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Problems: 1-8, 17-20

4.1 MOLECULES CAUSE THE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER Matter behaves the way it does because it is made up of molecules or particles that behave that way. The Structure and Properties of Ice Ice is the solid form of water. At the molecular level, H2O molecules in ice are arranged with empty space or holes between molecules. Because of these holes, the density of ice (d=0.917 g/cm3) is lower than the density of liquid water (d=1.00 g/cm3). With all other substances, the solid is more dense than its liquid. When ice melts, the H2O molecules fill in the holes, so liquid H2O is denser than ice.

The holes have a hexagonal (six-sided or six-angled) shape (as shown above). Snowflakes have hexagonal symmetry because of the hexagonal holes in the molecular-level arrangement of H2O molecules in ice!

CHEM 110 Chapter 4 Part 1

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4.2 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND CHEMICAL FORMULAS Ex. 1: Explain the difference between a compound and a mixture.

Ex. 2: Circle all of the following that are compounds: water air helium table salt (NaCl) steel Ar CO2

Ex. 3: Note that some properties of a compound (e.g. melting and boiling points, density, etc.) will always be the same, regardless of the size of the sample. Keeping this in mind, explain what tests you could carry out to determine if an unknown colorless liquid is a compound or a mixture.

CHEMICAL FORMULAS Symbolically express the number of atoms of each element in a compound The number of atoms is indicated by a subscript following the elements symbol. (If there is no subscript, only one atom of that element is in the compound.) Example: water = H2O 2 H atoms, 1 O atom sodium carbonate = Na2CO3 ____ Na, ____ C, ____ O atoms Some chemical formulas use parentheses more than one subunit present in compound Example: C2H4(OH)2

2 C, 4 H, 2 (OH) = 2 O and 2 H TOTAL: 2 C, 4+2 = 6 H, and 2 O

Example: How many atoms of each element are present in TNT: C7H5(NO2)3? ____ C, ____ H, ____ N, and ____ O
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4.3 IONIC AND MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS MOLECULES (or MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS) The atoms in molecules are held together by covalent bonds, the sharing of a pair of electrons between two nonmetal atoms. molecule: a compound of covalently bonded atoms Consider the HCl, H2O, NH3, and CH4 molecules below Note how the formula for each gives the actual number of each atom present in the molecule.

IONIC COMPOUNDS consist of ions (charged particles) held together by ionic bonds ionic bond: electrostatic attraction holding together positively charged metal cations and negatively charged nonmetal anions In the 3D representation of NaCl at the right, the Na+ ions (purple) are attracted to the Cl ions (green) because of their charges. In the 3D network of ions in an ionic compuond each cation is surrounded by anions, and vice versa. In the example of NaCl at the right, each purple Na+ ion is surrounded by six green Cl ions, and vice versa. To melt the substance, every bond between all of the ions must be broken requiring a lot of energy (i.e. very high temperatures). At room temperature, ionic compounds are solids with very high melting points. e.g. NaCls melting point is 801C. formula unit: most basic entity of an ionic compound (eg. NaCl, AlCl3, etc.) gives the ratio of ions (not actual #) present Note that the formula, NaCl, indicates a 1-to-1 ratio of Na+ ions and Cl ions present, not the actual number of each ion in the compound. Because NaCl is an ionic compound, you would NEVER refer to a NaCl molecule; instead, you may refer to a formula unit of NaCl.
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Ex. 1: Consider the chemical formulas for the molecules on the previous page. Molecules consist of covalently bonded ________ atoms.



Ex. 2: Consider that ionic compounds consist of positively charged metal cations and negatively charged nonmetal anions while molecules consist of covalently bonded nonmetal atoms. Indicate if each example below is a molecule (M) or an ionic compound (I):








Molecules and their Properties Note that some molecules can be very large and complex, such as hemoglobin (shown below) which consists of thousands of atoms. Note that hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen in red blood cells to the brain, muscles, etc., in your body. Consider the O2 and CO molecules below:



Ex. 1: Indicate noticeable similarities between O2 and CO.

Ex. 2: Given what you know about the periodic trend in atomic radii, explain if you would expect these molecules to be similar or different in size. hemoglobin

Ex. 3: Use your answers to Ex. 1 and 2 above to propose a possible reason for the hazards of inhaling CO gas.

CHEM 110 Chapter 4 Part 1

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