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WINSTON CHURCHILL BY ROBERT CORKE
AUTUMN 1986 • NUMBER 53
THE INTERNATIONAL CHURCHILL SOCIETY A non-profit association of scholars, historians, philatelists, collectors and bibliophiles, the Society was founded in 1968 to promote interest in and knowledge of the life and thought of Sir Winston Churchill, and to preserve his memory. ICS is certified as a tax-free charity under Section 501(c) (3) of the US Internal Revenue Code, is Affiliate #49 of the American Philatelic Society, and is a study unit of the American Topical Association. Finest Hour subscriptions are included in a membership fee, which offers several levels of support in four different currencies. Membership applications and changes of address welcomed at the business office listed on page 3. Editorial correspondence: PO Box 385, Contoocook, NH 03229 USA. Permission to mail at non-profit rates granted by the United States Postal Service. Produced by Dragonwyck Publishing Inc. Copyright © 1986. All rights reserved. PATRON OF THE SOCIETY The Lady Soames, DBE HONORARY MEMBERS The Marquess of Bath Winston S. Churchill, MP Sir John Colville, CB, CVO Martin Gilbert, MA Grace Hamblin, OBE The Duke of Marlborough, DL, JP Sir John Martin, KCMG, CB, CVO Anthony Montague Browne, CBE, DFC The Rt Hon The Lord Soames, GCMG, GCVO, CH, CBE The Rt Hon The Earl of Stockton, OM The Hon Caspar W. Weinberger In Memoriam: Randolph S. Churchill, 1911-1968 The Baroness Clementine Spencer-Churchill of Chartwell, 1885-1977 The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, 1900-1979 Dalton Newfield, 1918-1982 Oscar Nemon, 1906-1985 Governor the Hon. W. Averell Harriman, 1891-1986 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Australia: Peter M. Jenkins Canada: Arthur Cload, Ronald W. Downey, John Plumpton, W.J. Sterling Sunley, George E. Temple New Zealand: R. Barry Collins United Kingdom: Peter Coombs, Geoffrey J. Wheeler United States: W. Glen Browne, Derek Brownleader, Sue M. Hefner, Richard M. Langworth, George A. Lewis, David Marcus COVER: OFFER TO ICS MEMBERS ONLY Richard Haslam-Hopwood, who commissioned this work, has kindly made prints available (25x18", print size 16x13") at a special price to ICS members, half of which will be donated to the Society's 1986 Fund Appeal: £100 UK, $150 USA, $200 Canada/Australia secures your copy. Send cheques to your local national business office (see page opposite). Robert D. Corke holds an Honours Degree from Kingston Art College and is recognised as one of Europe's best illustrators. His work shows Sir Winston in a typical pose, but comprises an entirely fresh and original study.
FINEST HOUR Editor: Richard M. Langworth Post Office Box 385, Contoocook, New Hampshire 03229 USA Senior Editor: John G. Plumpton 130 Collingsbrook Blvd, Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1W 1M7 Bibliographic Editor (Works by Churchill): Ronald I. Cohen 5 Murray Avenue, Westmount, Quebec, Canada H3Y 2X9 Bibliographic Editor (Works about Churchill): H. Ashley Redburn 7 Auriol Drive, Bedhampton, Havant, Hants. PO9 3LR, England Cuttings Editor: John Frost 8 Monks Ave, New Barnet, Herts., EN5 1D8, England Contributors: George Richard, 7 Channel Hwy, Taroona, Tasmania, Australia 7006 Stanley E. Smith, 155 Monument St., Concord, Mass. 01742 USA Sidney Altneu, 2851 NE 183rd St., N. Miami Beach, Fla. 33160 USA Composition by C&R Composition, Pittsfield, New Hampshire Printing by Hazen Printing Co., Penacook, New Hampshire
FEATURES "Winnie:" The Making of a Musical The Story Thus Far by John G. Plumpton Churchill and the Baltic Part I, 1918-1931: "Very Lively and Truculent" by Richard M. Langworth Churchill Collector's Handbook Section 3: Society Membership November 1986 6
Books: Their Finest Hour Revised and Unrevised The Neilson Critique — The Smith Response by Stanley E. Smith Churchill in Stamps: Part 11 With Fisher at the Admiralty by Richard M. Langworth Collecting Locals and Labels A Churchill Collector Looks at an Inexpensive Sidelight by W. Glen Browne
DEPARTMENTS Thoughts and Adventures/3 International Datelines/4 Despatch Box/5 Riddles, Mysteries, Enigmas/5 Classified/5 Reviewing Churchill/16 Inside the Journals/17 Coming Events/17 Action this Day/22 ISC Stores/23 Immortal Words/24
Produced by Dragonwyck Publishing Inc. \^ ^7 Copyright © 1986 Finest Hour
OVER THE TOP! — George Lewis writes: "We are over $18,000. Congratulations. Have a good trip to England. I'm going on holiday!" We did it! Over 25% of the US membership have now contributed to our 1986 fund appeal, and our mailing to 30,000 potential new members of the Society will have been in the post several weeks when you read this. The average contribution of $ 150 was over twice what we expected. We can't thank you enough for your faithful support. You may be sure we will do our best to make it count. TAX-FREE IN CANADA
WILLOWDALE. ONTARIO, SEPTEMBER 2 — I C S -
WESTTIELD. NJ. AUGUST 25
Canada director George Temple reports that the Society has received approval from Ottawa as a certified Canadian charitable organisation, and all donations over and about the basic $20 subscription rate are tax-deductible from 8 May 1986. Canadian members will be hearing more about the 1986 Fund Drive and related developments in a special letter later this autumn. LORDBOOTHBY 1900-1986 LONDON. JULY 1 — Lord Boothby, an 6 outspoken Conservative who had been private secretary to Winston Churchill (1926-29), and who had served as many years in Parliament as WSC, died after a heart attack, aged 86. Born in Edinburgh, Robert John Graham Boothby represented East Aberdeenshire, Scotland from 1924 to 1958, when he was created a Life Peer. Boothby was one of WSC's few supporters in the fight to rearm Britain during the 1930s, but criticized Churchill in his memoirs, "Recollections of a Rebel" (1976). In 1940-41 he served as Minister of Food. ERRATA In issue #52 we wrongly elevated Lord Shinwell to Marquess-or-above by using his first name in his title. We liked him best as just "Manny Shinwell," anyway. He was a great example of the basic civility, back-stage, between political opponents, that seems to have generally vanished now. Also in issue #52, page 11 caption, we blamed CBS Television for misrepresenting George Will with the wrong Churchill cartoon. It was ABC, not CBS. Hard to tell them apart. . .
TORONTO AWARDS DINNER TORONTO. ONTARIO, JUNE 24 — The First Annual Churchill Awards Dinner was held tonight at the Royal Canadian Military Institute, through the kindness of Robert S. Gillan, who arranged the club facilities. After an enjoyable dinner, the First Annual Award to "the most distinguished student of British History" in any year of University study was presented to John Logan of York University by Chapter president Pat Cassels. Douglas McLeod then shared some personal' remembrances from his association with Inspector Tommy Thompson, Sir Winston's longtime bodyguard. Among those in attendance were Mrs. Mary Alexander, Mr. Garnet Barber, Mrs. Pat Cassels, Mr. & Mrs. David Currie, Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Gillan, Mr. Glynne Jenkins, Mr. John Logan, Miss Lisa Logan, Mr. Douglas J. McLeod, Mr. Murray W. Milne, Mr. Edward R. Moorhouse, Mr. William Sempie, Mrs. Betty Shand, Mr. George E. Temple, Mr. Bernard Webber, Mr. Ian G. Weir. Commencing 1987, the Toronto Chapter will honour a student from the University of Toronto as well as York University. Toronto area members are cordially invited to future events, for which see "Coming Events" this issue. — Pat Cassels, Pres. "THE FIRTH OF FORTH" PRINTS
NEWPORT. RHODE ISLAND, AUGUST 15 — T h e
TO DAVID FROM WINSTON
LONDON, AUGUST i — An auction disposed
of a remarkable collection of Churchill autograph letters, including one written from imprisonment in the Boer War and several personal letters to Lloyd George at unprecendented prices. The WSC-DLG letters included everything from requests for a meeting to important letters on the 1908 strike, 1909 budget estimates, the 1911 Agadir Crisis, a 7-page thesis on wartime food supply, and a letter from the trenches on 10 April 1916. Advance estimates were as high as £3500 for some letters, and we are advised that realised prices were higher than that. We would appreciate more information, and hope that the letters reached a responsible archive. CHURCHILL'S BRITAIN 1987 We have now confirmed the dates of the ICS tour of London and Scotland: we begin at noon on Thursday 3 September at the Waldorf Hotel in London, and finish Monday morning 14 September at Loch Lomond. (Coach runs to either Prestwick airport or central London from the finish point are included.) Deposits of $200 per person (refundable if cancelled before 31 May) may be sent payable to Specialist Tours, PO Box 385, Contoocook, NH 03229 USA. Register now to avoid the rush. A full itinerary is available and will also appear next issue. See page 17 for more details.
America's Cup Gallery has been authorized to offer limited edition prints of Sir Winston's only known naval painting, "Firth of Forth," lithographed from the original owned by Edwina Sandys. Depicting World War I warships, this work is alive with color and impressionistic drama — typically Churchill, but a unique subject. The prints measure 2214 x24". For further information contact the Gallery at 411 Thames St., Newport RI 02840 USA. ANOTHER WINSTON
MARLOW. BUCKS. ENGLAND, JUNE 1 — Mr.
John Evans, a member of the Society, appears as Sir Winston circa 1938-50 on stage, television and at private functions. John is available to ICS events planners and other functions, and may be contacted at 1 Highfield Park, Marlow, Bucks. SL7 2DD, telephone (062 84) 2914.
HUNGARIAN RAP-SODY While in Budapest in June I stopped into a Russian-run book/record shop and asked if they had any books by Churchill. They sneered, gave me a dirty look, then practically threw me out. Hungarian-run shops were friendlier but with limited resources. I obtained the Soviet biography Winston Churchill by Trukhanovsky for US$1. [Worth a ruble! Ed.] Hungary is beautiful, with much farming. The people hate the Russians, and their own government. Prices were very low, 10-25% of US, food excellent, people cautious but friendly. —David Druckman, Chicago, III. ROBERT HARDY'S CHURCHILL I would like to comment on the reviews of the Hardy-Churchill performance in issue 52. I cannot disagree with any of the factual assertions of the reviewers, but I think it important to realize what Mr. Susskind had in mind as the purpose of the production. At the press reception for the show, in answer to a question as to his future plans, Susskind replied that he viewed the series as an educational tool for school systems. He feels that the only way to bring "dry history" to life is through the visual medium and this was his primary goal. Eventually he wants to distribute these shows to schools throughout the country. Each will be accompanied by a study guide and the show will be the catalyst for the student to delve into the personalities and history of the time. Given this aim, I think he succeeded admirably. Heaven knows how he is going to make a dry character like Eisenhower interesting to a group of school children. - Paul Biba. Bernardsville. NJ, USA EPERNAY REMEMBERS I would like you to know that a copy of your charming letter dated July 18th has been addressed with favourable advice to our UK representatives. Today, I am happy to confirm that we will provide the champagne at the party for former private office staff at Chartwell. I read with great interest the 50th issue of Finest Hour, for which I would appreciate receiving a subscription form. You will certainly enjoy going through our Churchill magazine enclosed. Remaining at your entire disposal for any further requirements and looking forward to welcoming you at Epernay next time you come over to France, I am, dear Mr. Langworth, — Christian Pol-Roger Directeur General Pol Roger et Cie., Epernay, France
REPORT FROM RSA Time has slipped by since I came here on an agricultural exchange from Israel. As you have no doubt read, things are not too kosher here at the moment. However we are all fine, and I am extremely busy with my work, hence my long silence. I am happy to say I have found further additions to my Churchill collection, which has improved with stamps, books, covers and pottery. Among the flat items was a S.A. Christmas card with Smuts and his wife and a large "V", as well as a cigarette card with military personnel and Our UK branch had hoped to hold a bufsimilar motif, copies of which I enclose. fet at Chartwell for former members of Sir Whilst in Cape Town I met another ICS Winston's staff, but other events and member, Paul Mills, at Clarke's Bookshop, schedules conflicted. Mr. Christian Polwho approached me as I browsed through Roger's very gracious offer to supply the his Churchill stock with an invitation to appropriate champagne is deeply apjoin. It really is a small world. preciated, and he has been given a com- Hillel Schnaps, plimentary membership with our sincere Port Elizabeth, South Africa best wishes. — Ed.
Q. How was it that Lord Randolph Churchill was able to sit in the House of Commons? (This occurred when I read that Waldorf Astor had to give up his Commons seat on inheriting his Peerage.) A. All Peers in their own right have seats in the Lords (except those who only have Irish Peerages). The eldest son, on succeeding his father, must also become a member of the Lords — unless he disclaims his Peerage and becomes a commoner (like Wedgwood Benn; or Hailsham and Home when they hoped to be PM). Thus Marlborough's eldest son, the Marquess of Blandford, succeeded to the title and was entitled to the seat in the Lords. But Lord Randolph — in fact all younger sons of Peers — are not Peers in this sense: they are in effect commoners and can enter and stay in the House of Commons. Had Blandford died without issue before Randolph, Winston would have succeeded to the title. He would then have been in Halifax's position re succeeding Chamberlain in 1940. In the same sense Waldorf Astor had no option when his father died — they had made no arrangementsfor disclaiming in those days. — H. Ashley Redburn
Ad deadlines: Winter 1 Dec. Spring 1 March, Summer 1 June. Autumn 1 Sept. FOR SALE OR TRADE: New HoughtonMifflin "Chartwell Edition" of the 6-volume Second World War, quarter dark blue leather and tan cloth, gilt spines, color maps on eps, Chartwell painting tipped onto covers. A magnificent edition. Retail price $295. Best offer or trade. Douglas Marden. Box 253. Rutland MA 01543 WANTED: Good VCR recordings of "Churchill/The Wilderness" years and recent "Tour" program required. Poor rural reception made bajd recordings. Blank tapes sent, or integrity of your copies guaranteed. Brother Richard McGrath. Crosier Seminary. Onamia, Minn. 56359. FOR SALE: Our 16-page catalogue of antiquarian, out-of-print and new books by or about Sir Winston Churchill will be available in mid-November. We stock all editions from paperbacks to firsts; our goal is to make a Churchill library affordable by everyone. Send for a copy if you are not on our mailing list. Churchillbooks. Burrage Rd.. Contoocook. NH 03229 USA.
