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A: Competency is defined as a behaviors that describes excellent performance in a particular work context ( e.g. job , role or group of jobs, function, or whole organisation ). “Competency means actual application of knowledge, skill, and motives/attitude/temperament in carrying out assigned tasks.” In other words, competency means actual application of knowledge. Skill, and motives/attitude/temperament in carrying out assigned tasks. A manager may be knowledgeable and skilled but he hardly applies his/her knowledge and skill on assigned tasks, the said manager cannot be rated as a competent person. “Competency mapping is a process of identify key competencies for an organisation and/ or a job and incorporate those competencies through the various process (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment, career and succession planning ) of the organisation.” Competency mapping is a process of identify key competencies for an organisation and/ or a job and incorporate those competencies through the various process (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment, career and succession planning ) of the organisation. Competencies form the basis of an individual’s consistent thinking and behaviour in a variety of situations. For clearer understand-ing it would be helpful to define and classify them as follows: Motives: These are the needs, which direct, an individual’s behaviour towards or away from a goal and act as a driver. Affiliation, power and achievement motivation directing an individual’s behaviour can be cited as an example of motives Self-Concept: This is a person’s attitude toward self/ selfperception/ self-image exhibited in the form of selfconfidence or an inferiority complex. • Traits: These allude to the physical characteristics and enduring attributes of an individual leading to consistent responses to stimulus/situations. • Knowledge: This refers to the information a person possesses about specific areas. Knowledge comprises many factors like memory, numerical ability, linguistic ability, and ability about special relations, among other things, and is, therefore, a complex competency. Through measurement of knowledge it can be predicted what a person can do rather than what he/she will do. • Skill: This is the application of an ability or ability to perform a specific mental or physical task, e.g. rational and logical thinking, analysis and synthesis, among others Issues in Competency Mapping How to Identify a Competency Approaches to Competency Rating Benefits of Competency Mapping at Organisation level at Individual level Integrating Competency Mapping with 360 Degree Feedback How to Identify a Competency The identification of competencies and the subsequent develop-ment of a competency model constitute a specialized task. If an organisation is aware of its competency requirements for various level jobs, it can straightaway adopt the assessment centre approach, otherwise running an assessment centre without a knowledge of the requisite. Competencies will be like an exercise without a definite goal. The following steps will be helpful in the identification of competencies. • Step I: The first and foremost step in identifying a competency or a set of competencies is to clearly establish the performance criteria. It would be desirable to have a group of specialists who are in agreement on the criteria for judging superior perfor-mance for a job/role. • Step II: After having identified the criteria, the next stage is to select samples of average performers and outstanding performers. The idea is to have two contrasting groups selected on the basis of the performance criteria. If the size of the population is large, the sample size of the total population could be level’ cent of the total population. However, if the population size is small, a higher percentage will be desirable. The sample size should be reasonably large to allow the statistical treatment of data. • Step III: The third step is to collect data about the nature of competencies, which could be done through surveys, expert panels and behavioural event interviews (BEIs). Although the survey method is a quick method of data collection, it misses out hidden competencies that may be unique to the job as the data are based on the questions asked. Expert panels or focus groups comprise line managers, HR specialists, customers and outstanding jobholders. The panel or focus group usually arrives at the competencies required to do a job in an outstanding way through brainstorming. The limitation of this method is that the panel usually does not arrive at a full range of competencies and its accuracy level is about 50 per cent as compared to the BEI. The best way to identify a competency/competencies is through a behavioural event interview (BEl), which is a form of structured interview focused on the individual and his competencies rather than on the task. Through this method, data is collected on sample - behaviour leading to success in a role or behaviour during events of frustration when a person failed to achieve what he wanted. The use of BEl requires expertise, which focuses on thoughts, feelings, behaviour and outcomes to identify the patterns of intentional behaviour leading to star performance. A comparison of the two extreme groups-star performers and average performersthrows up the data on how the two groups differ on performance criteria in a particular job/ role in a particular organisation. • Step IV: Data collection is followed by analysis for building a competency model. The analysis involves a thematic analysis of the interview content and a statistical analysis of the differences between the average performers and star performers. The analysis may finally be presented in the form of a competency dictionary with behaviour descriptions as per the requirement of an Organisation. • Step V: administering the questionnaires to a large number of jobholders comprising average and star performers can validate the competency model developed through the steps mentioned above. However, where the number of jobholders is small, the data gathered for selection or appraisal can be utilized for validation or updating of the model (Marshall). Competency modeling cannot be a one-time affair as competency requirements change in consonance with a change in requirements on jobs. Even the motivational aspects and resultant behaviour may change with time.
