used to refer to anything exept persons. He is the boy who won the award. This is the cat that (or which) was lost. She is the girl that won the award. When the relative pronoun is combined with ever or soever, it is called a compound relative pronoun. List of Compound Relative Pronoun whoever whatever whosoever whichsoever whomsoever whomever whatsoever

whosesoever whichever

The verb is the most important part of speech. It is the only one part of speech that can make a statement about the subject. Most of the verbs in common use express action. The action is not allways physical action like an action expressed in the sentence The hunters shot the deer. In the sentence, He solved the problem, the meaning of the verb solved implies both mental and physical activity. A small, but very important group of verbs, do not express action. These verb which have the connecting function are called linking verbs.

Linking verbs

Linking verbs have very little meaning on their own. The most important verb in this group is the verb to be. The forms of the verb to be I you he, she , it we they am are is are are was were was were were

Since the verb to be does not express an action, it must have another function in the sentence. With the help of some other word or words, it makes statements about the condition of the subject, or person, place, or thing that is talked about. My brother is a famous surgeon. (classifies brother as surgeon) I am very tired. (describes the condition of mine) This dress is tight. (describes dress) The verbs became and seem, like the verb to be, are almost always used as linking verbs. The following verbs are used both as linking verbs and action verbs. Linking and Action Verbs grow turn look stay smell taste remain keep

When these words have a linking function they have practically the same meaning as the verb to be would have in the same sentence. The biscuit looks wonderful. = The biscuit is wobderful.

prove sound appear

A verb is not allways a single word. When the verb is composed of two or more words, it is called a verb phrase. Every verb has 3 basic forms which are called the principal parts of the verb.

3 basic forms of verbs
These three forms are the present tense, the past tense, and the past participle. They are called the principal parts of the verb

because the 6 tenses of the verb can be built from them. Verbs are divided into 2 classes on the basis of way in which the past tense and the past participle are formed. Some are called regular or weak verbs, and others are called irregular or strong verbs. A regular verb is a verb that forms the past tense and the past participle by adding ed or d to the forme of the present tense. Sometimes the ed or d changes to t: build - built - built Verb Past tense Past Participle call bake called baked called baked built

An irregular verb is a verb that does not the past tense and the past participle by adding ed or d to the forme of the present tense. The past tense and the past participle of irregular verbs are formed in various ways.

build built

A verb not only undergoes certain changes to show tense, or the time of action, but it changes in form to show voice.

Voice is a grammatical term which is used to tell whether the subject of the sentence is acting or receiving the action expressed by verb. When the subject is acting, we say that the subject is the doer. When the subject is receiving the action, we say that the subject is receiver. Jane washed the window. (Jane is the doer of action) The window was washed by Jane. (Window is the receiver of the action). In the grammar we say that the verb in the first sentence is in the active voice because the subject is the doer, or is doing the wshing. The verb was washed is in the passive voice because it represents the subject of the sentence as the receiver of the action. In other words, the subject is not acting, but is passive. The doer, or the actor, appears in a phase introduced by the preposition by. The verb in the passive voice is never a simple verb. It is always a verb phrase.

In addition to tense and voice, verbs have another property which is called mood.


There are 3 moods in English, the indicative mood, the imperative mood, and the subjunctive mood. The indicative mood is used to make statements and to ask questions. Most of the verbs that you commonly use are in the indicative mood. The secretary wrote the letter. (statement or fact) Did you buy this dress? (question) The imperative mood is used to express a comand or a request. The imperative mood is found only in the present tense, second person. The subject is always the pronoun you which is seldom expressed. Come here at once! (command) Close the window, Mike. (request) The subjenctive mood is used to express a wish or a condition which is contrary to fact. If he were here, I would tell him the news. (He is not here) I wish I were in America. (express a wishes)

Adjectives give life and color to language. They also help us to give more exact pictures of what we are telling about, if we now how to select them carefully. As you improve your skill in using these words, your language will become more interesting and more explicit. There are two kinds of adjectives:

Kinds of Adjectives
There are two kinds of adjectives: descriptive adjectives and limiting adjectives. Descriptive adjectives, as the name implies, give color and vividness to the persons, places, or things we talk or we write about. Limiting adjectives indicate number or quantity. Descriptive adjectives tell what kind, what color, what size, what shape etc. brilliant speaker, a new hat, high level Limiting adjectives tell how many, how much, which one, whose etc. two sets, one plane, three tickets

descriptive adjectives and limiting adjectives. Adjectives derived form proper nouns are called proper adjectives.