Send your queries to the editor. Finest Hour, and we will ask our experts. Q. I have been asked to find the precise citation in the works of Sir Winston for a quotation allegedly ascribed to him. The sense of the aphorism is that, while automobiles are doubtless more practically efficient than horses, horses are intrinsically more beautiful. No standard collections of quotes were of any help, so I turn to your expertise. -Arno M. Klausmeier, MLS, Librarian Wisconsin Regional Planning Comsn. A. The best-known remark of that sort was made in WSC's speech at M.I.T. in Boston, 31 March 1949: "Man has parted company with his faithful friend the horse, and has sailed into the azure on the wings of eagles — eagles being represented by the infernal -ah INTERNAL - combustion engine ah — engine!"
"Winnie:"^e(^Making of a<3V[usical
Story ^ u s Tar
By John G. Plumpton
Evita, Man of La Mancha, Cats, Sir Winston Churchill: all subjects of successful theatrical productions in London's West End and New York's Broadway. Sir Winston Churchill you say? Yes, such are the hopes of a group of investors and artists working on the forthcoming production of Winnie: A Musical Tribute to Sir Winston Churchill.
Celia and Edwina Sandys, granddaughters of Sir Winston, approached the accomplished writer/producer/director Robin Hardy to write the script and head the production team of producer Rex Berry and director Albert Marre. Already committed, if available, to play Sir Winston is actor Robert Hardy, famous for his portrayal of Churchill in The Wilderness Years and Winston Churchill on television. Winnie will be a dramatic musical which will blend film clips, slides, production numbers, and music-hall songs, some traditional and many new, into a compelling drama on what it was like to be led by Winston Churchill from 1940 to 1945. On entering the foyer of the Theatre, the audience will step back in time to the year 1945, at the Potsdam Light Opera House in Germany. They will find themselves witnessing the rehearsal of a musical tribute to then-Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who has been in this Berlin suburb to negotiate with President Truman and Marshal Stalin, but who is temporarily absent in London, awaiting the results of the general election. The British and Americans have commandeered the Opera House and its orchestra, two touring theatrical troupes from Britain (a predominantly left-wing Shakespearean group and a predominantly Tory variety troupe), and an American Jazz Combo. To write the show and play Churchill they have recruited a West End performer of the genre of Noel Coward. After the actors resolve their quarrelling, the "play within a play" begins and the Writer/Director emerges from his Churchill role periodically to instruct the cast and thus incidentally give the audience some assistance on the context of the historical events. We see Churchill
speech about the British people having the lion's heart and his privilege to give the roar, one of the actors interrupts the "play within a play" to shout at Churchill, "You've lost the election." The great man has become the Writer/Director again and all are stunned by the unexpected election results. Both Shakespearean and variety troupes are moved by the greatness of the man they have helped to portray. The entire cast joins to perform a musical finale for a show that will now never take place. Churchill will not be returning to Potsdam. The guiding spirit behind this production is Robin Hardy. Mr. Hardy has extensive experience in television and motion pictures. He made the motion picture, The Wicker Man, based on his own novel. His
latest novel, The Education of Don Juan,
Winston Churchill's first meeting with President Truman, at the White House, 16 July 1945, just before Potsdam. presiding over the war effort during his first 20 months in office. In bed, in the bath, at the dining table and in his Cabinet Office and the House of Commons, he commands, cajoles, jokes, creates great speeches and dictates memorable letters and telegrams. Act One takes us through the Battle of Britain and the successful resistance to the Nazi Blitzkrieg against British cities. Act Two begins within his sending troops on a suicidal mission to Greece to convince President Roosevelt's personal envoy, Harry Hopkins, that British troops can take the offensive. Military reverses and losses on the Atlantic make him vulnerable in the House of Commons and we see him at his lowest moment. But on a visit to Harrow, he regains his confidence and, much moved by the boys singing of "The Giants of Old," he asserts that their motto must always be "Never Give In. Never. Never. Never . . ." After Pearl Harbour he telephones Franklin Roosevelt to declare that he will make war on Japan because he now knows that "deliverance has come, for together with America . . . we cannot, in the end, fail." Three years later, while giving a victory
was a Book-of-the-Month Club selection and is shortly to become a television series. Winnie is his first play with music. Mr. Hardy stresses that this is not a musical play: "People hear that word 'musical' and envision a dandied-up Winston, singing and dancing about the stage. Well, of course, he never does. Just once, in his tub, we have him singing a snatch of Gilbert and Sullivan." How will British, American and Canadian theatregoers react to this new rendition of the Churchill story? "I ask myself the same thing," says Mr. Hardy. "Why, when everyone has tip-toed around the monument, has no-one ever told this hugely great chapter of his life? The Tory establishment never liked Churchill. He crossed the floor twice and was actually an old-fashioned Whig at heart. Some people say he was a dreadful old warmonger: But his memory today is fresher in Britain than Roosevelt's is in America. This is not a paean of undiluted praise; the play shows Churchill in all his moods of anger and arrogance. But one has to establish that, like him or not — and many didn't — his greatness is indisputable." Start-up financing of the production has now been completed and public shares in it are being offered through a public stock company appropriately called Marlborough Productions. •
"WINNIE" A MUSICAL TRIBUTE TO SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL
BY ROBIN HARDY
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT
Vancouver, B.C. Toronto, Ont. New York, N.Y. Beverly Hills, Ca. London, Eng. - J. Newton (604) - I. Rotterman (416) - R. Hardy (212) - L. MacConnell (213) - M. Blaber (44-1) 789-2792 535-2293 860-8439 556-2824 638-9545
Ghurchill and the Baltic
Tart I: 1918-1931 '<cVery lively and Truculent"
BY RICHARD M. LANGWORTH
The strategic Baltic, from a 1938 Latvian tourism brochure
M GRANDFATHER sailed into Riga in the intoxicating Y spring of the Latvian Republic to look up distant relatives, trying to track the Latvian branch of his heritage. He told me of it 30 years later: an "eastern Paris," filled with parks and wide streets, fashionable shops and peasant markets, dignified buildings and handsome people; a bustling harbor that handled more timber than any other port in Europe. He remembered the confidence and hope, the exhuberance and patriotism, the burgeoning realization that after 700 years Latvians were masters of their land. They could not know that their freedom would be measured by scarcely a generation. In 1940, as France fell under the Nazi blitz and Britain's attention was focused on avoiding catastrophe, Stalin's Red Army marched into Latvia and the other Baltic States, Estonia and Lithuania. Following "elections" of a one-party slate, the three
small border nations "applied for admission" to the Soviet Union, which was graciously granted. Hitler marched into the Baltic in June 1941, and a strange twilight ensued, during which Baits had the temerity to hope for national reemergence. As the Soviets swept west in 1944-45, most of them fought with the Germans, maintaining a stubborn front against half a million Red soldiers hurled vainly against them, until the final ceasefire on 8 May 1945. Since then the Soviets have conducted genocide against the native share of Latvia's population, reducing it from 83% in 1940 to 53.7% today1: first by a holocaust which in relative terms puts Hitler's in the pale; later by vast non-native immigration. And the process continues. The USSR has no intention of going back to 1920, when Lenin recognized the small republics,2 vowing to respect their independence "forever."
"Here we stir the embers of the past and light the beacons of the future. Old Flags are raised anew; the passions of vanished generations awake; beneath the shell-torn soil of the twentieth century the bones of long dead warriors and victims are exposed. And the wail of lost causes sounds in the Wind." W.S.C., THE AFTERMATH, 1929
Winston S. Churchill played a varied and crucial role in the bittersweet Baltic story. Ostensibly, after World War I, he was opposed to small national movements among the peoples of Europe. "What was needed," he wrote, "was federation and larger groupings." 3 But a far more important objective, in his view, was to rid the world of Lenin, and he easily warmed to what he called "the foul baboonery of Bolshevism."4 On 31 December 1918, Churchill urged Allied intervention upon the Imperial War Cabinet: "Bolshevism in Russia represents a mere fraction of the population, and would be exposed and swept away by a general election held under Allied auspices." 5 The Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, viewed Churchill's antipathies with a jaundiced eye. Winston, Lloyd George wrote, "had no doubt a genuine distaste for Communism. He was horrified, as we all were, at the savage murder of the Czar, the Czarina and their helpless children. His ducal blood revolted against the wholesale elimination of Grand Dukes in Russia. [I believed] that under the impulse of this brilliant Minister, we were gradually being drawn into war with Russia."6 Yet Great Britain had been the first nation to take a practical interest in the independence struggle of the Baltic peoples, which began in the wake of the Russian collapse and revolution of 1917. British statesmen had realized that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania had advanced sufficiently to form independent nations, controlling their own destinies.7 All three Baltic States had declared independence by the end of 1918. At the same time, if the Bolsheviks were to be overthrown, Britain looked to a Russian republic with its prewar boundaries intact. Foreign secretary Lord Balfour thus took a middle course, extending defacto, but not dejure, recognition to Estonia on 3 May 1918, and to Latvia on Armistice Day, 11 November.8 Independence and recognition were not, however, won without bloodshed, nor without Allied military intervention. Churchill, writing later, gave a sympathetic view toward the struggles of the small countries. "Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania found themselves in a peculiarly unhappy position. They were close neighbours on the East to Petrograd and Kronstadt, the nurseries of Bolshevism; on the West to the birthplace and stamping-ground of those Prussian landowners who had proved themselves to be the most rigid element in the German system and one of the most formidable. During the winter of 1918 and the early summer of 1919 the Baltic States were subjected alternately to the rigours of Prussian and Bolshevik domination . . . In these circumstances it is not surprising that the independence of Esthonia, Latvia and Lithuania existed for the time being only in the aspirations of their inhabitants and the sympathies of allied and associated Powers."9 In order to support the three republics, or at least keep them out of Lenin's bloody grasp, the Allies used German troops as a surrogate army. Under the terms of the Armistice, the Germans were to withdraw gradually, leaving the republics to set up their governments. Britain also lent sea power through operation "Red Trek," a naval squadron under Rear-Admiral Alexander Sinclair. In December 1918, Sinclair sallied into Estonian and Latvian ports, sending in troops and supplies, and promising to attack the Bolsheviks "as far as my guns can reach." 8 Latvian prime minister Karlis Ulmanis, a patriot returned from exile (he had studied agriculture in the United States), sent the first of many appeals for support to London on 3 December.10 For much of 1919 this strange alliance of circumstance continued, the British with the Germans, aligned with native Baits against the Russians. As the latter retreated, the surrogate German armies turned on the Baits, hoping to establish regional supremacy for the German-Bait barons who had largely run these countries in Czarist days. This resulted in the only British-German military engagement after Armistice Day. On 20 October, for example, German fire killed and wounded 13 sailors aboard the British cruiser Dragon at Riga.11 Throughout 1919 Churchill, as Secretary of State for War, was torn between his own impulse to throttle Bolshevism and an almost unanimous view to the contrary by his fellow cabinet ministers. Lloyd George and the rest highly doubted that the White Russians, under Denikin and Kolchak, could successfully oust Lenin; Churchill argued for heightened financial and material support. Seizing every anti-Bolshevik cause to support his view, he took the position of all-out aid to the larval Baltic states, speaking forcefully for their national freedom: The Estonians, to some extent supplied with British arms, have made a very stout fight and have really shown the weakness of the Bolshevists for quite small forces have driven them back.12 When our pacifists or Bolshevist featherheads in this country raise their shrill voices in hysterical glee at every Bolshevist victory, let them remember that but for the armies of Koltchak and Denikin the whole weight of Bolshevist
aggression would be thrust upon these small states.13 These small States have stood. They are intact today. They have maintained their existence precariously. Quivering and shaking, but still standing, they have held back not only the Bolshevik armies but the more devastating Bolshevik propaganda which, applied to people in the depths of misery, just recovering from the convulsions of the War, without any of the resources of a civilised State, offers every temptation to internal disorder and anarchy.14
Lord Curzon, one of Churchill's few supporters, argued in August 1919 that the Baits "were too small and too near Russia and Germany to maintain themselves, and it was desirable therefore that they should have some sort of protection." But G.N. Barnes, a Labour minister-without-portfolio, replied "with his usual shrewdness and common sense" (Lloyd George15) that Britain "had fully discharged her obligations to these peoples, we were always backing the wrong horse. The real governing force in Russia was the Soviet Government"16 Curzon became foreign minister on 23 October 1919, a relief to Churchill, whose letters were strong and persuasive. "To what extent do you consider yourself responsible for the policy we are pursuing in the Baltic States?," he wrote Curzon on 10 September. "Secondly, can you give me any idea what that policy is? . . . Are you going to do anything to prevent the Esthonians making peace with the Bolsheviks?"16 Twelve days later Churchill added, "I cannot see why we shd refuse to give any countenance to the claims of these states to a measure of independence, so long as we do not have to guarantee their defence."17 German General Count von der Goltz, commanding the surrogate division who fought with and then against the Baltic national forces, was forced by the British to disband his army and return to Germany this same month. But the struggle for independence continued against the Red Army. Except in Estonia, where they fought with their backs to the sea and relatively untroubled by the Germans, it was a bitter and costly war, one the infant Baltic republics were hardpressed to weather. Appeals from their heads of state were frequent and heart-rending. When Karlis Ulmanis of Latvia addressed yet another of these to Lloyd George it was sent to Churchill for routine review. It occasioned perhaps the most heated debate ever between Winston and his longtime Liberal colleague.