The competency model has considerable value and can be utilized for various purposes like selection, performance appraisal, succession planning, training and human resource development where the selector can identify differentiator competencies among average performers and star performers. Competency modeling can also help in personal and team development and in the improvement of productivity. Can you tell how?? Competency Mapping: Case Study My company is undertaking a Job Evaluation exercise, along with competency mapping. Competency mapping is an area, which has been least, explored in India. I would like relevant information on Competency mapping, along with references so as to develop my skills. Answer Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. To ensure we are both on the same page, we would define a competency as a behavior (i.e. communication, leadership) rather than a skill or ability.The steps involved in competency mapping with an end result of job evaluation include the following: 1) Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a position information questionnaire (PIQ). This can be provided for incumbents to complete, or you can conduct one-on-one interviews using the PIQ as a guide. A sample PIQ that we use when conducting this step with our clients was provided to this client. The primary goal is to gather from incumbents what they feel are the key behaviors necessary to perform their respective jobs. 2) Using the results of the job analysis, you are ready to develop a competency based job description. A sample of a competency based job description generated from the PIQ was provided to this client. This was developed after carefully analyzing the input from the represented group of incumbents and converting it to standard competencies. 3) With a competency based job description, you are on your way to begin mapping the competencies throughout your human resources processes. The competencies of the respective job description become your factors for assessment on the performance evaluation. Using competencies will help guide you to perform more objective evaluations based on displayed or not displayed behaviors .4) Taking the competency mapping one step further, you can use the results of your evaluation to identify in what competencies individuals need additional development or training. This will help you focus your training needs on the goals of the position and company and help your employees develop toward the ultimate success of the organization.To help you with the implementation of these steps and attached tools, we would recommend you consider reading the following materials. Additional Resources:The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations by Richard Lepsinger, Anntoinette D. LuciaBuilding Robust Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies by Paul C. GreenHuman Resources Champion by David Ulrich In competency-based assessment, an individual’s knowledge, skills, attitudes and values are assessed on the basis of their demonstration in the assessment centre. Competencies, which are assessed during the assessment centre, will obviously relateto the competency requirement of the job. A review of the assessment centre approach used by various Indian as well as multinational companies reveals that the latter differ in both rigor and approach. The difference is largelyrelated to the objectives for which this approach is being used. The objectives may be anyone of the following • Strategic alignment of competencies with business growth; • Selection for job or culture fit; • Career planning or succession planning; • Training and development; and • Individual and organization growth Approaches to Competency Rating A number of approaches can be adopted in order co develop competency profiles for jobs and for assessing an employee’s competencies against it. 1. Absolute Rating Scales 2. Paired Comparison Ratings 3. Forced Distribution Rating Scale. All these scales have been discussed in other lessons in the same course, or in other courses as well. So need not go in detail. Benefits of Competency Mapping We should as management student always keep in mind that competency-mapping is a time-consuming and a serious exercise and should be handled by only those professionals who are trained in it. Initially, the help of a consultant may be sought who can train some managerial staff in this technique. Once adopted successfully, the approach yields a number of benefits to both the organisation and the individual. . Once the competencies are mapped a follow up skill audit is a must, which can be carried out for assessing, measuring and recording the competencies of an individual or a group required for various job Benefits of Competency – based Assessment at Organisation level • It helps an organisation in assessing the employees againstthe industry/company-recognized standards. • It can reduce training cost considerably as learning anddevelopment take place on the job and only areas needing development are considered for focus. • Assessment data generated through this method can be used for promotion to critical roles, succession planning, filling up of vacancies and for forming teams withcomplementary skills. • It is very effective in identifying development needs and human resource development. • It can help in reorganisation and assessment of receptivity to organisational changes. • Through development of employees’ knowledge and skills, the assessment/development centre approach can improve organisational productivity and the bottom line. Benefits of Competency-based Assessment at Individual Level • The individual can undertake self-assessment at one’s ownconvenience. • The knowledge and skills of .the individual come to light. • The individual learns on the job, at one’s own pace.
