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CuapTerR Properties of Fluids 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION A fluid can be defined as a substance which deforms or yields continuously when shear stress is applied to it, no matter how small itis. Fluids can be subdivided into liquids and gases. Liquids occupy a certain volume and have a free surface. Gases have a tendency to expand and fill the container in which they are kept; they do not have a free surface. Gases, when subjected to normal stress change their volume considerably. Liquids can bbe compressed to a small extent. Solids are least compressible. Solids when subjected to shear stress deform until internal resistance to deformation equals the externally applied stress. Some of the examples of fluids are water, air, hydrogen gas, oils, paint, blood, glycerine, brine, honey, etc. In this book SI system (Systeme Internationale d’ unites) of units is adopted, in which the following are the units of basic quantities that are used in fluid mechanics: Length ‘metre (im) Mass kilogramme (kg) Time second (8) ‘Thermodynamic temperature kelvin (K) Temperature celsius (°C) A unit of force is newton (N) which is the force that produces | m/s" acceleration is a mass of | kg. Unit of work is joule (J) which is the work done when 1.0 N force acts through a distance of 1.0 m. Unit of power is watt (W) which is the power necessary for 1 J of work in I s. 1J_1Nm Iw Unit of frequency is hertz (H) having dimension of s! 1.2 MASS DENSITY, SPECIFIC WEIGHT, SPECIFIC VOLUME, RELATIVE DENSITY, PRESSURE Mass density, (Rho) is the mass per unit volume; 2 Fluid Mechanies through Problems Pp a) lim AM ae and p=f(xy.2T) where x,y, 2 are €0-ordinates of the point inflow field and T's temperature. At 20°C and atmospheric pressure, for water: ) = 998 kg/m? 208 kg/m’ Specific weight ¥ (Gamma) is weight per unit volume; Y= pg Nim! (1.2) Specific volume is volume per unit weight and hence air: p= vedm'/s (13) Relative density isthe ratio of mass density to mass density of pure water at standard pressure of 101.325 Nim? and temperature of 4°C. Pressure is force acting on unit area normal to it and has unit of Nim? pe tim * a4) soKA 1.3 VISCOSITY Viscosity is that property of fluid by which it offers resistance to shear acting on it. According to Newton's law of viscosity the shear F acting between two layers of fluid is proportional to difference in their velocities Aw and area A, and inversely proportional to the distance Ay between them (see Fig. 1.1. Fig. 11 Shear and velocity distribution ‘Therefore au Pept ua Ay cx th shear stone is (is) Properties of Fluids 3 ‘where. (Mu) is the constant of proportionality with dimensions of fue EAL Nome NS, Me Taal . ie One gm/ems dynamic viscosity is known as poise (P). duldy gives the angular velocity of line ab or itis the rate of angular deformation. Coefficient of kinematic viscosity, v= 6) \y (Nu) has dimensions of m/s. One cm/s kinematic viscosity is known as stoke (S). Hor y=f(p. 7) Variation of viscosity of liquids with pressure is very small and can be neglected. The variation with temperature is given by p= Act ) where 11 is dynamic viscosity at absolute temperature T, A and B are constants. Viscosity of liquids decreases with increase in temperature. In the presence of suspended matter the viscosity of liquids increases according to the law udu= 1 +a, (1.8) ‘where jt, isthe viscosity of liquid when suspended matter concentration in absolute volume is C, and IL is the viscosity of clear liquids a is 25 according to Einstein for C, upto 0.30 and 4.5 for higher concentration as recommended by Ward. Viscosity of gases increases with increase in temperature and can be given by the formula proposed by Sutherland (19) where a and b are constants for a given gas. Fluids are classified according to the relation between shear { and rate of angular deformation: 10 Tae ids rent Newtonian fd levtonian fds du recone +y( Idea pases of Bingham plasies Thyxotropic fluids Non Newtonian fluids For non Newtonian fluids, if m is less than unity, they are called pseudo-plastics while fluids in which m is greater than unity are known as dilatants. These are shown in Fig. 1.2.