Churchill in August 1919, on a visit of the Army Council to the Rhine, with Field Marshal Sir William Robertson. A good impression of the then-War Secretary who harangued his colleagues about Russia, RIGHT: Karlis Ulmanis, first prime minister of Latvia, served his nation through 1940 when he was deported by the Soviets. Contrary to his biography in the Churchill Companion Volumes, he died in exile in 1942. He had been arrested by the invading Russians in June 1-940; they forced him to resign and to call for new elections at which only Communists could stand. Deported to Russia, he died at sea, on the Caspian.
"I would advise the following reply to the Prime Minister of Latvia," Churchill wrote the PM on 22 September . . .
I assure Your Excellency that the freedom, safety and well-being of Latvia is a matter of earnest concern to His Majesty's Government in conjunction with the other Great Powers. The influence of His Majesty's Government will be consistently used to secure each of these states full and free development under an autonomous constitution in accordance with the wishes of their people . . . With regard to the Bolshevik danger which Latvia has hitherto so manfully withstood, HMG advise, and so far as they have a right to do so, urge, that concerted action should be taken between the Baltic States 18 maintain their to security against this danger.
Latvians and Lithuanians to invade Russia? Unless you do it is idle to hurl vague reproaches at your colleagues. You won't find another responsible person in the whole land who will take your view, why waste your energy and your usefulness in this vain fretting? I think I have given you tangible proof that I wish you well. It is for that reason that I write frankly to you."19
One can understand how it was so easy for the Black Dog of depression to occupy Winston Churchill's mind. "I find the suggestions of yr letter vy unkind & I think also unjust," he replied with obvious sadness. He had but tried, he continued,
to impress upon you the realisation I have of the intense and horrible situation in Russia & of its profound influence upon all our affairs. I may get rid of my 'obsession' or you may get rid of me; but you will not get rid of Russia . . . the whole anti-Bolshevik front in the Baltic States is treated 20 if it were a matter of indifference as to Britain.
Lloyd George viewed such a statement as the height of folly: "You want their independence recognised in return for [their undertaking to] attack the Bolsheviks. That would not satisfy them in the least." What they wanted, the PM went on, was complete independence, plus British equipment and money.
Are you prepared to comply with these two requests? There is no other member of the Cabinet who would. Whether the Bolsheviks or the anti-Bolsheviks get the upper hand, they would not recognise the independence of these States as it would involve the permanent exclusion of Russia from the Baltic. Would you be prepared to make war with an Anti-Bolshevik regime? . . . do you wish this country to maintain armies in the field of Estonians,
Churchill in 1922 (Eleanor Newfield Collection)
Doggedly, fighting with outmoded weapons, outnumbered by as much as ten to one, the determined Baits fought on. Slowly, after Britain sent the worrisome Germans home, they began to clear their native lands. Russia was too weak, still too divided internally, and too occupied with more urgent matters to press its actions. And did not Lenin himself say the rights of national minorities would be a benchmark for Bolshevik Russia? Apparently he meant it, at least on paper: by the Spring of 1920 peace treaties had been signed between Moscow and all three Baltic republics by which the USSR "voluntarily and for eternal times" renounced "all sovereign rights over the people and territory" of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.21 "To anyone who had seen the Latvian people at war, their gentle tolerance in peace was perplexing," wrote Baltic historian John Roche.22 "By the brutally intolerant standards so common in the world today, one would expect the Latvians to have deported all the Baltic Germans, levied discriminatory taxes on the Jews . . . Instead they pronounced amnesty for those who had fought against them [and allowed] minorities full citizenship and free education." There was strict sexual equality — by allowing women to vote during the momentary Russian elections in 1905, Latvia had become the first district in Europe with female suffrage. Slowly, the small businesses recovered, and some grew into industries. Textiles, metals and machinery were produced; the famous Minox camera was invented in Riga. As ever, the Baits remained great readers and seekers of knowledge. In books published per capita, the Baltic States ranked among the top five countries in Europe; in college enrollments they were in the top four. National operas were held by many to be the best of their kind; the annual Song Festivals were colossal expressions of national sentiment. "They work and play happily," said Janis Cakste, first president of Latvia. "For them every day is Sunday — now." But Sundays never last. And, as the 1930s dawned and with them a new, virile form of German
militarism, the few far-seeing European statesmen looked with doubt on the future of the Baltic republics. Churchill's immediate impulse after Baltic independence was established de jure was their common defense. His prescription was typical of his career as a whole: amalgamate, ally, stand together for the mutual safety; do not go it alone. One may wish the Baits had listened to, or even heard, that lonely voice from the wilderness, from a man with much to offer, yet no audience to hear. Arguably his old friend Sir Henry Wilson put the idea to Churchill in September 1919, at the height of the controversy over British aid to the Baltic: "I would have liked to see some effort made, if such a thing were possible, to combine the Baltic States, including Finland and Poland, in an effort to keep the Bolsheviks out of their territories."23 Two months later Churchill in a cabinet memo pointed to "the dubious value of any title deeds obtained at this stage from the Bolsheviks," and suggested an autonomous federal State comprising Esthonia, Latvia, Lithuania, within the limits of a reconstituted Russia. The agreement, if reached, should be under the safe-guard of the League of Nations. Although this solution is not all the Baltic States desire, where else are they going to get so good a title deed?24 Before World War II the facade of the Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Riga contained an inscription in Latin: Concordia res parvae crescunt, discordia magnae concidant.25 An old but still true counsel by Sallust: united they stand, divided they fall. Churchill used it well and often during the great war to come. But geography, politics, culture and development prevented Sallust's or Churchill's advice from being taken. Baltic security, if it existed at all, depended on stalemate and stand-off between the two giant neighbors, Germany and Russia. "But Baltic perceptions of their relations with these neighbors differed widely," wrote Professor Edgar Anderson: A sympathetic British observer noted that Baltic attitudes had a certain "lives of the haunted" quality, making it difficult for the Baits to decide whether they feared most the provocative solicitude of the Soviet Union, the clumsy directness of a potentially aggressive Germany, or the devouring overtures of Poland.26 Though several conferences were held between Finland, Poland and the Baltic republics, no federation was ever seriously discussed, and worse, no military cooperation. Aside from cultural differences there were politics: Poland had taken the ancient Lithuanian capital of Vilnius and surrounding territory when it won independence following the Great War; the Lithuanians had never forgiven the Poles; the Estonians and Latvians avoided close alliance with Poland for fear of antagonizing Lithuania. Finland, across its gulf, was geographically isolated. Finland, too, had signed a treaty of peace and security with Russia . . . Would Russia one day seek to reclaim the conquests of Peter the Great, regaining her ice-free Baltic coastline, which the Czars had dominated for 200 years? In the early 1930s, the small republics could. 12
only hope that the Soviet treaties would hold, or that Germany would insist on Baltic integrity for her own security interests. Others were less optimistic, and among these — inevitably — was a Cassandra named Winston Churchill. In 1931 he spoke of the upcoming Disarmament Conference in Geneva which — much as today — had
ABOVE: PR it may have been, but this Latvian ar what the Baits had accomplished, BELOW LEFT Tallinn, June 1938. BELOW RIGHT: Part of Riga's ;
CHURCHILL COLLECTORS HANDBOOK SUPPLEMENT 3 (REV 10-86)
Section 3: Directory to the International Churchill Society With Members of Record as of 30 September 1986
For the personal use oflCS members, branches and chapters.
Publication of complete addresses is prohibited by Article VI of the Society By-laws, in order to assure the privacy of our members. However, any individual member may request a partial list, covering all other members in his or her local area, for personal contact or for the purpose of organizing a chapter. To receive such lists, please contact your membership office in any of the five countries listed iri the Directory on page 3 of each Finest Hour. We do hope this list of current members will remind you of the increasing number of neighbors who share your interest, and prompt you to contact them in the near future.
AUSTRALIA* Note: seven new members have recently Joined from Sydney, and a major Austral* inn memttcrship campaign is underway, finest Hour will report additions later.
ACT: CAMPBELL/PETER BUCHANAN, CHURCHILL MEMORIAL TRUST, R.A.L.M0RANT.O8E NSW: DUBIIO/RAM'H DORMAN, STRATHFIBLD/B.J.BR1TTON, SYDNEY/W.R.GALVIN QUEENSLAND: BRISBANB/H.D.HUMPHREYS, MAROATB/C.A.LEBSANFT, TOOWONQ/HELEN BANFF SA: CAMI'BELLTOWN/R.D.ROSSER TASMANIA: TAROONA, GEORGE RICHARD VICTORIA: RNDKAVOUR HILLS/PETER M. JENKINS
RONALD W.DOWNEY, JOHN FARRELL, NORMAN M.FAIERS, G.MARTIN GREER, JOHN H.GOODGEH C.H.HEBB, D.HUMPHREYS, JAMES D.KADLEC, STANLEY J.KERNAGHAN, DONALD A.S.LANSKAIL, CLAYTON LEHMAN, FRANK MCNULTY, W.T.MONEY, CAPT.JOHN NEWRURY, MURRAY A. NEWMAN, W.F.RAMSEY, DAVID R.L.ROLFE, ANTHONY B.SCAMMELL, DR.HAROLD SHORT, MARK R.STEVEN, LESLIE A.STRIKE, LIONEL S.SUCH, IAN J.WARD, IAN WHITELAW W.ROBERT WYMAN, BRYAN E. YIRUSH
BRUNSWICK MONCTON.NB: CELWYN P.BALL
DAVID T.ANDERSON, S.F.OWEN;
NEWEt>UNDLANU=NOVA C ANAD A ALBEHTA/GKNEHAI,
CALGARY: CHRIS BELL, E.M.BREDON OC, LT.J.GI1ODZ1NSKI, BEVERLY PAYNE, N.J.RYAN LAMONT: Ull.J.K.HUTSON, DR.JOHN SUNLEY; ST.ALBERT: JOHN DE BRUNN, E . A . SEITZ, MAJ.W.WBST; SHERWOOD PARK: M.K.PALS, E.M.SILVER; WINTRE1URN: J.CAITHNESS ST.JOHN'S,NFLD: JAMES H.STEELE
SCOTIA HALIFAX,NS: LEONARD A. KITZ.OC
QNTARIO^gENERAL AGINCOURT: JOHN G. PLUMI'TON; BOBCATQEON: CHRISTINA FLETCHER; BRANTPORD: WILLIAM SEMPIE, JOSEPH FULLAN; CAMBRIDGE: JOHN H.PAULL; ETOSICOKE: COLIN WACKETT; GLOUCESTER: MRS.JOANNE JOHNSTON; GRIMSBY: DR.D.W.MCLENNAN; HAMILTON: PAUL TORKINGTON; KITCHENER: R.G.R.LAWRENCE,OC; OODERICE: CARL W.ANDERSON; ISLINGTON: P.A.H.CASSELS; MISSISSAUOA: E.R.MOORIIOUSR II, JOHN RONSON, BERNARD F.WEBBER; ORONO: ROY DALZBLL; OTTAWA: COL.STROME GALLOWAY; PETERBOROUGH: JOHN A. STEWART; PICKERING: DR.H.J.VEAR; FORT HOPE: MAJ.J.A.DURE.RBT.; RICHMOND BILL: DON MCVICAR; ST.CATHERINES: MRS.SHEENA PATTERSON; SCARBOROUOH: WINSTON CHURCHILL COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE; STRATHROY: DAVID S. FERGUSON; SUTTON WEST: MISS M.M.WO0D; TBORNHILL: GARNET R.BARBER; UXBRIDGE: RONALD J. TINDLEY; WILLOWDALB: G.W.CHURTON, NEIL EARLE, HON.DONALD M.FLEMING, S.J.GLASSER, MURRAY WILLIAM MILNE, M.C.SHONFIELD, GEORGB B.TEMPLE; WOODSTOCK: MRS.MARY ALEXANDER
jj.>ROB ANDREWS, BARNABY J. BAKER, MARK BELL, DR. J . J . B 0 U L T 9 N , DR.D. I.BUCHANAN, F.H.CLARK, ARTHUR CLOAD, D.M.CORMIE.QC, TREVOR DAVIES, MAYOR L.DECORE, H.H.DHISCOLL, L.M.DUSHINSKY, R . G . F I E L D , D.W.FLECK, GEORGE FORD, G.FRYETT, MARC GREEN, LORNE GUNTER, DR.HARVKY HEBB, HAHRY HOLE, R.K.HOLE, R.HURLBURT, CAPT CHRIS KRISINGER, GEORGE LAMBERT, DAVID T.LEAKER, HON.S.I.EGG, S.A.MACTAGGART, A.D.MASKELL, M.A.MILES, J . O . H . M I L L S , A.T.MURRAY, JAMES NEWBY, KENNETH C.PALS, DR.J.G.PATEHSON, PRESIDENT/AIR FORCE, H O N . S . S . P U R V I S , DR.COLIN RAMSAY, D . V . REYNOLDS, LT.COL.H.H.ROSS,CD, WILFRED SADLER, DR.J.S1EGENBERG, V . L . S I M S , L . B . STAPLES, RON STODDAND, W.J.STERLING SUNLEY, KEITH WAKBFIELD, DH.H.T.WILLIAMS
QNTARig/.TORONTO G.E.CAMPDELL, DAVID CURRIB, JOHN EDISON,OC, ROBERT S.GILI.AN, MISS L.C. HLNCHCLIFFB, DR. FREDERICK L.R.JACKMAN, MRS.HENRY JACKMAN, GLYNNB JENKINS, J.G.KILGOUR, MRS.MARGARET R.LACHAPELLE, ERNEST J.LITTLE, NORMAN MACROGERS, DOUGLAS J.MCLEOD, DR.JOSEPH B. ROGERS, F.B.WATT, P.MICHAEL WILSON
ABBOTSFORD: DR.MICHAEL BREAR; BURNABY: FRED GING.ELL, JOSEPH RAPHAEL; COQUITLAM: ROY S.FLAXMAN; DUNCAN: JOHN C.DAVIE; LANDUY: GEORGE BROWN, ANDRE* J.SCOTT; NEW WBSTMINSTEH: DR.ARTHUR LIEN; OCBAN PARK: HUGH A.M.CLEE; PT.COQUITLAM: FRANK R.SMYTH; POWELL RIVER: CAPT.S.B.ALSGARD; OUALICUM BBACB: MRS.I1.R.M1LNKR; RICHHOND: DR.H.STANSFIELD; SAANICHTOM: KEN A.LANE; SIDNEY: H.DAVE 8OWKER, HON.W.J.C.K1RBY.QC; VICTORIA: EDWARD C.BOWDBN GREEN, DR.A.H.LANE, RON CYNEWULF ROBBINS, MRS.TOM SOUTHWOOD; WRITE ROCK: LEONARD W.TAYLOR, DR.J.QUAYLE.