• The time required for self-development taken by it is comparatively much less than that taken by any other method of self-development. • It can suggest suitable moves for plateaued managers. Integrating Competency Mapping with 360 Degree Feedback There are a number of ways in which this exercise can be taken up. To start with the identification of competencies for various jobpositions can be done with the help of 360 degree feedback in which the employee, his supervisor, subordinates and peers can help identify competencies which differentiate star performers from average performers. Another way of integrating the two approaches is through the involvement of the participant’s superior, subordinates and peers in a simulated exercise to assess competencies like team work, leadership and communication during the assessment centre. In a development centre the 360-degree method can be helpful in providing feedback to the participant on his areas of improvement in a non-threatening manner. Some organisations like SmithKline Beecham first adopted the assessment centre approach for competency profiling and later moved to the 360-feedback method. In India, organisations are hesitant to adopt the 360-degree feedback method for appraisal but are using it for developmental purposes, thereby moving from 360-degree feedback to development centre and then to the assessment centre approach. In a nutshell, since these two approaches are complementary, instead of adopting them on stand-alone basis, the organisation can thus reap better returns by combining the two. But this would require an ‘appropriate’ culture in the organisation. • Performance Appraisal is the process through which an employee’s behaviour and accomplishments for a period are measured and evaluated. It is a systematic way of judging the relative worth or ability of an employee inperforming his or her task. • Before implementing any performance appraisal system, its reliability and validity should be in place. • Appraisals should be conducted in such a way that it eithermaintain or enhance the selfesteem of employees. • The objective of performance appraisal has shifted from anevaluation of employees to the identification of theirpotential and development. • Developing an effective appraisal system can be achievedthrough four steps, which are Outline corporate objectives,Outline the functional objectives, Establish job clarity, and Establish job goals. • Competencies are the underlying characteristics of an individual, viz. knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, selfconcepts, traits and motives that have a causal relationship with effective and/or superior performance in a job situation. Because of their underlying characteristic, these are considerably deep and constitute a lasting dimension of an individual’s personality. These have predictive value and provide the basis for predicting an individual’s behaviour. • 360degree feedback system helps in create a mechanism for integrating inputs, creating an appropriate work culture, and under-bidding. 2. Summarise the recent trend of reward systems in India. Analyse it with respect to your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with and discuss its impact on productivity.Describe the organisation you are referring to. A:The current trend is one of integrated reward approach.Reward system usually mean the financial reward on organization gives its employees in return for their labour. While the term reward system, not only includes material rewards, but also nonmaterial rewards. The components of a reward system consist of financial rewards (basic and performance pay) and employee benefits, which together comprise total remuneration. They also include non-financial rewards (recognition, promotion, praise, achievement responsibility and personal growth) and in many case a system of performance management. Pay arrangements are central to the cultural initiative as they are the most tangible expression of the working relationship between employer and employee. The integrated reward system includes: -Job evaluation and profiling Defining key performance indicators -Analysis and modification of pay levels and structures to reflect both internal and market relativities -Designing of -performance evaluation processes -Structuring of individual, team and corporate performance bonuses -Social climate surveys with focus on remuneration -Designing flexible benefits plans -Implementation of new reward components in compensation package -Implementation and assistance in change communications -Training for internal specialists in reward structure planning and maintenance Performance Based Reward is based on the definition of key performance indicators identified as part of job evaluation, and linking these indicators with reward components. A combination of performance measuring system and additional motivational components delivers an integrated performance-based reward system. Flexible Benefit Schemes are a modern approach to the management of budgets for staff remuneration. Employee benefits constitute a considerable portion of staff costs, but they are often expended without the desired effect since employees do not perceive the full value of benefits. This system increases the effectiveness and enable better control. Why reward system is required? These components will be designed, developed and maintained on the basis of reward strategies and policies which will be created within the context of the organizations between strategies, culture and environment: they will be expected to fulfill the following broad aims; 1. Improve Organizational Effectiveness: Support the attainment of the organization's mission, strategies, and help to achieve sustainable, competitive advantage. 2. Support and change culture: Under pin and as necessary help to change the 'organizational culture' as expressed through its values for performance innovation, risks taking, quality, flexibility and team working. 3. Achieve Integration: Be an integrated part of the management process of the organization. This involves playing a key role in a mutually reinforcing and coherent range of personal policies and process. 4. Supportive Managers: Support individual managers in the achievement of their goals. 5. Motivate Employees : Motivate employees to achieve high levels of quality performance. 6. Compete in the Labour Market: Attract and retain high quality people. 7. Increased Commitment: Enhance the commitment of employees to the organization that will a) want to remain members of it, b) develop a strong belief in and acceptance of the values and goals of the organization and c) be ready and willing to exert
