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Submitted to: Submitted by: Jagannath Mohanty Poorti Sachdeva (2012207) Pradeep Rawat (2012208) Pragati Vishwakarma (2012209) Pranoy Chakrabarty (2012210) Prasoon Shrivastava (2012212) Pratap Dhar (2012213) Prateek Goyal (2012214) Pratik Gupta (2012215) CONTRIBUTION: 1 .
Organizational hierarchy: Pragati Vishwakarma. Leadership At Infosys: Poorti Sachdeva. technology and outsourcing with revenues of US$ 7. Case II: Pradeep Rawat.126 billion (LTM Q2 FY13). Prasoon Shrivastava. Pranoy Chakrabarty. Case III: Pratik Gupta. Prasoon Shrivastava. Case I: Pragati Vishwakarma. Many of the world‟s most successful organizations rely on Infosys to deliver measurable business value. engineering and outsourcing services to help clients in over 30 countries build tomorrow‟s enterprise. Infosys provides business consulting. Pratik Gupta. Pratap Dhar Introduction Infosys was started in 1981 by seven people with US$ 250. 2 . Today. technology. they are a global leader in consulting.
3 . Australia. Canada and many other countries. our services and products to become the best . Our Vision. Mission and Values – Vision "We will be a globally respected corporation. The values that drive us underscore our commitment to: CLIFE Client Value: To surpass client expectations consistently Leadership by Example: To set standards in our business and transactions and be an exemplar for the industry and ourselves Integrity and Transparency: To be ethical. Switzerland. France. India. UK. China. constantly improve ourselves." Values We believe that the softest pillow is a clear conscience. Infosys and its subsidiaries have 153. Netherlands. Japan. 2012.Infosys has a global footprint with 66 offices and 69 development centres in US.761 employees as on Sep 30. sincere and open in all our transactions Fairness: To be objective and transaction-oriented." Mission "Strategic Partnerships for Building Tomorrow‟s Enterprise. Middle East. Germany. our teams. and thereby earn trust and respect Excellence: To strive relentlessly. Poland.
leadership competencies have been defined along four broad dimensions stated below: Work People Technology Business 4 . To create higher customer value through „thought leadership Leadership competencies Leadership competencies exist in the context of the organisation‟s vision and its core values. leveraging technology. as described below: To prepare the company to man-age its phenomenal growth. and has the agility to manage ambiguity and uncertainty under all circumstances. Infosys Leadership Institute (ILI) assist Infosys in responding to specific challenges of the present and future.‟ To achieve this vision. The soul of our leadership competencies rest in the vision statement of Infosys which reads: „We will be a globally respected corporation that provides best of breed business solutions. To prepare Infoscions to face the complexities of the market and the rapidly changing environment. delivered by best in class people.LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN INFOSYS The vision of Infosys is to create an organisation that is „built to last‟.
except for the 360-degree feedback. Participation in most of them is optional. direct reportees. The feedback received from this 360-degree process is used as the basis for the preparation of individual personal development plans (PDP‟s). the manager and customers (both internal and external). The premise is that learning in general and adult learning in particular is varied and a model of leadership development which caters to multiple learning modes is that much more effective. 360-degree feedback The 360-degree feedback is a method of systematically collecting data about a person‟s performance and capabilities from a wide range of co-workers. all aligned to the basic leadership competencies model. which are the blueprints that guide the individual in acquiring new skills and enhancing existing skills. which is the starting point of the leadership journey. This includes peers.The ‘nine pillar’ model of leadership development This model was developed after careful research of the processes followed by 18 of the most successful global companies. An individual may choose one or more of these pillars for his or her own development. 5 . Each pillar has its own unique importance to the development of leadership competencies at the individual level.