Proper Adjectives

Adjectives, derived from proper nouns are called proper adjectives. They are usually written with a capital letter. They are usually descriptive adjectives. Canadian becon Mexican pottery United States flag English wool Turkish tabacco Danish silver Swedish crystal Indian summer

American industries Norwegian sardines

Adjectives that complete the meaning of the verb and modify the subject are called predicate adjectives.

Predicate Adjectives
Adjectives that complete the meaning of the verb and modify the subject are called predicare adjectives. If an adjective is found in the predicate and modifies a noun in the predicate, it is not a predicate adjective. The adjective must follow the linking verb and modify the subject in order to be classified as predicate adjective. The predicate subjective usually describes the subject, noun or pronoun. Linking verbs is seem grow prove look feel sound smell taste appear remain keep stay become turn

The biscuit is delicious. Corn is plentiful in Illinois. The street has become very muddy

The form of an adjective is often changed to show the extent or degree to which a certain quality is present. In grammar, this change in form to show a difference in degree is called comparison.

Comparison of Adjectives
The form of an adjective is often changed to show the extent or degree to which a certain quality is present. In grammar, this degree in form to show a difference in degree is called comparison. There are three degrees of comparison in English: the positive degree, the comparative degree, and the superlative degree.

The positive degree is really not a degree of comparison because no comparison is indicated when the positive degree is used. The positive degree is the simple form of the adjective. It shows that the quality is present, but it does not show a comparison with anything else. That is a beautiful rose. It is a very cold day. Peter is very energetic. The comparative degree of the adjective is used when a comparison is made between two persons or things. The comparative degree shows that the quality expressed by the adjective exists to a greater or to a lesser degree in one of the two persons or things that are being compared. The comparative degree of almost all adjectives of one syllable is formed by adding er to the positive degree or to the simple form of the adjective; Peter is stronger than Mike. This desk is larger than that one. The superlative degree of the adjective is used when more than two persons or things are compared. The superlative degree indicates that the quality (expressed by the adjective) is possessed to the greatest or or to the least degree by one of the persons or things included in the comparison. Our flat is the largest flat in the block. Jimmy is the smallest boy in his class. Degrees of Comparison Adjectives of One Syllable Positive Comparative Superlative neat sharp dark keen long neater sharper darker keener longer neatest sharpest darkest keenest longest

Adjectives of two or more syllables are usually compared by prefixing the words more and most to the simple form of the adjective. More is used to indicate the comparison between two persons or things. Most is used to indicate the comparison between more than two persons or things. Less and least are used in a similar way. Positive Comparative Superlative fragrant famous more fragrant most fragrant more famous most famous

precious more precious most precious

difficult more difficult most difficult Sometimes adjectives of one syllable are compared by prefixing more and most. Sometimes adjectives of more then one syllable are compared by adding er and est. There is no rule to follow for marking these exceptions. If one form of comparison sounds better than the other, that is the form to use. Adjectives of more than one syllable that end in y are usually compared by adding er and est. The y changes to I before the addition of er and est. Positive Comparative Superlative silly dainty clumsy handy noisy sillier daintier clumsier handier noisier silliest daintiest clumsiest handiest noisiest

Some adjectives are compared irregularly. And some adjectives are not to be compared.