considerable effort on its behalf. 8. Fairness and Equity: Reward people fairly and consistently according to their contribution and values to the organization. 9. Improved Skills : Upgrade competence and encourage personal development. 10. Improved Quality: Help to achieve continuous improvement in levels of quality and customer service. 11. Develop team working : Improve co-operation and effective team working at all level. 12. Value for money: Pride value for the money for the organization. 13. Manageable: Be easily manageable so that undue administrative burdens are not imposed on managers and members of the personal department. 14. Controllable: Be easily controllable so that the policies can be implemented consistently and costs can be contained within the budget. ========================================================================== ANS : PART2.Analyse it with respect to your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with and discuss its impact on productivity. Describe the organisation you are referring to. Describe the organisation you are referring to The organization, I am familiar with is a -a large manufacturer/ marketer of safety products -the products are used as [personal protection safety] [ industrial safety] -the products are distributed through the distributors as well as sold directly -the products are sold to various industries like mining/fireservices/defence/ as well as to various manufacturing companies. -the company employs about 235 people. -the company has the following functional departments *marketing *manufacturing *sales *finance/ administration *human resource *customer service *distribution *warehousing/ transportation *TQM ============================================== THE ORGANIZATION , I ASSOCIATED WITH HAVE THE FOLLOWING SYSTEM The Reward systems focus on positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is the most effective tool for encouraging desired behavior because it stimulates people to take actions because they want to because they get something of value (internally or externally) for doing it. An effectively designed and managed reward program can drive an organization's change process by positively reinforcing desired behaviors. The SMART criteria. These criteria used when designing and evaluating programs. Programs should be: Specific. A line of sight should be maintained between rewards and actions. Meaningful. The achievements rewarded should provide an important return on investment to both the performer and the organization. Achievable. The employee's or group's goals should be within the reach of the performers. Reliable. The program should operate according to its principles and purpose. *Timely. The recognition/rewards should be provided frequently enough to make performers feel valued for their efforts --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Performance Management. The process of performance management reflects how the work gets done and creates the environment in which people feel valued for their achievements. The performance management process includes four critical components: Focus on what is important to change or be improved. Measures to determine whether and how much progress is being achieved. Feedback so that performers will know whether and how much progress is being achieved. Reinforcement so that everyone celebrates achievements as they are unfolding. Indicators of successful performance management include the following: All measures are understood by the employees, who can describe the importance of their activities to the agency. Measures address results and behaviors/processes. A tracking system is used to monitor performance in the areas identified. The performance measures and progress are displayed in a public area. Data on the performance charts is current. The team leaders/managers are actively engaged in coaching staff members and providing assistance to improve performance. Periodic celebrations mark achievements as they are realized. These celebrations are regarded positively by employees. Data indicate performance is improving. Recommend that organizations: focus on variables critical to success; create timely, chart-oriented feedback; create celebrations that mean something to the performers; use performance reviews as an opportunity to reflect "how we won" and "how we lost" make them as often as necessary to cement the learning; anchor the memory of achievements achievement-oriented firms measure a lot, accomplish milestones frequently, and do much celebrating; don't rely on annual performance appraisals as the sole source of feedback; when designing programs, avoid copying programs used by other organizations; and don't make the design process into the "let's make a form" game. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
THE REWARD SYSTEM IS TWO-FOLD 1.RECOGNITION FOR PERFORMANCE. 2.PAYMENT. WHICH INCLUDES -base pay -cost of living rise -merit INCREASE , which is based on *performance against the KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. *bonus for exceptional performance with the scope of the job position 3. Define and discuss the need of human resource planning. Take an account of the human resource planning in your organisation or an organization you are familiar with and give a brief note on that. Describe the organisation you are referring to. A: The process by which management ensures that it has the right personnel, who are capable of completing those tasks that help the organization reach its objectives. Also, Human resources is a term with which many organizations describe the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, Employee Relations and resource planning. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Human resources have at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production. The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within the firm, and to the portion of the firm's organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues. This article addresses both definitions. The objective of human resources is to maximize the return on investment from the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. It is the responsibility of human resource managers to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair, and consistent manner. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Selection Training and Development Performance Evaluation and Management Promotions Redundancy Industrial and Employee Relations Record keeping of all personal data. Compensation, pensions, bonuses etc in liaison with Payroll Confidential advice to internal 'customers' in relation to problems at work Career development