This is a process by which employees of the organisation go through a series of learning interventions on topics of relevance to leadership. Action learning This is a team-based real-time experience used to solve real. purpose and processes followed in the context of leadership development. Community empathy ILI aspires to create.Development assignments Development assignments (DAs) are a traditional and potent form of leadership development. plan for setting goals for continued development. Systemic process learning This is an intervention that enables participants to view an organisation as a whole system Comprising innumerable interacting sub-systems. The design of these workshops allows for extensive interaction among participants leading to reinforcement of the Infosys culture. Infosys Culture (IC) workshops These workshops help participants understand the core values. and a workable. It yields plans for continuous improvement in systemic processes and details how an individual will initiate such improvements. DAs enable employees to gather practical leadership skills outside his or her zone of experience. They are structured in a manner so that the participants receive and give feedback in a non-threatening environment and yield a workable plan for setting goals for continued personal and professional development and strategies for attaining them. opportunities for high-potential candidates to enrol themselves in causes outside Infosys that contribute to the greater good of the less fortunate. It is a pragmatic process aimed at yielding a resolution to the „problem‟ or „issue‟ that has been identified. Development relationships These are one-on-one relationships in work settings that facilitate the sharing and transfer of knowledge and experience between individuals. The importance of community empathy in overall leadership development is in line with the fundamental belief of the organisation that social conscience needs to be nurtured and enhanced in each one of its present and potential leaders 6 . Feedback intensive programmes These are intensive behavioural interventions. systemic and unresolved organisational problems. A study of successful global companies will show that it is essential for senior management to be fully involved and committed to the development of future leaders. and ensuring enough empowerment to guarantee adherence and refinement to the culture of the organisation. A „mentoring for leadership‟ pilot programme is operational and learnings from this programme will be used to refine and extend this element of leadership development across the organisation. The Infosys leadership development model views mentoring as a developmental relationship in the context of leadership development. on a regular and structured basis. with strategies for attaining them. High potential employees are given experience in diverse functions through internal job rotations and cross functional assignments. which are based on formal and informal feedback received from individuals that the employee interfaces with.
issues in group dynamics and leadership.STUDY ON RETAIL DOMAIN We have approached the retail domain of Infosys to study the decision making methods. The hierarchy structure of the retail domain of the organisation is as follows: Delivery Manager Delivery Anchors Senior Project Manager Project Manager(s) Technical leads(analysts) Functinal Associates (Management team) Technical Developers 7 .
it starts working and as soon as it finishes it handovers the project to the functional team. Once the project is given to technical team.g. If not then the project with the bugs is given back to the technical team else the technical team is informed about the success of the project. The technical team on weekly basis calls the client i. The work of technical lead is to coordinate their team with the project manager and the functional team as well. For e. The role of Functional team is to coordinate between the expectations of the client and the technical team. These two take care that different projects from the clients are distributed to the project manager. CURRENT PROJECT: JC PENNEY They are currently working for JC Penney to create a system in which they merge all the servers for data up gradation of all the retail stores of JC Penney. integration and implementation of a particular product. The Technical team is lead by one or more than one technical leads. The technical developers and leads are technically skilled and have sound technical knowledge of the project. which oracle product to use for data up gradation and many such others. This call is known as a Status call. 8 . there are two teams which are the Technical team and the Functional (management) team. Under the project manager. Their basic work is consultation. JP Penney via video conferencing on Fridays or Wednesdays in order to know and meet their changing expectations and also approve the current status of the project. The functional team passes on the project to the Client so that they can approve whether it matches their requirement or not. They also guide the technical developers and help them in their problems.The retail domain consists of a delivery manager under whom the delivery anchor works. Even the Budget Estimation and various financial decisions are taken by the delivery managers and delivery anchors. The technical developers are the ones who work under the technical leads.e. Every project has a senior project manager under whom there can be one or more than one project managers depending on the versatility of the project.
Analysis: Application of legitimate power by the project manager: Here we can see that the project manager was entitled the authority to take any decision within a technical team. individuals can learn to use it affectively. The interplay of power enables the achievement of common purpose (organisational objectives) and determines organisational behaviour. The project manager took initiative to reposition all the members of that group including the technical developer who was given all the credit so that there would be no conflict under the new the technical lead as everybody was equal for him. However. They were given a project to be completed in a specified period. In other words. parent. if they use their power judiciously to do good and help people. they will lose legitimacy and they will become less effective. If a person abuses their authority. Everybody worked in the group. He had the legitimate power as an interpersonal form of power whereas the technical lead had referent power with the help of which he gave credit to just one developer and not the whole team. Power may be: An act of one person (realized potentiality) or Potentiality or capacity of one person. such as manager. owner. some worked extensively. teacher and coach. They worked under a technical lead that was answerable to the project manager. referent power and other powers are given below: POWER: Power is the ability to influence someone else. The definition of legitimate power. they directly complained about it to the project manager. Because power is an ability. 9 . some less as compared to others.REAL LIFE CASE OF INFOSYS Case I It‟s about a group of 12 technical developers. their power will be enhanced and they will become more effective. Legitimate Power Legitimate power in interpersonal communication comes from formal titles. But in the end only 1 person was given all the credit because he had very close relations with the technical lead and when the other members of the group came to know about it. Power is the potential to change others‟ attitude or behaviour. The effectiveness of legitimate power depends on how the person uses it.