Irregular Comparison of Adjectives
Positive bad far far little many much out Comparative Superlative worse further farther less more more outer worst furthest farthest best least most most outmost or outermost

good, well better

Farther refers to distance or remoteness in space. Further refers to remoteness in time, to degree, extent or quantity. It is also used to express the idea of something more or additional. Their house is further that I thought. (Distance in space) He will give me father instructions tomorrow. (Additional instructions) The distinctions between further and farther are passing out of use. These words are now used interchangeable. There is also a tendency to use further to express all the meanings discussed.

Adjectives not compared
There are a number of adjectives that should not be compared because the simple form of the adjective express the quality tj the highest possible degree. For example, if an answer to a problem is correct, another answer could not possibly be more correct. If a circle is absolutely round, another circle could not be more round. The following are some of the adjectives that are not compared for the reasons given: perfect single final unique square alone round universal empty dead deadly

supreme fatal mortal

vertical full straight blind

everlasting wrong

The expression more nearly round, is often used when comparing two things, one of which is more nearly round than the other. In this case, however, neither of the things compared is round. Sometimes an adjective such as the word honest is used in the comparative and superlative degrees. In such cases, we have no standard of absolute honesty. What hte writer or speaker means is that one person approaches the absolute state of honesty to a greater or to a lesser degree than another person. The adjective perfect is often used in the same way.

We have explained the uses of the adverb as modifier of the verb, telling how, when, where, and to what degree the action is performed. Now we present other uses of the adverb, and the relation of adverbs to adjectives and to other adverbs. Form of adverbs Interrogative adverbs Yes, no and not Adverbs of degree Comparison of adverbs

Forms of adverbs
some people have the idea, that all adverbs end in ly. There are a great many adverbs that do end in ly, but there are probably just as many that do not end in ly. Many adverbs are formed by adding ly to the adjective form:

Adjective Adverb strange sudden calm sure usual swift rapid

Adjective Adverb awkwardly strictly forcibly extremely similarly slightly

strangely awkward calmly surely usually swiftly rapidly strict forcible extreme similar slight

suddenly necessary necessarily

The following are some of the adverbs that do not end in ly: Adjective Adverb Adjective Adverb seldom again soon very almost late hard little here there rather often when where why now then since well near far fast twice too much quite yonder how

Many adjectives end in ly. They should not be confused with adverbs that end in ly. The following words ending in ly are commonly used as adjectives. Some of them might also be used as adverbs: Adjective Adverb stately lonely lovely Adjective Adverb saintly manly courtly

womanly lively

Some adjectives have the same form as the adverb. In such cases, the only one way you can tell whether the word is an adjective or adverb, is to determine its use in a particular sentence. That was a hard task (hard - adjective, modifies task) Our janitor works hard (hard - adverb, modifies works)

Interrogative Adverbs
An adverb is often used at the beginning of the sentence to ask a question. When an adverb is use din this way, it is called an interrogative adverb. An interrogative adverb also modifies some word in the sentence. When did you come back? Where did you buy the car?

In the first sentence, the adverb When modifies the verb did arrive. (You did arrive when?). In the second sentence, the adverb Where asks the question and modifies the verb did put.

Yes, No and Not
The affirmative adverb yes and the negative adverb no are use dindependently. the are usually set off by commas. Not is an adverb. It is never used as part of the verb, although, it often comes between the parts of a verb phrase. The adverb not makes the verb express the idea which is an exact oppsite of te regular meaning of the verb. Yes, I shall make that. I did not give him the ticket. No, we are not going to Vienna this winter.

Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of degree tell how large, how small, how long, how much, to what extent etc. they answer the questions "How large?", "To what extent?". Adverbs of degree usually modify adjectives or other adverbs. In the following illustrations the adverbs of degree modify adjectives: This pear is very sour. (Very modifies the adjective sour) The play was rather amazing. (Rather modifies amazing) In the following sentences the adverbs of degree modify other adverbs: Peter runs much faster than Edward. (Much modifies the adverb faster) Don't talk so loud. (So modifies the adverb loud)

Comparison of Adverbs
There are 2 ways how the adverbs form their comparative and superlative. 1. Adverbs in -ly form their comparative and superlative with more and most. (But not early) Could you say that more slowly, please? Tom can shoot the most accurately. You will just have to get up earlier. 2. Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form their comparative and superlative with -er and -est. Sarah run the fastest. Some adverbs form their comparative and superlative irregularly.

well far


best worst

badly worse

further/farther furthest/farthest

Comparison, less etc. We use to compare 2 things that are the same in the same way. I cannot do crosswords as quickly as you. Less and least are the opposites of more and most. The old man's son visits him less often nowadays. We can repeat a comparative after and to talk about a change in something else. They went faster and faster down the hill. We use the+comparative to talk about a change in one thing which causes a change in something else. The more you practise, the better you will play.

Another important part of speech is the preposition. A preposition show the relationship that exists in the sentence. The underlined words are prepositions. The accident occurred under the bridge. The accident occurred near the bridge. The accident occurred above the bridge. The accident occurred behind the bridge. The accident occurred beneath the bridge. The accident occurred on the bridge. The entire group of words, on the bridge, is called a prepositional phrase. A list of Commonly used Prepositions above about across after along at before behind below beside by down into like toward through under until up upon within

during near except of off on from

against beneath for among between in around beyond

since with

inside to

In many sentences you need words that serve to join words or group of words. In grammar, words that have this connecting function are called conjunctions. She drives too fast and too recklessly. He or you will audit the account. Andrew fell and broke his arm. It is a large but attractive house.


  Verb classes   o   Variable Vowel Verbs   o   Regular verbs other than Variable Vowel Verbs   o   Minor verb classes of verbs and irregular verbs     Derived verbs   o     verbs: "action toward the speaker" ­o        verbs: intransitive or "passive" ­u    o   Causative verbs   o Pluractional verbs (verbs showing reiterated action)   Verbal nouns   o     verbal nouns ­wa   
o o

  non­    verbal nouns  wa   

  Technical:    the "Grade System" as a way of classifiying verbs  

Verb Classes
General Remarks

  Links to information on verb forms  

Factors influencing the forms that verbs take
Unlike most European languages, differences in Hausa verbs do not usually  relate to marking verb tense. However, Hausa has several verb classes that differ  primarily in the forms that verbs take depending on their objects or lack of  objects. The factors that affect the forms of verbs are the following:

No object following: There may be no object present in the sentence at  all, the object may be someplace other than after the verb, or the word  following the verb may not be considered an "object" in Hausa. No object at all: Ka saya? 'Did you buy (it)?'
(the object is understood,  perhaps from the context)  

  Object not after verb   :

Shinkafa na  saya.

'It is rice that I bought.
('rice' is the object, but it is  at the beginning of the  sentence for emphasis)  

Word after verb not an  "object":

Sun shiga gida.

'They entered the  house.'
(with most verbs of motion,  the goal of the motion is a  "locative" rather than an  object)

Noun object following: In Hausa, any object which is not one of the  special direct object pronouns counts as a "noun" object. Na sayi akwiya. 'I bought a goat.'

Ka sayi wannan?

'Did you buy this?'
(though wannan 'this' is a "pronoun"­­ it stands for a noun­­it is not one of  the special direct object pronouns)

Pronoun object following: In Hausa, "pronoun object" refers only to an  object expressed as one of the special direct object pronouns. Na saye ta. 'I bought it.'

Indirect object following: This may be either a pronoun indirect object or  a noun indirect object (in Hausa, indirect object always come immediately  after the verb). Na saya miki akwiya. Na saya wa matata ita. 'I have bought a goat for you.' 'I bought it for my wife.'

Variable Vowel Verbs
• •

  Links to information on verb forms     See a list of representative Variable Vowel Verbs  

Variable Vowel Verbs ("VVV's"), called Grade 2 in the Hausa Grade System,  change their final vowel depending on the type of object which follows the verb.  This is true for all verb tenses other than the Continuative (which uses the verbal  noun rather than the base verb). The vowel variants of VVV's are as follows: No object or direct object following verb (see below for indirect object)
No object following Pronoun object  following

­a ­e

Noun object following


Tone­­Note the following tonal features of VVV's: 1. All transitive verbs which begin in Low tone are Variable Vowel  Verbs.