Though human resources have been part of business and organizations since the first days of agriculture, the modern concept of human resources began in reaction to the efficiency focus of Taylorism in the early 1900s. By 1920, psychologists and employment experts in the United States started the human relations movement, which viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. This movement grew throughout the middle of the 20th century, placing emphasis on how leadership, cohesion, and loyalty played important roles in organizational success. Although this view was increasingly challenged by more quantitatively rigorous and less "soft" management techniques in the 1960s and beyond, human resources had gained a permanent role within an organization. Human resource planning (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense,Human Resource Management(HRM) means employing people,developing their resources, utilizing maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement. Features Its features include:
• • • • •
Organizational management Personnel administration Personnel management Manpower management Industrial management
But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even industrial relations and employee relations are confusingly listed as synonyms, although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies. The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process. HRM is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can
be understood and undertaken by the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organizations. Synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. So if we move to actual definitions, Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being: “a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing organisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled" (p. 49). While Miller (1987) suggests that HRM relates to: ".......those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage" (p. 352). The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have -- and are aware of -personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. Note that some people distinguish a difference between between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, eg, career development, training, organization development, etc. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, eg, "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have -- and are aware of -personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. Note that some people distinguish a difference between between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, eg, career development, training, organization development, etc. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, eg, "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. 4. What are the forms and causes of indiscipline in an organization? Study and present the existing disciplinary action mechanism in your organization or an organization you are referring to. Describe the organization you are referring to. A: Indiscipline refers to the absence of discipline. Indiscipline, therefore, means nonconformity to formal and informal rules and regulations. We cannot afford indiscipline as it will affect the morale, involvement and motivation of subordinates in the organisation. Indiscipline often leads to chaos, confusion, and reduces the efficiency of the organisation. It often leads to strikes, go-slows, absenteeism, resulting in loss of production, profits and wages. Factors Leading to Indiscipline Various socio-economic and cultural factors play a role in creating indiscipline in an organisation. We wonder if you realise the fact that often indiscipline may arise because of poor management on your part. Insensitive and thoughtless words and deeds from a manager are potent reasons for subordinates to resort to acts of indiscipline. Defective communication by the
superiors and ineffective leadership devoid of tactful human relations approach can cause indiscipline among subordinates. Indiscipline by your subordinate may be an outcome of your nonresponse to his grievance. Your subordinates may indulge in acts of indiscipline because of unfair practices on your part, like the wage differentials, unreasonable declaration of payment of bonus or non-payment, wrong work assignments, defective grievance handling, etc. The payment of low wages is perhaps another reason for indiscipline. When the worker is paid low wages and in addition you demand more and more work from him, he becomes dissatisfied, dishonest and insubordinate. Poverty, frustration and indebtedness, generally overshadow his mind which makes him agitated and indisciplined. His mind and thought are more towards destruction than constructive discipline.Low payment of wages also creates lack of motivation in your subordinates. After all, each individual needs response, security, recognition and new experience. A workman joins your organisation and agrees to give a certain amount of work and loyalty, while he expects at the same time, in return, an adequate economic reward, security, fair human treatment and other kinds of support from you. If he does not get what he expected, he starts getting dissatisfied. He gradually begins to express his grievance by way of absenting himself, coming late to the office, inefficiency