MONTREAL: ALAIN HEBERT; SRERBROOK: DR.PIERRE GAGNB; WESTHOUNT: RONALD 1. COHBN
SASKATC H12 WAN
RBGINA: STANLEY FREESTONE
SADRU AHMED, MICHAEL ASHBY, PHILIP BARTAR, FRANK BATTERSI11LL, W.H.BERUKOFF, BARRIE R. JACKSON, DR.G.D.KETTYLS, DR.A.E.MACDONALD, LARRY T.MCAULEY, G.W.STABLES, PETER A. WHITE, HARRY R. WOOD
BE.RKSHIRE=flyCKINGHAMSHIRE BRITISH CpLtJMBIA/yANCgyVER
BERKS: MAIDENHEAD: KEITH W.HATCH; THATCHAM NEWBURY: ANTHONY MILSOM BUCKS: QT.M1SSENDEN: KATHLEEN HILL.MBE, SIR RICHARD HILL.BT.MBE; MARLOW: JOHN EVANS
DR.HAROLD BERGMAN, W.J.BORRIE, DR.WILLIAM BURNS, MACDONALD CAMPBELL, HUBERT 0.CHAPMAN, J.STUART CLYNE, HON.J.V.CLYNK.OC, A.IAN DAVIDSON, JOHN D'EATH, DAVID DEVINE, LIEON-JEAN DOISE, R.THEODORE DU MOULIN,OC, M.DONALD BASTON, WM.EASTON, THOMAS C. EDDIE, JOHN FLOWERREW, DENNIS FORRISTAL, DOUGLAS H.GARDNER, DAVID A.GRAHAM, D.R.HILDRETH, DEREK LUKIN JOHNSTON, D.BARRY KIRKHAM, W.C.KOKRNER, THOMAS B.LAMER, FRANK B.MILONI, C.CLIFFORD MINCIIELL, DAVID ODHAMS, H.A.D.OLIVER, QC, MARCEL OLLIVIER, RONALD D.PBNHALL, MURRAY L'LIMN, RODERICK 1.A.SMITH, GORDON T. SOUTHAM, ALLAN D^TIIACKRAY, W.D.A.TUCK, PAUL K.VATCHER, RICHARD H.VOGBL, BRIG.GEN.W.T.W1CKETT, FRANK R.WIBLER.CD, JOHN WILLIAMS, J.D.WILSON, STANLEY H.WINFIELD, HAROLD M.WRIGKT, CHARLES YOUNG
CORNWALL: BUDE: H.M.BOBTTINGER; PENHALE WADKBRIDOE: RICHARD G.G.RASLAM-HOPWOOD DBVON: COMBE DOWN: DET.SGT.EDMUND MURRAY; OTTERY-ST.NART: F.G.IIOUNSLOW DORSET: BRIDPORT: GRAHAM ROBSON; CORFS MULLEN, WIMBORNB: D.G.ANDREWS
G.GRANT BEATSON, FRANK P.BERNARD, JOHN E.BIRTH, WILLIAM G.BROWN, C.A.DECOSSON,
EASTBOURNE: CLIVE OGDEN; EAST GRINSTEAD: MHS.M.WELLESLEY WESLEY
8ASILDON: P..I.WOOD; BILLSHICAY: NORMAN J. MITCHINSON: LOUOHTON: JOHN E.HARVEY; RAMSDEN HEATH: COLIN A. SPENCER; RAYLBIGH: A.H.BENHAM; S.BBNFLBET: J.E.MORRIS; TOLLESBURY.MALDEN: FRANK RENDELL; WOODFORD GREEN; DONALD FORBES, R.T.PHOUT.MBB
COPMAKTHORP8: G.RAYMOND BUHN; SHEFFIELD: Mns.M.A.GIBBS
USA members ale arranged in Zip code order, east to west, north to south. Rend the following columns left to right fully across. GLOIJCESTEH
CHELTENHAM: ROY FAIERS; NAILSEA: SYDNEY BENNETT IIAMPSH1RE
ALDBRSHOT: FRED HAMBROOK, H..I.WHITE; BKAULIBU: IXJIID MONTAGU OF BEAULIEU; BEDHAHPTON: H.A.REDBURN.OBB; HAYLING ISLAND: WILFRED THOMAS PERKINS; NORTH BADDLESLEY: DON PAYNE: ODIHAM: EVAN M.DAVIES; PAMPER HEATH: ELIZABETH BAVERSTOCK; STOCHRIDGB: SIR JOHN COLVILLE.CB.CVO; TADLEY: GEOFFREY J. WHEELER
BISHOPS STORirORD: DAVID A.THOMAS; NEW BARNET: JOHN FROST; THING: ROBT.FINCHER
01001 01267 01513 017-12 0IR.13 02115 02I3B 02101 02181 021B1 02324 02642
AMIIKHST: JOHN LOVETT DOUST W1LLIAMSTOWN: DOROTHY REINKE RUTLAND: DOUGLAS MARDKN CONCORD: STANLEY E. SMITH GEORGETOWN: I'AUL S. KING BOSTON: THOMAS A. ROBINSON CAMBRIDGE: GHAIIAM T.ALLISON,JR WABAN: KENNETH DREYER WBLSLY HILLS: SHEILA MCCARTHY WELSLY HILLS: FRANCIS WOLFORT BRIDGEWATER: GUSTAF E.NEWCOMB EASTHAM: IAN AITCHISON
01201 01365 01742 01776 019-15 02126 02159 02173 02181 02193 02631 02766
PITTSFIELD: WINSTON ROULIER ORANGE: ROBERT W. LEACH CONCORD: ROBERT O. BOWKN SUDBURY: JACK NIXON MARBLEHKAD: DR.GARY EISENHOWER MATTAPAN: RICHARD ROBERTS NEWTON CENTRR: DR.CYRIL MAZANSKY LEXINGTON: J.J.GERALD MCCUE WELSLY HILLS: HOWARD I..CHURCHILL WESTON: MATTHEW COSTELLO BREWSTER: JOHN LO;BINniBH,JR. NORTON: AUSTIN C. SMITH
SEVENOAKS: MRS.M.GREEN; TONBRIDGK: VISCOUNT DE I.'ISI.E,VC,KG, PETER B. GRIFFITHS,FCA; TUNBRIDGE WELLS: WALTER SYMONS OSBOHNE; NESTERHAM: JEAN BHOOME, WINSTON S.CHURCHILL,MP, GRACE HAMBLIN.OBE
03104 MANCHESTER: TED SEVERANCE 03229 CONTOOCOOK: RICHARD M.LANGWORTH 03255 NEWBUHY: CHARLES E. SANDEEN
03102 BEDFOliD: JON S. RICHARDSON 03212 CONTOOCOOK: HARRIET LANGWORTH 03242 HKNNIKEH: IAN W. MORRISON
MAINE — VERMONT
LANCS: HAMBLSTON: P.M.WALSH; ORMSKIM: E.W.SAVAGE LKICS: LEICESTER: R.G.GARNER; PACIINGTON.ASHBY: M . J . LAINCHBURY LINCS: BOURNE: TREVOR HOLLINSHEAD
RHOOE05101 BELLOWS FALLS: BARBARA WHITEHKAD 02860 PAWTUCKET RI: BENTON ROSEN
04108 PEAKS ISLAND: DONALD WILDER 0 2 8 4 0 NEWPORT R I : JOSHUA ROOERS
06074 06281 00355 06410 06457 0K604 06759 06877 06897 S.WINDSOR: KEVIN F. RENNIE WOODSTOCK: RICHARD F. POTTER MYSTIC: WILLIAM O. ROCKWOO1) CHESHIRE: ALBERT J. SHERMAN MIDDLETOWN: WILLIAM MANCHESTER BRIDGEPORT: VIOLET SCIALLA LITCHFIELD: ASA E. HALL RIDGEF1ELD: HOWARD B. WALZER WILTON: SVEN ERIK NIELSEN 06255 06430 06378 06415 06492 06610 06820 06883 N.GROSVENOnDALK: RICHARD CARRENO OROTON: JOHN MCCAFFERY STONINGTON: DAVID C. ELKS COLCHESTER: JOHN CURTIS ARNOLD WALL1NGFORD: DR.GORDON S. COHEN BRIDGEPORT: MICHAEL M. STANIO DARIEN: GERALD B. MO KENZIE WESTON: DR. JEFFREY SATINOVER
LONDON JAMES BELL, HARRY CA11N, JONATHAN CHADWICK, MARTIN GILBERT, ELIZABETH GILLIAT.MBF, NEIL HUGHES-ONSLOW, MICHAEL KELION, DENIS KELLY, I.H.LEVY, G.B.H.MAGCSS, DAVID B.MAYOU, ANTHONY MONTAGUE BnoWNE.CBE.DFC, ROSALIND B.OKIN, ETTA PALMER, SIDNEY L.SHIPTON, THE LORD SOAMES,GCMG,GCVO,CH,CBE, THE LADY SOAMES.DBB, THB EARL OF STOCKTON.OM, JEFFREY YOUNG,JP
MIDDLESEX NEW JERSEY
ENFIELD: RONALD A.SMITH; BARROW: HARROW SCHOOL; NORTHOLT: VALANCE A.WOODCOCK NOHTHAMPTONSHIRE
BICESTER: R.W.J.PRICK; BLADON: ARTHUR O.CORK; FRKELAND: DWGR.DIICHBSS OF ONSLOW OXFORD: DR.J.A.CHALMERS, V.ADM SIR PETER GRKTTON, DR.K.LUMSDEN, PATRICIA NKMON, REV.G.PAGE TURNER; WANTAGE: HENRY EDWARD CROOKS; WATLINGTON: SIR JOHN MARTIN,KGMG.CB.CVO; WOODSTOCK: THB DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH.DL.JP, MARCUS R.N1NER
07024 07039 07090 07401 07701 07924 08033 08066 OBf.Ol 08807 08904
FT.1.KE: GERALD B. LECHTKH LIVINGSTON: DOUCLAS G. TARR WESTF1BLD: GEOROB A. LEWIS ALI.ENDALE: MSOR.F.R. SEYMOUR RED BANK: E.E. MOORE BERNARDSVILLE: PAUL BIBA HADD0NF1ELD: RALPH D. EASTW1CK PAULSFORO: RICHARD STEVENSON ALI.ENTOWN: YVONNE M. HENRY BRIDGEWATER: RICHARD C. EVANS HIGHLAND PARK: HERMAN BRE1TKOPF
07039 07070 07110 07410 07920 0794S 08052 08088 08534 08812
LIVINGSTON: RONALD I. PARKER RUTHERFORD; ANTHONY LANCIA NUTLEY: GILBERT H. ILBS FAIR LAWN: MANFRED WEIDHORN BASKING RIDGE: CHARLES M. MENAGH MENDHAM: SHIRLEY J. STAKE MAPLE SHADE: RONALD GREENWALD VINCENTOWN: RALPH WILEN PENNINGTON: RUSSELL H. MULLEN DUNBLLEN: REV. WILLIAM BENWELL
NEW YORK CITY SCOTLAND
GLASGOW: BOB SUTHERLAND; STRACHUR: SIR FITZROY MACCLEAN
SALOPS: LUDLOW: MATIIKW GILES REES STAFFS: STAFFORD: A.T.GOODYER
SOLOMON BOGARD, BENJAMIN M.CARDOZO, MICHAEL J.CLOSB, COLLEEN L.CROFT, RUTH EMERY, ROGER FEMENELLA, C.AUSTIN FITTS, SAMUEL GARRETT, BRYAN GINNS, JAMES H.IIE1NAMANN, GLENN HOROWITZ, HOWARD KOPKLSON, ROBERT KUMM, IAN LATTER, DONALD F.MALIN.JR., MRS.J.STERLING MCCLUSKEY, EDWARD E. RIGNEY, EDWARD S. RIGNHY, EDWIN F. RUSSELL, EDWINA SANDYS, BARRY SINGER, CHARLES W.SPRAGUE, NORIHOKO TAN1OKA, PETER J. THAVERS
ASRTEAD: MRS.CLAUDE BLAIR; BRAMLCT: MICHAEL WYBROW; HASCOMH: ARTHUR SIMON; SILVERSTONE: GERALD LOVELL; WARLINOHAM: L.L.THOMAS
aLAMORGAN: UNQLAND: ERIC R. JONES; PENARTB: L.H.WILLIAMS; MDNMOUTH: CBRPSTOW: K.G.TUFFT; MONTGOMERYSHIRE: NEWTON M A N N S : DR.C.TOBIAS
10536 10708 10970 11021 11103 11545 11581 11946 14201 14221 14512
KATONAH: RICHARD I . FISHER . BRONXVILLB: WM.W.MOORE POMONA: STEVE V. DROBNY GT.NECK: DR.S.M. SARAVAY ASTORIA: RONALD S. MEI.NYK GLEN HEAD: WILLLIAM T. MURRAY VAI.LRY STREAM: MRS.M.WELLINGTON HAMPTON BAYS: REV.R.W.CHURCHILL BUFFALO: H1CHARD T. STEPHENS W1LLIAMSVILLE: DR.M.A.SHANBHAG NAPLES: HOBEHT R. OILMAN
10601 10801 11005 11024 11374 11566 11787 13205 14209 14467 14624
WHITE PLAINS: TOBY S. HEIL1NGMANN NEW ROCHEI.LE: HENRY W. RYAN, JR. FLORAL PARK: DR.HARVEY F.WACHSMAN KINGS POINT: RON BARON REGO PARK: ARTHUR BRAVER MBRRICK: IRA L. GERSHENSON SMITHTOWN: ARTHUR KUNZ SYRACUSE: GREGORY N. BULLARD BUFFALO: DONALD S. CARMICHAEL HENRIETTA: WILLIAM E. BEATTY ROCHESTER: WILLIAM FARMBOROUGH
WARKS: LEAMINGTON SPA: HELEN R.KAY; NUNSATON: R.W.TEBBBTT; STRATFORD: D.WEBER W.MIDLANDS: COVENTRY: P.H.SQUIRE; SHIRLXT, SOLIHULL: ROY THOMPSON
15108 15213 15317 16801 17105 18042 18644 19008 19038 19087 19118 19144 19301 CORAOTOLIS: JOHN G. MILLER PITTSBURGH: SAMUEL E. SHAPIRO MCMURRAY: RICHARD H. COOMBS STATE COLLEGB: AM.PHIL.SOCIETY HARRISBURG: BRITISH HERITAGE EASTON: RICHARD A. HAMPULLA WYOMING: GEORGE H. TREWERN BROOMALL: PHYLLIS A. RUOFF GLENSIDE: CRAIG DB BKHNARDIS RADNOR: DANIEL J. LBNBHAN PHILADELPHIA: JAMBS C. HUMBS PHILA.: ROBERT DEPUB BROWN PAOLI: JAN1S CALVO 15146 15225 16507 17022 17363 18103 18704 19020 19041 19103 19137 19150 19342 MONROEVILLE: KENNETH R. FITCH PITTSBURGH: DR.I.W. GOLDFARB ERIK: FORREST C. MISCHLER MD ELIZABETHTOWN: LILY E. GRIMM STEWARTSTOWN: DR. R.B. GEMMILL ALI.ENTOWN: DR. HAOBN STAACK KINGSTON: MARC L. HOLTZMAN BENSALEM: GARY M. CARR HAVERFOND: EDWIN ROTKMAN PHILADELPHIA: WILLIAM A. DANOFF PHILADELPHIA: MICHAEL J. SHBEHAN PHILADELPHIA: PAUL BLANCHARD GLBN MILLS: DR. DONALD J. KASPER
WEST SUSSEX ARUNDEL: T. CAUTE WORTHING: T.H. RUSSELL WEST YORKSHIRE
WAIEFULD: GEORGE RHODES
W-tLTSHIRE WARMINSTER: THE MARQUESS OF BATH
US A / c o n t * d
DELAWARE 19711 NEWARK: PROP. RAYMOND CALI.AIIAN 19899 WILMINGTON: CHARLES BRANDT