2. All but 3­5 VVV's begin in Low tone. In the Kano dialect, the VVV's  which do not begin in Low tone are d'auka 'take', d'iba 'dip out', and samu  'get'. Even these verbs begin in Low tone when a pronoun or noun object  follows. (See list of representative VVV's with their tones marked.)

3. Two­syllable VVV's always have Low­High tones (see saya 'buy' in the  examples above).

4. Three­syllable VVV's have Low­High­Low tones when no object follows  and Low­Low­High when there is an object (see tambaya 'ask' in the  examples above). (Verbs with more than three syllables add additional  Low tones at the beginning.) Indirect objects with VVV's Before indirect objects, VVV's take one of two patterns. One must simply learn  which pattern applies to a particular verb. Some verbs can use either (as with  tambaya 'ask' below). Reversed tone pattern: Hi­Lo(­Hi) instead of Lo­Hi(­Lo)

All High tones with final ­ar (becomes ­am  before m)

For more information on Variable Vowel Verbs, see discussion of verbal nouns for  Variable Vowel Verbs.

Regular Verbs
other than Variable Vowel Verbs
• •

  Links to information on verb forms     See a list of representative "regular" verbs  

By "regular" we mean verbs which follow predictable patterns of the majority of  the basic verbs of Hausa. Here, we will consider only verbs which begin in High­ Tone and end in ­a or ­e. (In the technical terminology of the Hausa Grade  System, these are Grades 1 & 4.) These verbs have the following forms: 1. Base form final vowel: Long ­a or long ­e.

2. Base form tone: Two­syllable verbs have High­Low tones. Three­syllable  verbs have High­Low­High tones. (Verbs of more than three syllables have  additional High tone syllables at the beginning.) (See note on tone of  pronoun objects.)

3. Noun object following: The final vowel shortens for all verbs; three­ syllable verbs have final Low tone. (See note on vowel length of final    .)    ­e

4. Everywhere else, regular verbs take their base form.

No object following

Pronoun object  following

Noun object following

Indirect object following

Minor Verb Classes
and irregular verbs

  Links to information on verb forms  

By far the largest classes of underived verbs in Hausa are Variable Vowel Verbs  and "regular" verbs ending in ­a or ­e. There are a few verbs in Hausa which do  not follow the patterns of these verbs. We divide them into five groups here: 1. Intransitive verbs: A number of intransitive verbs end in ­i or ­u. These  final vowels not found with the common verb classes. A fairly large group  of intransitives resemble Variable Vowel Verbs in that they end in ­a and  have Low­High tones, but unlike VVV's, they have short final vowels.  Some intransitive verbs also have High­High tones with final short ­a.  Since intransitive verbs, by definition, cannot take objects, they do not  undergo the types of variations that transitive verbs can undergo. (See a  list of representative intransitive verbs.)

2. Monosyllabic verbs: All but two monosyllabic verbs have High tone (the  two exceptions are sa 'put on; cause' and ce 'say', which have falling tones  and pattern with regular verbs in ­a or ­e). Monosyllabic verbs are invariant  except that those that end in a short vowel lengthen their vowel before a  pronoun direct object. (See a list of monosyllabic verbs.)

3. The verbs biya 'pay' jira 'wait for', kira 'call', riga 'precede': These four  verbs have High­High tones and long final ­a everywhere. They are  "irregular" in the sense that there are only four of them and they have  unusual verbal nouns. (See a list of "irregular" verbs, including    ,    ,     biya  jira  kira.)

4. The verbs bari 'leave', sani 'know', gani 'see': These three verbs drop the  final ­i before any object. Gani drops the final ­ni before noun objects.  (See a list of "irregular" verbs, including    ,    ,      bari  sani  gani  .)