and insubordinationDefective communication between you and your subordinate also leads to conflict of various kinds. Very often your subordinates get no opportunity to express their feelings and sentiments. Unless you adopt a humane and understanding approach there is more likelihood that your subordiate may take recourse to indisciplineForms of Indiscipline Absenteeism, insubordination, violation of plant rules, gambling, incompetence, damage to machine and property, strikes, dishonesty and other forms of disloyalty lead to industrial indiscipline. These are all forms of misconduct against the management. If an act of an employee is prejudicial or likely to be prejudicial to the interests of the employer or to his reputation, it is a misconduct. The act of an employee can become a misconduct in the following cases: a) where the act of a workman is inconsistent with the peaceful discharge of his duty towards his employer; b) where the act of the employee makes it unsafe for the employer to retain him in service; c) where the act of the employee is so grossly immoral that all reasonable men would not trust that employee; d) where the conduct of the employee is such as to open before him ways for not discharging his duties properly; e) where the conduct of the employee is such that the employer cannot rely on his faithfulness; f) where the conduct of the employee is insulting and insubordinate to such a degree as to be uncomfortable with the continuance of a superiorsubordinate relationship; g) where the workman is abusive or he disturbs the peace at the place of his employment; and h) where the employee is habitually negligent in respect of the duties for which he is engaged. It is very difficult to lay down exhaustively as to what would constitute misconduct and indiscipline. It would depend upon the examination of facts. Some of the acts of misconduct are mentioned in the Model Standing Orders as a part of the rules made under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act of 1946. Non-performance of duty is a serious misconduct, because it is basically inconsistent with the obligations of employment. Under the act of negligence, an employee fails to give full care and attention on account of which the work becomes defective, and production suffers both in quantity and quality. It is a misconduct to cause disorder on the premises, intimidate, threaten or assault other employees and use abusive language. Preventing the entry and exist of willing employees and movement of goods to and from the factory, obstructing the work being carried on, damaging the property of the employer, indulging in mischief or other objectionable activities, occupying the employer’s premises or property, go-slow, etc. are forms of misconduct. Insubordination, assault or threat to superior officers, defamation, making false complaint, are all acts of indiscipline. Non-performance of work during working office hours, tampering with official records, misappropriation of accounts are acts of indiscipline which are considered to be of serious gravity. Different aspects of indiscipline include: (i) Inconsistent behaviour of an employee and deviation from the standard behaviour. (ii) Unsafe behaviour of the employee. (iii) Immoral action of the employee. (iv) When employee is abusive, disturbs the peace and is negligent towards his duties. The common causes of indiscipline are as follows: (i) Unfair Management Practices: Management sometimes indulges in unfair practices like: • Wage discrimination • Non-compliance with promotional policies and transfer policies • Discrimination in allotment of work • Defective handling of grievances • Payment of low wages • Delay in payment of wages • Creating low quality work life etc. These unfair management practices gradually result in indiscipline. (ii) Absence of Effective Leadership: Absence of effective leadership results in poor management in the areas of direction, guidance, instructions etc. This in turn, results in indiscipline. I am sure you remember the importance of leadership as studied in the last semester. If you do (which I suppose you do), you can relate the importance of effective leadership with handling indiscipline. (iii) Communication Barriers: Communication barriers and absence of humane approach on the part of superiors result in frustration and indiscipline among the workers. The management should clearly formulate the policies regarding discipline. These policies should be communicated and the policies should be consistently followed in the organisations. The management should also be empathetic towards the employees. (iv) Inadequate attention to personnel Problems: Delay in solving personnel problems develops frustration among individual workers. The management should be proactive so that there is no discontent among the workers. It should adopt a parental attitude towards its employees. However it should be noted that no relationship can continue for long if it is one sided. What I am implying here is that the workers should also live up to their commitments. They should be reasonable in their demands. (v) Victimisation: Victimisation of subordinate also results in indiscipline. The management should not exploit the workers. It is also in the long-term interest of the management to take care of its internal customers (Remember we have discussed this term in class before!) (vi) Absence of Code of Conduct. This creates confusion and also provides chance for discrimination while taking disciplinary action. We will be discussing Code of Discipline in details etc. ---Existing disciplinary action mechanism in my organization : In my oraganisation , A Constructive Approach is being followed towards Discipline 1. Root out the causes 2. Analyze the reasons for poor performance