4K2;H INDIANAPOLIS: DH.CEO.J.MCAFEE 4BR04 FT.WAYNE: DAVID S. KUSCH 4 7 3 5 3 LIBERTY: LAWRENCE E.SHARP
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TEXASZEALLAS S. ARLINGTON
MRS.GARY ALORIDGB, DR&MRS.HBNHY R.ALTI, GWEN BODENHAMBR, MARY M.BODENHAMER, DH.W.J.BUFKIN, HOMER BURKS, BONNIE J.BURSON, RALPH D. CHURCHILL, LEA MARYB DAVIS, RICHARD M.FLATT, BARBARA J.GIRARD, NAOMI GOTTLIEB, BARBARA E.R.HEGEL, DAVID D.HILL, LOWELL HOOVER, MARGARET KOONS, MRS.MARTHA LAWING.JR, TEX LEZAR, MARK MAHAN, G.C.MCGILL, WM.P.MURCHISON, JACK W.MYNBTT, MRJMRS EARL L.N1CH0L, DAVID OSBORNE, ALICE PIES, DAVID A.SAMPSON, DR.MITCHELL SMITH, RANDY STRVENSON, TIM T1MMINS, DAPHNE BAYNHAM WHYTB
<:o L.ORAIIO IIOZOSI DliNVIilt: WAI.TKII R. FOI.TZ 801)07 0 0 1 , 0 . S P G S : VIKGIL BOIIENSTENGEI. 8 0 3 0 3 B0II1.DKR: ROGER S. CICIIORZ
The Board of Directors of the Society nwnrds honorary memberships to persons who hnve mmlo n significant contribution Io I he life oT Sir Winston Churchill, to the study of his career, or to the Society. Eighteen honorary members have been named since 1968:
IAN G. BESW1CK (14037 XAYSVILLR UT: LEWIS J.SPRAGUE
8 3 B 3 8 MCCALL 10:
8 5 2 5 1 SCOTTSDAIE AZ: HM.R.SCHUL7. 8 7 1 I I ALBUQUERQUE NM: I.ABI1Y FHICKE 8 0 1 0 3 I.AS VEGAS NV; HAROLD ARMSTRONG
85311 GLFNDALE AZ: P.L.PIKUL 87301 GALLUP NM: CHARLES E.CURRENT
Q A 1 . I . K O I J N 1 A—— S O U T H 90004 I..A.: WINSTON L.FARHAK
90250 90278 90601 90731 91101 91307 91326 91711 91711 92037 92103 92262 92270 92380 92660 92670 HAWTHORNE: E . P . O ' B R I E N RE1I0ND0 BCD: J.ALLO;N 01IIGI.EY WHITTIER: JOHN T.MCLAUGHLIN SAN rEPIIO: DR.JAMES BENEDICT PASADENA: DR.WM.L.INGRAM,JR. CANOGA PARK: STKVK PETERS NORTIIHIDGE: BRUCE L.BOGSTAD Cl.AHKMONT: JOHN BUTTEHWORTH CI.AREMONT: DOUGLAS A.JEFFREY LA J01.I.A: ROBERT G.SUI.LLIVAN SAN DIEGO: A.H.MACPIIAIL PA 1*1 SPGS: J.KAY CORLISS RANCHO MIRAGE: DEREK ASIITON SUN CITY: W.RLEN BROWNE NEWPORT BCH: CELIA S.TURNER PLACENT1A: DAVID FREEMAN
9001!! L.A.: IIKNRY SAKATO 90272 PAC.PALISADES: PETER BERRINGTON 90402 SANTA MONICA: STANLEY M.BHIGGS 90603 WHITTIEH: CURT J.Z0L1.ER 91011 FLINTRIDGE: ALI.EN P.WEBB 91108 PASADENA: ROBERT P.HASTINGS 91316 ENCINO: T.W.MCGARRY 91371 WOODLND HILLS: EUGENE S.LARSON 91711 DR.HARRY V.JAFFA 91801 LOS ANGELES: FRANK A. MAYER 92101 SAN DIEGO: PAUL E.FEI.I) II 92112 SAN DIEGO: VINCENT E.WHELAN 92262 PALM SPGS: CAROL F. MCCOY 92345 HESPERIA: JOSEPH W.KIRSCHBAUM 92C.B0 NEWTORT BCII: BROOKS HOAR 92H60 NEWTORT BCH: DR.THOMAS TWADDELL 92680 TUST1N: GLORIA ARRINGTON
The Marquess of Bath The Baroness Clement inn Spencer-Churchill of ChartweUt Randolph S. Churchill, M.B.g.t Winston S. Churchill, M.P. Sir John Colville, C.B., C.V.O. Martin Gilbert, M.A. Grace Hamhlin, O.B.g. Governor the Honornhle K. Averell llnrriman* The Puke of Mar thorough, D.I.., J.P. Sir .John Mnrtin, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.V.O. Anthony Montague Brttwne, C.B.S., D.F.C. The Snrl Mount batten of Burma, K.G., P.C., G.C.V.O., D.S.O.* Oscar Nemon, F.R.S.* Ballon Newfield* The Rt. Hon. The Lord Sonmes, G.C.M.G., G. C.V.O., C.H., C.B.S. The Lady Sorwcs, D.B.S. The Rt. Hon. The Sari of Stockton, O.M. The Hon. Caspar W. Weinberger tdeceased
Since 1971 ICS has named two Honorary Members as Patrons of the Society. While never trying to define too closely this role, we regulnr consult with and send board correspondence to our Patron, who in turn comments and advises on all aspects of Society policy: The Snrl Mountbatten of Rurmn (1971-1979) The Lady Sonmes (1986-dnte)
P A.)j 1 LFp.BN I A - r NORTH 83105 93105 94010 94108 94127 95240 95240 95819 95831 SNTA BARBARA: JAS.T.HURLEY,JH SNTA BARBARA: LEO I). F1AI.K0FF HILLSBOROUGH: MRS R.l.HAMMETT SAN FRNCSCO: VICTOR B.I.EVIT SAN FHNCSCO: STEPHANIE HART 1 0 ) : II.G. HOOPER .11 I.OD1: BETTY NEWFIELD SACIMMENTO: TIMOTHY A.Z1EBEU SACRAMENTO: JOHN T. HAY 93108 93940 94063 94118 95129 95210 95B18 95822 SNTA BARBARA: J.TIM TERRY MONTEREY: TOM DUDLEY REDWOOD CITY: NOREEN E.WILL SAN FHNCSCO: SEN.MILTON MARKS SAN JOSE: J.EARL DENNISON LODI: ELOISE HUNNELL SACRAMENTO: MIL.HISTORY REVIEW SACRAMENTO: MRS. DALTON NEWFIELD
The Board of Directors has authorized the Blenheim Award ns a special recognition of those individuals who have notably contributed to the International Churchill Society, either by service as an officer, director or editor, or by dignifying Society meetings by their presence as guest speakers. The Blenheim Award consists of a gold plated Churchill commemorative coin mounted in a suitably inscribed black lucite plinthe. The recipients since the Award was implemented in 1982, in the order received, are: The Lady Soanes, P.B.S. (1983) Sir John Colville, C.B., C.V.O. (1983) Richard M. langworth (1984) Martin t Susie Gilbert (1985) Winston S. Churchill, M.P. (1985) Anthony Montague Browne, C.B.S., B.F.C. (1985) The Hon. Caspar W. Weinberger (1985) William Manchester (1986)
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98004 98011 9H033 98107 98660 HKLLEVUK: JAMES A. BOTIIELL: EDWARD L. KUIKLAND: RICHARD SEATTLE: ALEXIS A. VANCOUVER: CARL F. F1NDI.AY MOORE L. COCHRANR ALVEY KOCH
98006 98011 98031 98362 99156
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The ICS Constitution provides proportional worldwide representation on the governing board of the Society according to the proportion of notional memberships among Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United Slnles. In elections to be held during the winter of 1986-87, the following individuals have been nominated. (Parentheses = seats assigned per country.) AUSTRALIA (1) W.R. Galvin, Peter M. Jenkins CANADA (4) Celwyn P. Ball, Ronald W. Downey, John G. Plumpton, W.J. Sterling Sunley, George B. Temple NEW ZEALAND (1) H. Barry Collins
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BAHAMAS/NASSAU: CHRISTOPHER P.R.COOMBS DENMARK/HAVDRUP: HANS NYDAM BUCH GREECE/ATHENS: NICHOLAS G. KOUTSOS ISRAEL/RISHON LE-ZION: SHMUEI. ROTEM NEW ZEALAND/WARKWORTH: BARRY COLLLINS S.AFRICA/HOUGIITON: DR. L.STEIN S.AFRICA/PT.ELIZABETH: ELIZABETH l.NEL SPAIN/MALAGA: RONALD E. GOLDING SWEDEN/VAHBERO: PER STAREFORS SWITZERLAND/ZURICH: CHURCHILL SOCIETY
-V UNITED KINGDOM (2) Colin Alfred Spencer, Geoffrey J. Wheeler UNITED STATES (7) Derek Brownleoder, Donald R. Carmichocl, Sue M. Hefner, William C. Ives, Wallace H. Johnson, Richnrd M. Lnngworth, George A. Lewis, David A. Sampson
BAHAMAS/NASSAU: MICHAEL LLOYD DENMARK/COPENHAGEN: PER COCK-CLAUSEN CEKMANY/OBEHSU1M: J.T.SMITH IREI.AND/CARRICK: JACK DARRAH JAMAICA/KINGSTON: H. AUDREY FHASBI1 S.AFRICA/CAPETOWN: P.V.MILLS S.AFRICA/JOHANNESBURG: DR.J.R.LOUDON S.AFRICA/PT.ELIZ: HILLEL SCIINAPS SWEDEN/GAVI.E: STUPE WENNERBEIIO SWEDEN/VARBERG: OLAF SVANBERG
Established by the International Churchill Society in 1985, the Foundation serves to nssure continued access, by students, scholars nnd librnries, to nil works by ami about Sir Winston Churchill. The Foundation has set five goals: 1. EncourHging republication of the 31 individual book-length works by Churchill now out-of print, and distributing same to libraries and colleges. 2. Encouraging publication of scholarly and vital works about Churchill which mny not be viable without charitoble assistance: »ost important at present: the Companion Volumes of the Official Biography covering 1940 1965. 3. Creating a bequest department by which fine Churchill book collections may be channeled io needy libraries and universities per donors' instructions. 4. Establishing n computerized Concordance indexing all of Sir Winston's 15 million spoken nnd written words, with telephone link for libraries. 5. Publishing important monographs, speeches and studies. Contributions to the Churchill Literary Foundation are tnx deductible by Canadian and American citizens. For further information contact the Executive Director, Churchill Literary Foundation, Box 385, Hopkinton N l 03229 USA. i
AUSTRALIA: Peter M. Jenkins, 8 Regnnns Avenue, Endeavour Hills, Victoria 3802 CANADA: George E. Temple, 20 Burhank Drive, Willowdale, Ontario M2K 1MB NEW ZEALAND: R. Barry Collins, 9 Millstrenm Place, Warkworth UNITED KINGDOM: GeoTfrey J.Wheeler, 8BA Franklin, Tndley, Basingstoke RG26 6BU UNITED STATES: Derek Brownlcader, 1847 Stonewood Drive, Baton Rouge LA 70816 CHAPTERS C AFFLILIATE(«) Canndn/N.Brunswick: 1079 Coverdole Rd, RR2, Moncton, NB EIC 8J6 Canada/Other Club of Toronto: 10 Woodmere Ct, Islington, Ontario M9A 3J1 •Cnnndn/Vaocouver Churchill Society: 2450 Mathers Av, W.Vancouver BC V7V 2IIB* UK/Central: I Pound Close, Yaranton, Oxon. 0X5 10G UK/London: Colin Spencer, Homestead Rd, Ramsden Henlh, Essex CM11 1RP USA/Chicago: Wm.C.Ives, 8300 Soars Tower, Chicago IL 60606 USA/New England: 47 Old Farm Rond, Bedford NH 03102 USA/New York Metro: 23 Crestview Drive, Bernnrdsvilie NJ 07924 USA/North Texns: 5603 Honey Locust Trnil, Arlington TX 76017 USA/Tennessee: 4817 Shadecrest Drive, Nashville TN 37211 USA/Wnshiiiglon: 13111 78lh Place NE, Kirklnnd WA 98034 If you wish to organize s chapter, contact the editor, Finest Hour.