An employee is likely to respond favorably to orders and directions if he receives a tangible reward. 10 . denial of promotion or pay raise and litigation. However. Without information power. but in a negative way because compliance is achieved not out of respect. This power can improve interpersonal communication channels across different organizational hierarchies.Referent Power The ability to empathize with subordinates gives a leader referent power in communication. Expert Power Having expert knowledge about a subject that others value and do not possess themselves can give someone the upper hand in communication. Therefore. encouragement and praise can be as effective as tangible rewards. Information Power Linked closely to expert power. Leadership styles adopted by project manager and technical lead Project manager: The leadership style adopted by project manager was democratic as he interacted with the team as well as the technical lead and listened to all their arguments and then arrived at a decision. verbal approval. having expertise would not be as useful as you would never be able to make a compelling case or win an argument or motivate your employees. coercive power is the ability to punish someone for noncompliance with an order or direction.for example. such as a better job assignment or a pay raise. the person with the valued knowledge is a person people respect and often refer to for help. This means that they can identify with how their subordinates feel and think because they can relate back to their own similar experiences in the past. However he did not take any steps to make the technical lead realize his responsibilities and mistake he made while giving credit to only one developer. Examples of coercive power include labor union strike threats. networking skills and management experience to advance through the ranks. Coercive Power The opposite of reward power. Rewards can also be intangible -. using the legitimate power the project manager was able to resolve the conflict as being a manager he had the authority to move the developers under another technical lead. this does not mean that expert power alone can help a person move through organizational levels because it usually takes leadership. Reward Power Reward power supports legitimate power. but out of fear. It complements legitimate power. In work situations. information power refers to the importance of presenting information coherently and logically.
Due to his emotional attachment with the developer whom he gave all the credit. Here.Technical lead: The leadership style adopted by the technical lead was affiliative as he gave importance to emotional aspects of the workers. he can be considered as an affiliative leader. The power of the dependent party to maintain the relationship is termed as Counter Power. 11 . The chart below shows various kinds of leadership styles: Counter Power: In a relationship. the independent party has Power while the dependent party has Counter Power. two parties are involved – one being dependent and the other being independent.
It prevented the intergroup conflict in the organisation that would have resulted otherwise. including interrole. and compromising. It generally involves people who are genuinely interested in solving a problem and are willing to listen to one another. 12 . FORMS OF GROUP CONFLICT: Intrapersonal Conflict: When conflict occurs within an individual. intrarole.The technical lead had the counter power in this case. including personalities. and other differences. attitudes. Intergroup conflict: Conflict between two groups or department is known as intergroup conflict. Conflict management: The project manager shifted all the members of that group including the technical developer who was given all the credit so that there would be no conflict under the new the technical lead as everybody was equal for him. There are two widely accepted techniques for doing this: devil's advocacy and the dialectic method. emotions or behaviours lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties. This generally involves people who are unwilling to work together to solve a problem and is often personal. values. This is a perfect example of how a leader should react to situations which might result in conflicts or differences between employees for the betterment of the business. Functional Conflict: Functional conflicts are constructive. attitudes. consist of disputes and disagreements that hinder your company's performance. or interpersonal conflict. dominating. including: integrating. obliging. perceptions. can arise from many individual differences. it is called intrapersonal conflict. and person role conflicts. He could have used it to take the project manager on his side to convince him and make him realize that his decision is correct. There are various types of conflicts. support your company's goals. and improve performance. There are various methods for dealing with it. It maybe for gaining power to make its image or for some other purpose. avoiding. Dysfunctional Conflict: Dysfunctional conflicts on the other hand. The theory of conflict is given as follows: CONFLICT: It is defined as any situation in which incompatible goals. Interpersonal conflict: Conflict between two or more people.