3. Prepare for the disciplinary interview 4. Conduct the interview with care and professionalism 5. Prescribe the disciplinary steps to be taken in specific terms and with a specific timetable 6. Do not expect to win a popularity contest Creative Action That’s what I started calling it some years ago. I am sure you can relate, but I’ll create a scenario for you. Bob walks through the door, late as usual, only to walk past the, “invisible” three-foot by five-foot sign stating that, “Protective glasses must be worn beyond this point.” Bob’s seniority and skill level give him a sense of invincibility. Since you took the supervisory position a week ago, he has reminded you three times that he, “has been here longer than you.” What are you going to do with Bob? Take appropriate action! Obviously some action must be taken. I have heard phrases like constructive criticism, disciplinary action, and, corrective action. Then I heard the phrase, creative action. Creative action begins with stepping back from a problem or conflict and asking yourself probing questions in search of answers. A few simple steps will help us creatively confront employees, resulting in more favorable response. We will use Bob as an example as we step through four creative action steps that will give your more control, save time, and establish trust and rapport. Deal with the problem not symptoms! Step one is analyse. Ask yourself a question that sounds something like this, “What is my problem? What needs to be fixed?” It is really quite easy to get caught up in the emotion of a moment and startle to action only to find later that you didn’t address the relevant issue. Let’s examine Bob together. What is my problem with Bob? You might answer, “He’s a late arriver,” or “He ignores safety policies.” While both answers are right, we should delve deeper into Bob’s motives to insure that we take clear and efficient action. I have found in many or most cases that behaviors stem from deep-rooted feelings or belief systems. The real problem with Bob is simple: he doesn’t value, or understand the value of, company policies, because he does not see anything in it for him. The idea is to respond creatively and tactfully. These four steps help you to do just that. I suggest writing them on an index card and keep them with you to review occasionally. You won’t be perfect and old habits will die hard. When you drop the ball go back, pick it up and start again. So, get started right now, by making your list. It should look something like this: 1.Analyze the problem. Be sure you are dealing with the right issues. 2. Create and put a plan of action in writing. 3. Choose a playing field that will be good for everyone. 4. Follow-up and follow-through My company Before starting the process of discipline, it is essential to hold a preliminary inquiry to know if a prima facie case of indiscipline and misconduct exist. After this, the following steps should be followed: 1. Issue of charge sheet: Once the prima facie case of misconduct is established, the management should proceed to issue a charge sheet to the employee. Charge sheet is merely a notice of the charge and provides the employee an opportunity to explain his conduct. Therefore, charge sheet is generally known as a slow cause notice. In the charge sheet, each charge should be clearly specified. There should be a separate charge for each allegation and charge should not relate to any matter, which has already been decided upon. I would suggest each one of you to talk to find out how is a charge sheet prepared. We will discuss that in the next class. 2. Consideration of Explanation. On getting the answer for the charge sheet served, the explanation furnished should be considered and if it is satisfactory, no disciplinary action needs to be taken. On the contrary when the management is not satisfied with the employee’s explanation, it can proceed with full-fledged enquiry. (However, if the worker admits the charge, the employer can warn him or award him punishment without further enquiry.) 3. Suspension pending Enquiry. In case the charge is grave that is serious, a suspension order may be served on the employee along with the charge sheet. According to the Industrial Employment (Standing Order) Act, 1946, the suspended worker is to be paid a subsistence allowance equal to one-half of his wages for the first ninety days of suspension and three-fourths of wages for the remaining period of suspension if the delay in the completion of disciplinary proceedings is not due to the worker’s conduct. What is grave will depend on the discretion of the management. It has to be decided in accordance with the Code Of Discipline. 4. Holding of Enquiry. An enquiry officer should be appointed to hold the enquiry and a notice to this effect should be given to the concerned worker. Principle of natural justice must be followed. The worker should not be denied the chance of explaining himself. The enquiry officer should give sufficient notice to the worker so that he may prepare to represent his case and make submission in his defense. The enquiry officer should proceed in a proper manner and examine witnesses. Fair opportunity should be given to the worker to cross-examine the management witnesses. On the conclusion of the enquiry, the enquiry officer should record his findings and the reasons thereof. He should refrain from recommending punishment and leave it to the decision of the appropriate authority. After all he is just an enquiry officer!! 5. Order of Punishment. Disciplinary action can be taken when the misconduct of the employee is proved. While deciding the nature of disciplinary action, the employee’s previous record, precedents, effects of the action on other employees, etc, have to be considered. When the employee feels that the enquiry conducted was not proper and the action taken unjustified, he must be given a chance to make appeal. The Disciplinary Procedure can be summarized as Issue of charge sheet Consideration of ExplanationSuspension pending EnquiryHolding of EnquiryOrder of Punishment