C C H 3.04(rev)
been hailed as a sure step toward preventing war. While most of his decent, fairminded, democratic contemporaries expressed their fervent belief in the process of negotiations, Churchill was not sure. Hitler, of course, was still the nebulous leader of a small party, an unknown quantity. But there was a factor other than Germany in the equation, even then.
"The foundations of world peace are strengthening among all the civilised countries of the world," Churchill said, "but there is one country that is outside these considerations, and that is Russia. Russia is incalculable, aloof and malignant. All that line of small new States from the Baltic to the Black Sea are in lively apprehension of Russia. Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Rumania — every one is in great fear and anxiety about its neighbour. All are strongly anti-Communist. They have gone through great internal stress and tension, and they have built themselves up on a Radical, democratic antithesis to Communism." From their founding amidst blood and war in 1918, through their successful transition to nationhood in the 1920s, and on into the 1930s, Churchill had been one of the outstanding friends of the Baltic States. The day would come, however, when he would be forced to reexamine those views, during the gravest years in the history of his country. In the Thirties that time was still ahead. For the nonce, Churchill's own philosophy on the Baltic was much as he described those countries in The Second World War: "Very lively and truculent." 28 To be continued.
FOOTNOTES 1. Latvia SSR Demography of Inhabitants and Distribution by Cities and Regions, According to the 1979 Census, Latvian SSR Central Statistics Board, Riga, 1980 2. From the Treaty of Peace between the USSR and the Republic of Latvia, March 1920 3. A well-known quote of Churchill's which the author has not located; advice is requested 4. WSC, speech at Mansion House, London, 19 February 1919 5. War Cabinet Minutes, London, 31 December 1918 6. David Lloyd George, Memoirs of the Peace Conference, New Haven 1937, Volume I, page 214 7. Herbert A. Grant Watson, An Account of a Mission to the Baltic States in the Year 1919, London 1958, page 25 8. Edgar Anderson, "British Policy Toward the Baltic States, 1918-1920," Journal of Central European Affairs, April 1959, • page 275 9. WSC, The World Crisis/The Aftermath, London 1929, page 100 10. Edgar Anderson, "An Undeclared Naval War: The BritishSoviet Struggle in the Baltic," Journal of Central European Affairs, April 1962, page 46 11. Cf. Anderson, page 69 12. WSC, House of Commons, 21 March 1919, Complete Speeches Volume III, New York 1974, page 2724 13. Cf. Complete Speeches page 2821, speech at British-Russian Club dinner, 17 July 1919 14. Cf. Complete Speeches page 2831, House of Commons, 29 July 1919 15. Cf. Lloyd George, page 214 16. Cf. Companion Part 2, WSC to Curzon, 10 September 1919, page 848 17. Cf. WSC to Curzon, 19 September 1919, page 862 18. Cf. WSC to Lloyd George, 22 September 1919, page 866 19. Cf. Lloyd George to WSC, 22 September 1919, page 867-8 20. Cf. WSC to Lloyd George, 22 Setempber 1919, pp. 870-1 21. Wording in all three Soviet-Baltic treaties of 1920. 22. Roche, The New Baltic States, London 1925 23. Cf. Companion Part 2, Wilson to WSC, 16 September 1919, page 852 24. Cf. Companion Part 2, Cabinet Minutes, page 956 25. Edgar Anderson, "The Baltic Entente" in The Baltic States in Peace and War, New York 1970, page 128 26. Cf Anderson, page 126 27. Cf. Complete Speeches, WSC in the House of Commons, 29 June 1931, Volume IV, page 5056 28. WSC. The Grand Alliance. Boston, 1950. P. 695: London, 1950, p. 615
work representing a b u n d a n c e does serve to indicate T h e Estonian Song Festival attracted 17,000 to ^tractive skyline, from the D a u g a u v a River, 1928.
•i uWHJW fl"""*0 •
"Books: 'Finest 'Hour, c 'Revised and Unrevised
The'Neilson Critique - The Smith'Response
BY STANLEY E. SMITH
IN THE second volume of his war memoirs, Their Finest Hour, Winston Churchill relates the course of the war from his accession to power, and the almost immediate collapse of France, to the British victory over the Italian armies in northern Africa seven months later. This is the story of 1940 — the great and terrible year when Britain faced a menacing continent alone
Francis Neilson, in his review of the work, adheres to his practice of eschewing a comprehensive or systematic summary and touches instead on particular unrelated — and sometimes unimportant — topics that happen to catch his fancy. These in turn serve as pegs upon which he hangs anti-Churchill accusations and innuendoes, as well as themes and
The Prime Minister with General Sir Edmund Ironside, his first Chief of the Imperial General Staff, walking a London street on 25 May 1940. as France reeled under the German hammer, later recounted in Their Finest Hour.
variations of his general conviction that Churchill at heart despised democratic institutions — that in such dictatorial leanings, WSC was no more worthy of esteem than Hitler or Stalin. Pinpricks like these may be peremptorily dismissed, for Churchill demonstrated throughout the war and throughout his life his deep-seated respect for and devotion to Parliament, and all it stood for. Neilson could have filled a large hayloft with the Churchill strawmen he delighted in setting up and knocking down. Neilson devotes considerable disparaging ink to the famous correspondence between Churchill and Roosevelt prior to the entry of the United States into the war. The clearly-intended implication is that Churchill, in engaging in this correspondence, acted illegally and eventually trapped the United States into a state of belligerency. It is surely no violation of international law to exchange letters, to persuade, argue, humor, cajole, or put forth one's case eloquently and bluntly. This is the core and whole of what Churchill did. Neither man played the dupe. Roosevelt knew full well that Churchill badly wanted the United States to enter the war, and to give all possible assistance to Britain in the meantime. Far from blaming Churchill for this, one could argue that he would have been derelict in his duty as custodian of his country's welfare had he failed to use every tool within his reach for the purpose of getting all possible succor from a powerful friend in desperate times. As the recently-published FDR-WSC correspondence shows, Churchill deserves enormous credit for the skill with which he managed the delicate aid negotiations. Furthermore, the niceties of international law involved in the destroyer deal were almost moot from the British standpoint. As the old saying runs, "you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink." Churchill could ask or argue for American aid; only Roosevelt could authorize or send it. The onus of breaking international law by the sending of aid from a neutral power to a belligerent, if such an onus there be in this case, rests upon the sender rather than upon the recipient. In any event, Churchill is hardly to be blamed for the entry of the United States into the war. It was not the British who bombed Pearl Harbor. Neilson devotes a section to cautioning the reader about Churchill's account of the fall of France without directly calling any of it false or specifying which portions of it are questionable. Instead he presents a list of other accounts and argues in essence that they are true because they are coldly unemotional. The nature of this argument needs only to be pointed out to be shorn of its force. Churchill was in a position to know the facts and was responsible for knowing them, so his account is not to be lightly dismissed merely because it is presented vividly. In his preface to The Gathering Storm, Churchill disclaimed any pretense of presenting his memoirs as objective history. In his review, as in his review of the previous volume, Neilson never tires of extracting that disclaimer, endorsing it fervently, and then flinging it down and dancing upon it as if it said just the opposite. This occurs again in the section on the controversial actions of the King of the Belgians. Several differing 15
versions of the circumstances surrounding the capitulations of the Belgian army have appeared. Neilson cites several other sources, including a letter written a year before the event, and labels Churchill's account a false one. This is despite Churchill's undeniable knowledge, in his official position, of any promises made or notices given to Britain by Belgium, and despite the possibility that the differing account of the political advisor to the Belgian King might be more self-serving than historically objective. Apparently, to Neilson, disagreeing with Churchill sufficed to prove him wrong. Neilson concludes his review with a long section on Churchill's supposed dictatorial yearnings and Hitler's attitude following the fall of France. In discussing the latter, it is amusing to see Neilson turn humbly to the relevant accounts of those citadels of truth, the Nazi generals, and urge that they be read "by every earnest student . . . who wishes to escape from the murk of war propaganda and find daylight." Turning from the review to the book itself, Their Finest Hour is the first of the memoir volumes in which Churchill is Prime Minister, in full command of the British war effort. The narrative is consequently much closer and more detailed than that of The Gathering Storm. Churchill relies heavily on the minutes and memoranda he issued throughout the period, making the book a gold mine of actual historical documentation. In a fascinating early section on his administrative techniques (pp. 17-22), Churchill describes himself as "a strong believer in transacting official business by The Written Word" (emphasis his). This was a natural attitude for a superb writer like Churchill to take, and the book shows that he invariably maintained this practice. While the book keeps the reader fully informed about the general strategic ebbs and flows of the war, its greatest value lies in the insight it gives of the daily nuts and bolts of managing the war effort from the summit of British affairs. This is especially invaluable in the second half of the book, when France has been conquered and Britain remains as Hitler's only active foe. The story of the Battle of Britain and the extensive, exhaustive measures taken for the defense of the island is told well and fully. So too is the account of the Middle East, where, in spite of enormous pressures to withdraw, Churchill insisted on maintaining a strong and eventually successful army. The memoranda consigned to the appendices should not be passed over by the serious student of Churchill, for they show how extensively and closely he monitored even the details of the war effort. Many of his colleagues have commented on the discipline of his mind, and this trait is shown nowhere so clearly as in the appendices. In a single day his concerns would range from supplying de Gaulle to arranging holidays to making contingency plans for local police. Above all, questions touching on the allocation of perilously slender resources confronted him daily and fully challenged his considerable'managerial skills. As the war progressed and other mighty nations became embroiled in it, Churchill increasingly had to share the limelight and the power. In Their Finest Hour, however, he and his courageous countrymen held the stage alone. This chronicle of 1940 will prove imperishable.*
Edited h\ John G. Plumpttnn I JO Collingshrook Blvd. Aginamn, Onl. MIW 1M7
SAVROLA, A TALE OF THE REVOLUTION IN LAURANIA by Winston
Spencer Churchill; Longmans, Green and Company, London, New York, and Bombay, 1900. (Woods A3: 4000 copies published in New York in November 1899. price $1.25; 1500 copies published in London on 13 February 1900, price 6s.)
First Colonial Edition (Editor collection)
THE DIAL, New York, (Vol. XXVIII, No. 334) 16 May 1900. Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill's "Savrola" was published as a serial three years ago, and now appears in book form. It is described as a "tale of the Revolution in Laurania" and is a romance of the familiar "Zenda" type. The Republic of Laurania would be difficult to locate upon the map. It is a Mediterranean state, possessing a fleet and colonial interests in South Africa. Its President has ruled as a dictator for several years, and the people are restless. The revolution of which this story tells us is of the social democratic type, and ends with the death of the tyrant, and the union of his beautiful widow with the leader of the revolt. The story is rather dull at first, and its movement slow; but the pace became quickened about midway in the volume, and there is no lack of excitement toward the close.
LONDON TO LADYSMITH VIA
PRETORIA by Winston Spencer Churchill; Longmans, Green and Company, London, New York and Bombay, 1900 (Woods A4: 10,000 copies published in London on 15 May 1900, price 6s; 3000 copies published in New York on 16 June 1900, price $1.50.) THE NATION, (Vol. 70, No. 1826), New York, 28 June 1900. Mr. Churchill's experience as a war
correspondent had an episode which added much to the romantic character of his army life in South Africa. He was taken prisoner with the detachment on an armored railway train that was derailed and captured by the Boers on November 15 and made the acquaintance of Kruger's Secretary of War and other distinguished Afrikanders. He made a daring escape from the military prison, and had an adventurous journey to Delagoa Bay which would make any boy green with envy. Back by sea to Durban, he hastened again to, his post at the front, and on the day before Christmas his tent was at the very spot where he had been captured. He now got a commission in the volunteer cavalry to save question as to his status if he was captured again in some less absurd reconnaissance than one ±>y rail. The operations to try a second crossing of the Tugela began on January 11. It is evident that there was no competent direction of the attack. If Churchill's description of events is accurate, it is no wonder that Lord Roberts condemned the generalship of the battle. The campaign under Buller, judged from Mr. Churchill's narrative (which tries to be friendly), was marked by a deliberation in planning and a sluggishness in execution so extreme as to take away from it all energetic aggressiveness, and to give to the mobile army of Boers abundant time and opportunity to plant themselves in strong positions and intrench in front of each new movement of the British. It is pleasant to note that Mr. Churchill, while he was prisoner, found even the least cultivated of the Veldt Boers free from personal hate, and considerately kind in their treatment of him. They seemed to him good honest farmers, anxious to end the war and get back to their families and fields if they might do so in the national independence on which they had set their hearts. It was human nature that they should underrate the rights of Vitlanders and of black Africans, and stick for the complete dominance of the Dutch settlers in what they consider their own country.
Green and Co., London. New York and Bombay, 1900. (Woods A5: 5000 copies published in London on 12 October 1900. price 6s: 1533 copies published in New York on 1 December, price $1.50.)
First Canadian Edition (Jack Nixon coll.)