encourage employee voice in key issues and create a climate conducive to ethical use of power. They are more interested in their own needs and interests. We can see in this case. The job of technical developers was to develop the software and not to update the excel sheet which was the job of the technical lead. The negative face of power is personal power. he was getting benefited. the technical used his personal power. dissenters can pinpoint wrong doings. He did to pursue his interest and not that of the others. one of the technical lead used to get this sheet also updated by the technical developers. People who approach relationships with an exchange orientation often use personal power to ensure that they get atleast their fair share. Managers who use personal power are commonly described as “power hungry”. focus on the needs and interests of others. 13 .avoiding conflict to attempt to smooth it over Yielding.. who were not entitled to this job. By getting his work done by the developers. In this case.win-lose outcome Avoiding. People who approach relationships with a communal orientation. CASE II The technical lead is entitled to help the developers with the project and guides them through the whole process. According to David McClelland there are two distinct cases of power.FIVE CATEGORY MODEL: Problem solving. Analysis: The above case falls in the category of negative power.power used for personal gain.losses offset by equally valuable gains The case follows avoiding category as the project manager just shifts the developers into other group under a different technical lead and neither takes any action against the technical lead nor tries to resolve the conflict. Whistleblowers who can serve as checks on powerful people within the organisation . The daily status of the project is to be recorded by the technical lead in an excel sheet and processes performed by each is also updated by the technical lead.giving in completely Compromising. The positive face of power is social power. one negative and one positive.win-win outcome Forcing.
here. The employees with a better rapport and of similar cultural backgrounds were given higher ratings as compared to other deserving people. 14 . But. 3 where 1+ is the greater rating. a certain team leader had to submit the ratings of the employees. Upward appeal for promotion and dole out a good cumulative rating to the person concerned is one example of politics which is also observed in organizations. This model forms the Global framework for assessing cultures. Even politics comes into role when cumulative rating is accounted. This is something that is still prevalent in the organisation and not just in this case. It de-motivates the employees that would have normally got a better rating. the promotion and incentive are dependent on their CRR. In Infosys Hyderabad. Analysis: The case is a perfect example of the cultural differences that prevail in an organisation. The CRR slabs are based on the performance and named 1+. The team developers are rated on the basis of their performance by the team lead and team lead by project managers. The normal procedure would be to objectively check the performance of each developer. Greet Hofstede has defined culture as “The software of the mind”. Here the people who had the same cultural background as that of the project manager are given higher cumulative rating than the rating given to the others. promotion is given on the basis of cumulative ratings(CRR). The employee with higher CRR will get a promotion or incentive. 2. a few employees were given a better feedback as compared to the more deserving. Cultural difference is illustrated as follows: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES: Cultural differences play an important role in determining the influencing tactics used by the people in the organization. 1. Hence.Case III: At Infosys. Only 10% of the employees fit the 1+ rating. He conducted a survey on the basis of which he stated that there are predominantly 5 cultural dimensions on the basis of which cultures can be differentiated. These ratings are considered for the promotions and incentives obtained by the employees.
Quantity of Life Vs Quality of Life: Quantity of Life indicates the degree to which values like assertiveness. Quality of life emphasizes on relationships and concern for others. acquisition of money and material goods. thrift and persistence levels of a culture. Low individualism indicates collectivism. Individualism Vs Collectivism: A national cultural attribute describing the degree to which people in a country prefer to act an individuals rather than a member of a group. It is not necessarily negative.Power Distance: It is the national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power is distributed unequally in institutions and organizations. present. Political Behaviour: It refers to actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one‟s personal goals. whereas short term orientation emphasizes on the past. POLITICS: Oraganizational Politics: It is the use of power and influence in an organization. Uncertainty Avoidance: The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations and how they react towards it. competition exists in a culture. Long Term orientation Vs Short Term Orientation: Long term orientation emphasizes on the future. respect for tradition and fulfilment of social obligations. 15 .
Inspirational appeals: The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals or by increasing your confidence that you can do it. strategy. Coalition: the person seeks the aid of others to persuade you to do something or uses a support of others as an argument for you to agree also. or change. threats. Ingratiation: the person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favourably of them before asking you to do something. Rational Persuasion: the person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives. Exchange: The person makes an explicit or implicit promise that you will receive rewards or tangible benefits if you comply with a request or support a proposal or reminds you of a prior favour to be reciprocated. 16 . Upward appeals: The person seeks to persuade you that the request is approved by higher management or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining your compliance with the request.Influence tactics used in organizations: Pressure: The person uses demand. Consultation: The person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy . or intimidation to convince to comply with the request or to support a proposal.
REFERENCE: Ruchir Nema : technical developer (Infosys Hyderabad) http://www.in ORGB: Nelson.ehow. Khandelwal 17 .com www.karvediat.blogspot.sciencedirect.com www.infosys.com www. Quick.
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