5. Define HRM and differentiate it from traditional personnel management. Write an overview on the HRM functions of your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to. A:Defineation 1. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers. Defination 2 Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. Human Resource Management (HRM) is a process of bringing people andorganizations together so that the goals of each are met. It is that part of the management process which is concerned with the management of human resources in an organization. It tries to secure the best from people by winning their wholehearted cooperation. In short, it may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner. According to Invancevich and Glueck, “HRM is concerned with the most effective use of people to achieve organizational and individual goals. It is a way of managing people at work, so that they give their best to the organization.” The Dynamics of Personnel/Human Resource Management (P/HRM) P/HRM (both terms used interchangeably) is a dynamic discipline as it mostly deals with ever-changing work settings, characterized by people having varied cultural, social and religious backgrounds, diverse goals, multifarious expectations and attitudes. The personnel scene itself has been changing quite dramatically over the years. Government regulations, competitive pressures, unionization of employees, do exert a strong influence on the way the personnel function is carried out in various organizations. Further, the nature of the work goals, make-up of the workgroup, in the long run. Over the years, employees have become more sophisticated in their demands for high quality work environments, adequate pay and benefits, proper training and career growth opportunities. All these factors compel human resource professionals to look for ways to improve their interactions with employees, other managers and outside groups in order to maximize worker productivity and satisfaction. However, as pointed out by Rudrabasavaraj, personnel administration in India, as it is interpreted, discussed and practiced is largely static, legalistic and ritualistic. There seems to be a lot of confused thinking and a plain lack of awareness of what P / HRM is. traditional personnel management
Definition Personnel Management - Personnel Management is thus basically an administrative recordkeeping function, at the operational level. Personnel Management attempts to maintain fair terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently managing personnel activities for individual departments etc. It is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnel activities will result ultimately in achieving organizational success. Human Resource Development - Human resource management is concerned with the development and implementation of people strategies, which are integrated with corporate strategies, and ensures that the culture, values and structure of the organization, and the quality, motivation and commitment of its members contribute fully to the achievement of its goals. HRM is concerned with carrying out the SAME functional activities traditionally performed by the personnel function, such as HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, employee relations, performance management, employee appraisals, compensation management, training and development etc. But, the HRM approach performs these functions in a qualitatively DISTICNT way, when compared with Personnel Management. Main Differences between Personnel Management and HRM •Personnel management is workforce centered, directed mainly at the organization’s employees; such as finding and training them, arranging for them to be paid, explaining management’s expectations, justifying management’s actions etc. While on the other hand, HRM is resource –centered, directed mainly at management, in terms of devolving the responsibility of HRM to line management, management development etc. •Although indisputably a management function, personnel management has never totally identified with management interests, as it becomes ineffective when not able to understand and articulate the aspirations and views of the workforce, just as sales representatives have to understand and articulate the aspirations of the customers. •Personnel Management is basically an operational function, concerned primarily with carrying out the day-to day people management activities. While on the other hand, HRM is strategic in nature, that is, being concerned with directly assisting an organization to gain sustained competitive advantage. HRM is more proactive than Personnel Management. Whereas personnel management is about the maintenance of personnel and administrative systems, HRM is about the forecasting of organizational needs, the continual monitoring and adjustment of personnel systems to meet current and future requirements, and the management of change.
27 Points of Difference between Personnel Management & HRD
S. No. Dimension Personnel Management Human Resource Development
Beliefs & Assumptions 1. Contract Careful delineation of written contracts Aim to go ‘beyond contracts’ 2. Rules Importance of devising clear rules/mutuality ‘Can-do’ outlook; impatience with ‘rule’ 3. Guide to management Action Procedures ‘Business – need’ 4. Behaviour Referent Norms/custom & practice Values/Mission 5. Managerial Task vis-à-vis Labour Monitoring Nurturing 6. Nature of Relations Pluralist Unitarist 7. Conflict Institutionalized De-emphasized STRATEGIC ASPECTS 8. Key Relations Labour Management Customer 9. Initiatives Piecemeal Integrated 10. Corporate Plan Marginal to Central to 11. Speed of Decision Slow Fast LINE MANAGEMENT 12. Management Role Transactional Transformational leadership 13. Key Managers Personnel/IR Specialists General/business/ line managers 14. Communication Indirect Direct 15. Standardisation High (e.g. ‘parity’ an issue) Low (e.g. ‘parity’ not seen as relevant) 16. Prized management skills Negotiation Facilitation KEY LEVERS 17. Selection Separate, marginal task
Integrated, key task 18. Pay Job Evaluation (fixed grades) Performance – related 19. Conditions Separately negotiated Harmonization 20. Labour Management Collective bargaining contracts Towards individual contracts 21. Thrust of relations Regularized through facilities & training Marginalized (with exception of some bargaining for change models) 22. Job categories & grades Many Few 23. Communication Restricted flow Increased flow 24. Job Design Division of Labour Teamwork 25. Conflict Handling Reach temporary truces Manage climate & culture 26. Training & Development Controlled access to courses Learning companies 27. Foci of attention of interventions Personnel procedures Wide ranging cultural, structural & personnel strategies
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