5. The verb ba/bayar'give': This is the most irregular verb in Hausa. See a    table with     'give' in all forms  ba   . The table illustrates group (2) with bi 'follow' and ja 'pull' (monosyllabic verbs with  short and long vowels respectively), (3) kira 'call' (representing also jira'wait for'  and biya 'pay'), and (4) bari 'leave' (also representing sani 'know') and gani  'see'.

No object following

Pronoun object  following

Noun object  following

Indirect object  following

MEANING * FORM * AUXILIARIES * LEXICAL ASPECT PRACTICE: Labor Day * Martin Luther King, Jr. Day * Miss America * FIFA/Fathers' Day * Chicago

There are three times that can be indicated by verb tenses in English:
• • •

present (or "non-past" -- the "default" time) past future

These times refer to the relationship of the "story" to the speaker (or writer). There are three "aspects" that can be expressed:
• • •

simple (the "default" aspect -- the time of focus) perfect (completion -- before the time of focus) progressive (or continuous) (duration -- in progress at the time of focus) (one verb phrase can indicate both perfect and progressive aspect)

These aspects refer to the relationship between the events inside the "story."

These three times and three aspects (four, including perfect progressive) can be combined to express 9 (or 12) "verb tenses:"

The verb tense is also affected by the meaning of individual verbs (lexical aspect), by time expressions, and psychological factors, but the basic idea is as described above.

There are theoretically 6 forms of the verb in English: We like pizza I eat pizza I am/ they are hungry. He likes pizza. She eats pizza. He is hungry. They liked pizza. She ate pizza. He was/they were hungry.


("no-s" form)

(simple present)




("past" form)

(simple past)


(simple or "dictionary" form) ( "-ing form" or present participle) ( past participle)



like eat be liking eating being liked eaten been

(require auxiliaries to form finite verb phrases)

For most verbs the "no-s" form and the simple form are identical in form. All verbs form the "s-form" and the "ing-form" predictably from this simple form. For "regular" verbs, the past and past participle forms are the same, and are formed by adding "ed" to the simple form. So, if you learn the spelling rules for adding "s" "ed" and "ing" to the simple form of verbs, and memorize three forms of "irregular" verbs: the simple form * * the past form * * the past participle you will be able to form all of the verb forms. (test yourself here).
(For a few verbs, the "no-s", "simple", past, and past participle are all the same! The verb be has two different "no-s" forms, a different simple form, and two different past forms.)

Simple negatives and questions and all passive, progressive, and perfect verb phrases are formed by combining one of the following three auxiliary verbs or a modal auxiliary verb with either a simple verb form, a present participle, or a past participle. The auxiliary shows the time (and number) and the combination of the auxiliary and the verb form show the aspect: + adj + (main + (main +noun nou verb) noun (main verb) + n verb) prep.phrase + (or place) Vdt B D H = + Ving = n = simpl AVE (auxiliar E (pres.partic progressi O (auxiliar (pas perfec +V e y) ve (auxiliar ip.) y) t t tense y) part. + Vdtn s ) (past =passive particip.)

Therefore, each verb (including be, do and have when they are main verbs) can form the following verb tenses:
I/He/They _______ pizza.



eat eats


ate*** will eat

F F | | E--> | E <---->E PERFECT PROGRESSIVE am eating have eaten*** is eating has eaten** are eating have been eating has been eating was eating had eaten*** were eating had been eating will have eaten*** will be eating will have been eating

BE as a main verb
(I/He/They _______ hungry.
(F=E) SIMPLE F F | | E--> | E <---->E PERFECT PROGRESSIVE* am being have been is being has been are being have been being has been being was being had been were being had been being will have been will be being will have been being


am is are was were will be


* (rare for be as an active main verb) ** in relation to the speaker/writer *** some verbs have REGULAR past and past participle forms (+ed) and others have IRREGULAR past and past participle forms, which must be memorized. F = focus E = event or situation described

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