Winston S. Churchill; Together with Extracts from The Diary of Lieutenant H. Frankland, A Prisoner of War at Pretoria with Portrait; Longmans. 16
THE NEW YORK TIMES SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKS AND ART (12 January 1901.) The war of South Africa drags to its tedious end. A multitude of impressions of that rugged campaign have been written by a cloud of correspondents who followed the armies. We now want facts, collected by men who know the relative value of facts, and we want judgment, ripened by experience and responsibility and meditation. In considerable degree, Mr. Churchill is qualified to do serious military writing. He is a man of talent, courage and boundless energy. He has seen real war as a soldier. He is practiced in observing, arranging and presenting military facts. His "River War" is one of the very best books on the reconquest of the Egyptian Soudan. This small volume is a collection of newspaper letters concerning the advance to Johannesburg and Pretoria — that part about which little has been published. Of course, Mr. Churchill had adventures in this 400-mile march; he has a talent for adventures. In one fight his horse bolted, and he was left on foot within close range of the Boers, the nearest cover a mile away. He was saved by a gallant trooper, who took him up behind, and who seemed to repent the deed when his own horse was killed by the explosive bullet. But we must not be tempted into relating the experiences of this enterprising young gentleman, and can only stop to say, further, that a very entertaining chapter, quite unrelated to the rest of the book, is a diary of a young officer as a prisoner at Pretoria. •
WINSTON CHURCHILL IN PRESS & PERIODICALS
29 November/North Texas
EDITED BY JOHN G. PLUMPTON
David Dilks: THE TWILIGHT WAR would pay almost the whole of the AND THE FALL OF FRANCE: blood tax on land and give the CHAMBERLAIN AND CHURCHILL British the sea and the air. IN 1940, Transactions of the The Prime Minister seemed to Royal Historical Society, Fifth believe that some of the papers Series, Volume 28, 1978, pp. which he received from Churchill 61 -86. were plainly written for the purpose of future quotation to prove The belief that Neville Chamberforesight. Indeed, as Chamberlain lain and Winston Churchill were told his wife, his own memoranalways divided by irreconcilable dum on the efforts of air power in differences of policy persists the Polish campaign was written strongly, not least because of the because "I thought I must get stern strictures passed by Chursomething on the record too, chill himself upon his predecessor which would have to be quoted in in The Gathering Storm. Furtherthe Book." more, during the decade which Chamberlain was aware that separated Churchill's departure Churchill wanted to be Minister of from the Exchequer from his reDefence, and in April he made him turn to the Admiralty, differences Chairman of the Military Co-ordiof policy between him and his nation Committee - an experiment former colleagues had cut deep: that did not work, because (in his adherence to free trade [N.B.: Chamberlain's opinion) of ChurIn fact he abandoned Free Trade chill's dominating personality, early in the 1930s. Ed.], his refusal to delegate, and irregular violent dissent over India, altercawork habits. tions about disarmament and the During the May crisis, it became pace of German rearmament, the clear that Lord Halifax had no row over the Abdication, outright stomach for power and that Churand unqualified condemnation of chill was clearly the choice of the the Munich settlement. opposition parties to head a national government. But the new Prime But when Churchill joined Minister, Winston Churchill, reChamberlain's Government in mained dependent on his successor September, 1939, there was agreefor support within the Conservament between the two on a numtive Party. (". . . To a very large ber of issues. They felt deeply extent I am in your hands — and I affronted by Stalin's decision to feel no fear of that.") It seems that partition Poland and to supply both men felt that the right man raw materials vital to the Nazis' was now P.M.! And the new Prime war effort; they agreed to wage the Minister grew in stature and struggle at sea with unremitting character. As Baldwin said: " . . . vigor from the start; they enthe furnace of war smelted out all trusted the holding of the western the base metal from him." front to France; they expected a Chamberlain became Lord Presilong war; they did not wish to prodent of the Council with primary voke Italy or Japan; and they did responsibility for domestic probnot anticipate much assistance lems. When Churchill was required from the United States. to go to France, he said, "Neville, Churchill bombarded the P.M. please mind the shop!" with memoranda. There was After Chamberlain's death, Chursome initial disagreement on chill delivered a memorable speech priorities. Chamberlain drew a of tribute, but a private remark is lesson from the Polish experience perhaps even more revealing of his that air power was critical and feelings: "I shall never find such a directed resources to the R.A.F. colleague again."* Churchill doubted that the French
Celebration of Sir Winston's birthday by the North Texas Chapter, Dallas. For information contact David Sampson, 5603 Honey Locust Drive, Arlington, TX. 30 November/Toronto Celebration of Sir Winston's birthday by The Other Club of Toronto. For information contact Mrs. Pat Cassels, 10 Woodmere Court, Islington, Ont. 30 November/London A wreath-laying ceremony in London with The Lady Soames. Information from Peter Coombs, 1 Pound Close, Yarnton, Oxon. OX5 1QG. All members invited. 25 January/Toronto Dinner meeting of The Other Club of Toronto. Speaker Richard Lang worth will discuss "Churchill as Journalist." The location will shortly be announced. For information contact Mrs. Pat Cassels, 10 Woodmere Court, Islington, Ontario M9A 3J1. Winter/New Brunswick New Brunswick Chapter organizational meeting. Information: John Ball, 1079 Coverdale Road, RR2, Moncton, New Brunswick E1C 8J6. Winter/London Area Colin Spencer will be planning an event this winter. For details contact him at Homestead Road, Ramsden Heath, Essex, England CM 11 1RP. March/New England If you can attend a weekend dinner meeting at Boston mid-month, please advise Richard Langworth, Putney House, Contoocook, NH 03229. If a dozen respond we will proceed. You need not guarantee. 4-14 Sept 1987/Churchill's Britain Registrations open for the third ICS tour, including Chartwell, Harrow, London, the Old Bell at Hurley, Blenheim, Bladon, York, Edinburgh, Dunkeld, Dundee, Oban, the Isle of Mull & Loch Lomond, with many Churchill sites, fine hotels and cuisine throughout. Tentative cost $1450 based on double occupancy. Deposit of $200/person refundable through 31 May. Specialist Tours, PO Box 385, Contoocook, NH 03229. 31 Oct-1 Nov 1987/North Texas The Churchill Society's international convention, Adolphus Hotel, Dallas. Late August 1988/New England The Churchill Society's international convention, White Mountain Hotel, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.
Churchill in Stamps
EY RICHARD M 1.ANGW0RTH
WINSTON'S NEMESIS When misplaced anti-German sentiment caused Battenberg to step down as First Sea Lord, Churchill immediately appointed vain, mercurial Admiral Sir John Arbuthnot Fisher in his place. In 1904-10, Pisher had greatly modernized the Navy in this same role, but Conservative Opposition caused his 1910 retirement.
PAGES 61-66: WITH FISHER AT THE AI)\1IK\I.T\
Ihv World War I section^ ot u philuteln bioyrapln nt\t:\sarH\ nl\ Ihwih on Churchill nland iCR> slump*. nwins> to rht dearth oj Chun hill cnmmemorativci deputing thi\ period. Some oj tht lamr am fa usedij the\ dep'n t .\nnc\ that (tntld he /mm tht turlicr wtu. m a ymthjul-appiunni; Chut chill. This section also ioniums one ,ij the must J'ii.uin,itini> page* in the milt man truant; \on Spu \ unite across the Pacifh la the Battle of Cnronel S'umlurs an Scott It) iind Gibbons iS(i). A \lashnuirk i#2 3) means u stt with a tonunon dc\ii;n, urn ixample of whuh is suitable. 61. Ciieal Britain #W4. the 19K2 I.md I-isher comiiicmorame from the Admirals set. is cuitom-ni.uk fm ^presentations ol" this crucial period in Churchill's cateer. Pictured with f-islier is HMS Dnadnaughi. the first turhinc-dmc. all-big-gun batUeship. Falkland Islands stamps ,ne appnipridtu. since a ailmin.iiing \iclor> occurred ihcrc ultei Coronel tulklands *236 isg3O5l is certamh a WW2-bascil dchiiin but the warships- are \apue enough tti gel aw.a> with. However, the WSC shown is nrnmusK c.1940. 62. Chuichiir- lanious 1410 Cahmei memo. aci.uiatcl\ predicting the course of the Cieiman onslaught on F-rancc, is recalled b> stamps depicting clucl lljiures in the Marne Battle, which stemmed the (Jcrnian tide, blench issues are ^llOX (sgl6M). Murnc ammcrsar>: tfBy«J (sgbfi4). Gen (ialliem. who persuaded tfB97 (sg662). Gen. Joflre to attack the German flank. An Ajnun "sand dune" depicts Supreme Commander Marshall Foch. Bulgaria »I24 (sglS8) represents the Central Powers. 63. Dominating this account of Churchill's role in the defense of Antwerp is. Upper Volta's mini-sheet. *J51 tsg'.M. which certainh looks like a WW1 trench scene. Belgiun issues on Antwerp are #76 79 (sgy3a"V»5) and B443 ^gl5 7 S). while a recent Dutch stamp maps the neiural Netherlands. 64. A catch-all page summari/cs the German Pacifu colonies which were the obiect of 1914 naval attack h> New /eahuid and Australia, which soon had most of these islands in Allied hands. The Kaiser's \achi is depicted. These stamps are onl\ peripherally related to our story and are not included in the 1CS Churchill-Related checklist*, hut are easily found. 65. -\ diamatic tracing of von Spue's route from Kaichau to his encounter with the British oft Coronel. Chile, using German, French oi British colony stamps, some postmarked at places he appeared: Tsmgtau. Saipan, Jaluil, Herberlshohe, Apii. Papeete. Dal New field's research helped pinpoint Straits Settlements as the stamps used m the Admiralty Islands at the time. 66. Again a peripheral group ol stamps. Trench Oceania definitives m use at the time ol Coronel. A continuing
Fisher's most important innovation in his 1904-10 term was HMS Dreadnought: the first allbig gun, turbine-driven battleship.
Churchill held Fisher indispenslble and admired him vastly, but colleagues could not believe this s trange partnership would last. It didn't.
THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE Long before the war, Churchill had written a paper, dismissed as nonsense by British generals, that the German advance into France, when and if it came, would be halted in ho days. He was wrong...by two days. The Allies attacked an exposed German flank near the Marne River on 6 September. On 9 September the Germans retreated, and the threat to Paris ended.
Symbolic of the Armies of France at the Marne and the Central Powers.
Joseph Gallieni, the military governor of Paris, who persuaded the French commander In chief, Joseph Joffre to attack the German flank at the Marne,
Supreme Allied Commander, Marshal Foch
PRELUDE TO CORONEL (2) THE DEFENSE OF ANTWERP With the Germans threatening one of Belgium's last lines of defense at Antwerp, Churchill arrived to rally the city. "He put his Ideas forcefully, waving his stick and thumping the ground with it," said an eye-witness. His action delayed the fall of Antwerp long enough to garrison the northern French ports and greatly Impressed King Albert. From the Carolines, where he coaled on *-9 August, von Spee sailed to the Marianas, arriving the 12th. On 8 September he was off Christmas Island; on the l^th he was shelling Samoa (which had been occupied by New Zealand troops on 30 August). On 22 September he ineffectually bombarded Papeete, Tahiti, and by the Ikth of October he was lost between the Marquesas and Easter Island.
Back home, though, WSC was reviled for what his enemies saw as rashness. In fact, it was only the genuine Winston, carried away by his own courage.
The Arms of Antwerp, with a map showing the crucial Netherlands, still neutral, which Antwerp's fall fortunately did not effect.
Von Spee's route across the Pacific, with stamps in use and cancelled at his ports of call, June- through October 1914
ASCENDANCY PRELUDE TO CORONEL (1) PRELUDE TO CORONEL (3) Germany's only serious naval force outside home waters was its Far Eastern Squadron, stationed at its China colony, Kiachau, and commanded by Admiral Graf von Spee. In late June von Spee set off on a three-month Pacific cruise, but when war became The French, not the British, had the most to lose with Germany at large in the Pacific, for while Britain's and the Empire Navies could defend British possessions, the French navy was distinctly inferior to the Germans. Churchill felt a special obligation to France--as he would again a quarter century on.
Collecting 'Locals and 'Labels
Churchill Collector 'Looks at an inexpensive Sidelight
BY W. GLEN BROWNE
In this issue's center handbook supplement we temporarily halt our checklist of Churchill locals and labels in order to bring you a longdelayed new membership list. With philatelists in mind, however, Glen Browne takes up the subject with this still very valid discussion of locals, which was originally published in 1971.
If you have landed at Shannon Airport in Ireland you have visited the Principality of Thomond. The ghosts of the ancient rulers were active recently and issued a set of "stamps" in honor of Sir Winston Churchill. The emissions of this state, defunct for centuries, are among the most spurious of the adhesives called "locals" and "labels." There is something fascinating about these stamps, found in many parts of the world, but mainly in the British Islands. Collectors bored with regular stamps and the serious pursuit of their hobby can turn to these for relaxation. Locals are sold at a low price, befitting their lowly status, and complete collections can be easily amassed. I became familiar with them while collecting Churchill topicals. Since Sir Winston spent the most important years of his life shuttling across the channel to defend Europe or planning the defense of England, he was much involved with this area. After his death many of the Channel Islands issued locals in his honor. Some areas have issued stamps for many years. In some cases the British postal regulations allow for use of "Local Carriage Labels" to supplement regular service by local delivery once the mail arrives at an island. Local stamps are placed on the back of the envelope which bears regular postage on the front. The oldest legitimate service in the British area is on the island of Lundy, which is three miles long, and located southwest of Wales. The early issues of 1937-39 still sell for just over $1. The unit of currency is the Puffin, named for a native bird now threatened by rats which are more numerous than people there. Herm Island, three miles from Guernsey, is the home of 70 natives.
but has many more people there visiting during the short summers. After World War II the British General Post Office stopped local service there so Herm started issuing its own stamps in 1949. One colorful issue is a set of 12 triangulars depicting native flowers, birds, butterflies, and fish. For many years the Tenant of Herm issued local stamps to cover the ferrying costs of mail to the Guernsey post office. In 1969 Guernsey took over the postal service on Herm. If you like completeness, try Brechou. She issued six stamps on Sept. 30, 1969. The next day Jersey and Guernsey Post Office took over the service there. Thus, a first and last day cover is available. Jethou and Lihou, two islands near Guernsey, also used carriage labels. The latter island has been inhabited for over 900 years. Daily service to Guernsey is maintained. These colorful labels were superceded by Guernsey stamps in 1969. Jersey and Guernsey are large islands which have issued stamps since 1941. Since 1969 they issued regular postage stamps as a separate postal service. The historical origin and governmental organization of Great Britain is more complex than that of the United States. Nevertheless, the issuance of these stamps and the British regionals is about the same as having the former republics of Texas and California and the Virgin Islands issue their own stamps! Some British railroads in Wales or the Lake District were authorized to issue Railway Letter Stamps for mail that they carry. They have picturesque names like Festiniog, Talyllyn, Ravenglass and Eskdale. Locomotive buffs would like the Talyllyn stamps depicting old engines. Returning to island labels, we have the Commodore Shipping Co. which operated a service between Guernsey, Alderney and, Sark. They have issued labels, picturing Churchill, which prepay postage for mail carried to and from the islands. Among the phony labels we have a long list of sticky paper from the Calf of Man, which has only a large bird population and a lighthouse. Off Scotland are Davaar and Sanda, two lighthouses which had active
printing presses. Another Scottish island, Soay, issued labels for use by the few families living there. You can have some laughs trying to smoke out the perpetrators of some of the spurious labels. Dal Newfield, editor of "Finest Hour," wrote to Pabbay Island, said to have a population of only two persons. " . . . If you are man and wife, one of you must be the postmaster (or postmistress) and the other his (her) spouse. Do you write to each other? It would seem logical that the post office would be in your sitting room or kitchen and there should be easier ways of communicating with each other than by writing a letter, affixing a stamp, canceling same and then delivering it! "On the other hand, perhaps the other person is a stranger to you. Could it be that you have never been properly introduced, and therefore must communicate formally and by mail? . . ." The postmaster of a nearby island finally answered the letter. "Local enquiry has revealed that, until recently, this island was inhabited by one man only. It is known that this person issued several private stamps, but these were not, of course, postage revenue stamps, and could not consequently be used on letters, etc. This person has left Pabbay Island, and his present whereabouts, regretfully, are unknown." Later Newfield found out that there is also an island spelled "Pabay." It issued some groovy gold and silver, large and small, foils in honor of JFK and WSC. One wonders where this lonely, busy man will strike next! The committee of Free Albania has issued some attractive labels honoring FDR and WSC. In 1965 the American Stamp Dealers Association issued a series of Kennedy and Churchill labels for their show in New York. The island of Iso, in Sweden has issued a set of labels, said to be used for local mail. The list of labels is endless. One of the most whimsical labels issued is the "60 centes" Winston Churchill stamp of the "Republic of New Atlantis." The letterhead of the president, Les Hemingway, brother of Ernest, gave the address as latitude 18 degrees North, longitude 78 degrees West. This was the location of a raft near Jamaica, but Mr. Hemmingway was
on a state visit to Miami, when he wrote to me, transmitting his Churchill and U.S. serviceman's stamps. The 1971 postal strike in Great Britain produced hundreds of locals, some used extensively and others not at all. One popular issue was a set of airmail and regular stamps featuring Kennedy and Churchill. These were actually used. Some of the offshore islands got aboard this bandwagon and issued labels. Some stamp dealers
sponsored local services. The covers bearing locals and foreign stamps, such as those of France, are considered fairly authentic. In 1968 Canada had a postal strike during July and August. Eight labels in various colors were issued and used. Mail originating in Canada and destined for the United States bore these labels on the reverse side. The labels read "Juan De Fuca Despatch, Postal Strike, Special Service, Carrier
Fee." My cover is postmarked Victoria, B.C. July 18, 1968, and was delivered to Burbank, Calif, by U.S. mail. The mail was delivered to the U.S. by two ships sailing from Victoria to Port Angeles, Washington. U.S. postage was affixed and the mail was then placed in the U.S. system. If you are looking for something light and relaxing, why not look into these odd bits of paper? •
"Thomond" souvenir sheet overprinted in memoriam to WSC. (All those we've ever seen carry the strikeover at bottom.)
LINE i: Attractive
Lundy 2p actually franked postage, but gold foil "Pabay" label for WSC and JFK was utterly
bogus, LINE 2: The rest
of the Lundy Island set, 1.0 and 18 pence
values, LINE 3: The
original and 1952 labels by the Free Albania Committee (see also handbook section in last issue
Of FH). LINE 4: In-
disputably fradulent, the "Soay" labels overprinted "Sir Winston Churchill" never came close to
a letter, LINE 5:
Sweden's offshore island of Iso issued a WSC label in its famous personage set; some postal use may have occurred.
WO, 76, 60 & 26
Home Rule also drew his attention and support, partly because it was a natural part of the evolution from Empire to Commonwealth: " . . . we are now in the full-tide of a successful experiment in regard to self-government. South Africa and Canada are the fruits of the Imperialism of peace and freedom . . . " But the Admiralty attracted most of his inexhaustible energies and for assistance he turned to a retired First Sea Lord, Baron (Jackie) Fisher; thus began a tempestuous relationship which would alter the history of the world.
EDITED BY JOHN G. PLUMPTON
AUTUMN 1886 -AGE 12 Lord Randolph Churchill's performance as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons earned him considerable praise. The Queen noted that he had shown "much skill and judgement in his leadership" and The Times declared that "no leader of the House of Commons in recent years has met obstruction, open or disguised, with more exemplary patience." His 'bon mots' earned him some notoriety in the Treasury. Although he is reputed to have stated that he could never make out what those 'damned dots meant' (decimals), Winston later cautioned readers not to take the comment too seriously. The first budget was certainly not a Tory budget. His objective was economy but the strategy was to reduce taxes to benefit the lower middle classes and increase taxes on luxuries such as race-horses and cartridges for game-shooting. These proposals found little support among his Cabinet colleagues. He also differed with his peers over local government, Ireland and relations with Germany. In his famous Dartford speech he disagreed with so many Government policies that Lord Rosebery commented, "Randolph will be out, or the Cabinet smashed up, before Christmas." Some party members pressed Lord Salisbury to get control of Randolph, but the Prime Minister told his wife, "The time is not yet." Winston, watching his father's career with keen interest from his Brighton school, approved of the Dartford speech because it "cut the ground from under the feet of the Liberals." All contact with his parents was from a distance. His mother's social life was far too busy to permit a trip to Brighton. His father was travelling throughout Britain or holidaying on the continent. Even during a November excursion to Brighton there was no time to visit his son's school.
AUTUMN 1911 - AGE 37 In September Clementine visited her austere grandmother in Scotland while Winston conversed with the King at Balmoral. He then motored in his new red Napier (which had cost £610) to the Prime Minister's home on the East Lothian coast of Scotland. This was not an unusual event since WSC was a favourite of Asquith and a friend of his daughter, Violet. It was, however, not to be a normal visit. During the visit he was advised that he was to be the new First Lord of the Admiralty. His elation and determination are reflected in his comment to Violet: "This is a big thing — the biggest thing that has ever come my way — the chance I should have chosen before all others. I shall pour into it everything I've got." Just as he could not refrain from involvement in military matters when he was in the Home Office, now, as he prepared to take over the Admiralty, he immersed himself in domestic issues, particularly in opposing the extension of the franchise to women. Fearing that the government would "go down on Petticoat politics," he stated that he would be willing to abide by the results of a referendum. He told the owner of News of the World that "we already have enough ignorant voters and we don't want any more."
AUTUMN 1936 - Age 62 While in France Churchill began work on a series of articles on "Great Events of Our Time" which would eventually appear in the News of the World (Woods C337). Although he publicly maintained neutrality on the Spanish Civil War, he wrote Clementine, "I am thankful the Spanish Nationalists are making progress . . . better for the safety of all if the Communists are crushed." After observing the French army he commented, "The officers of the French army are impressive. . . . One feels the strength of the nation resides in its army." He rejected the growing view that Europe must go either fascist or communist: "Between the doctrines of Comrade Trotsky and those of Dr. Goebbels there ought to be room for you and me, and a few others, to cultivate opinions of our own." His speeches received close attention both at home and abroad and his stature within the Conservative Party increased, as many saw him the logical choice for Prime Minister in a crisis. He was also observed closely by the Germans, who accused him of favouring their "encirclement and oppression." Literary and domestic concerns vied with politics for his attention. While complimenting him on the publication of volume three of Marlborough (Woods A40), friends commiserated on the distress felt by Winston and Clementine over the elopement of their daughter Sarah with the concert pianist, Victor Oliver.
AUTUMN 1961 - Age 87 Although the state of Sir Winston's health was quite acceptable, it was too demanding on him to travel to two special occasions. He was greatly disappointed that he was unable to lay the cornerstone of Churchill College, Cambridge, or to attend "Songs," the annual sing-song at Harrow School. In early November he participated in a family celebration at Quaglino's Restaurant for the coming-out party of his granddaughter, Celia Sandys. Although he did not retire until 2 A.M., he was out at the Savoy the next night for a dinner of the Other Club. His birthday on 30 November was a quiet family dinner in London. Shortly after, the death of Sir Hugh Bateman Protheroe-Smith, aged 89, left Sir Winston the sole surviving officer of the charge of the 21st Lancers at Omdurman in 1898.
NEW ROYAL DOULTON STATUETTE
SOLD IN SUPPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CHURCHILL SOCIETY ORDERS PAYABLE TO ICS PLEASE. MAIL TO SUE HEFNER, 134 N. WOODLAWN, LIMA, OHIO 45805 USA UK AND COMMONWEALTH MEMBERS MAY ORDER FROM THEIR NATIONAL OFFICES (ADDRESSES ON PAGE 3)
NEW ICS CHRISTMAS CARDS AND NOTE CARDS Order now for the Holidays subject to stock
FINEST HOUR BACK ISSUES #114 Full set numbers 1-40 (some early ones photocopied) postpaid: USA $98, UK £72, Canada C$133, Australia A$150. Single copies: Numbers #17, 24, 26, 30-36, 38 to date. Each, postpaid: USA $3, UK £3, Canada C$4, Australia A$5.
#102 Brand new Royal Doulton china statuette of size and quality that promises solid collector value. Designed by Adrian Hughes, WSC wears a white suit and Homburg, pink buttonhole and black bowtie to match his silver-topped black cane. Handpainted facial detail is wonderfully accurate even the cigar is carefully sculptured. Size: lO'/i inches List price $125. ICS postpaid price: USA $98, Canada C$132, Australia A$148. UK Members please contact Basingstoke office for ordering details. EFFANBEE CHURCHILL DOLL #101 In stock for immediate shipment, a handsome, hand-crafted collector doll by the famous New York producer, Effanbee. Sir Winston wears his spotted bowtie Homburg, correct formal attire and gold watchchain, carries a cigar in one hand and flashes a V-sign with the other. Low production limited edition assures that its value will appreciate. Our supply limited - order soon Size: 16% inches. List price $100+. ICS postpaid pnce: USA $68, UK £49, Canada C$92, Australia A$103. (Overseas sent surface-parcel.)
Silhouette artist Elizabeth Baverstock (see FH#48 p. 6) has kindly donated her elegant Churchill silhouette art to our UK chapter for use on these handsome Christmas and note cards. Each measures 4x6" with the cover silhouette framed by an embossed border. #115 Christmas Cards. A Christmas message is printed inside, making a unique and memorable way to send Season's Greetings. Packet of 10 cards & envelopes, postpaid: USA $5, Canada $6. #116 Note Cards. As above, but without the Christmas greeting. Useful year-round. Packet of 10 postpaid: USA $5, Canada $6. UK & Australia: order from your local office.
ICS HANDBOOK SUPPLEMENTS Each 4-page supplement, postpaid: USA $1, UK £1, Canada C$1.50, Australia A$2: Section I (Stamps) Numbers 1,2,3 & 4. Section II (Books) Numbers 1,2,3,4,5. Section III (Membership Number 1 Section IV (Works by WSC/Foreign Editions) Number 1
MIRRORPIC CIGARETTE CARDS
#109 Rare originals by Mirrorpic/England full set of 50 depicts WSC life scenes, Postpaid: USA $20, UK £15, Canada C$27, Australia A $32.
"ACTION THIS DAY" LABELS
CACHETED ENVELOPES New all-purpose ICS cachet 3'/2x6, thermoengraved, pack of 25. Each pack postpaid: USA $7, UK £5, Canada C$9, Australia A$10.
Second World War Facsimile Posters from the Imperial War Museum in "London. Carefully reproduced from the rare originals, each features WSC and a wartime message in three colors. Each measures approximately 20x28". Shipped in sturdy rolls. PS251: "Let Us Go Forward Together" PSW257: "Deserve Victory," with WSC. Postpaid each: USA $5, Canada C$6, Australia A$7 (airmail). Two for: USA $7, Canada C$9, Australia A$10 (airmail). UK: Write UK office. (Much cheaper in England!)
WSC LIBRARY CREDO
#108 Reproductions of WSC's famous wartime label. Perfect for tax returns! Black ft orange, 3x1% inches. Pad of 100 postpaid: USA W, UK. £2, Canada C$4, Australia A$5. PHILATELIC ITEMS Commemorative covers and other philatelic material are being inventoried. All items shown in this space in FH51 (Spring 1986) are still available.
BONE CHINA THIMBLES New from the Imperial War Museum: bone china thimbles incorporating the "Deserve Victory!" poster artwork. Postpaid each: USA $4, Canada C$5, Australia A$6 (airmail). UK: Contact Geoffrey Wheeler, Basingstoke office ICS.
#113 Printed on buff parchment. Postpaid: USA $2, UK £2, Canada C$2.75, Australia A$3.
The news from France is very bad, and I grieve for the gallant French people who have fallen into this terrible misfortune. Nothing will alter our feelings towards them and our faith that the genius of France will rise again.
- BROADCAST. LONDON. 17 JUNE 1940
I spoke the other day of the colossal military disaster which occurred when the French High Command failed to withdraw the northern Armies from Belgium at the moment they knew that the French front was decisively broken at Sedan and on the Meuse. I am not reciting these facts for the purpose of recrimination. That I judge to be utterly futile and even harmful. We cannot afford it . . . / Of this I am quite sure: that if we open a quarrel between the past and the present, we shall find that we have lost the future . . . What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hiter knows that he will have to break us in this Island, or lose the war. i$?if--: If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free, and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will stil say: "This was their finest hour."
- HOUSE OF COMMONS, 18 JUNE 1940
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