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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MICROSTRIP
UWB ANTENNA WITH TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS

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3, 153–164, 2008

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MICROSTRIP UWB ANTENNA WITH TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS K.-S. Lim, M. Nagalingam, and C.-P. Tan Multimedia University 63100 Cyberjaya Malaysia Abstract—In this paper, a compact design and construction of microstrip Ultra Wide Band (UWB) antenna is proposed. The proposed antenna has the capability of operating between 4.1 GHz to 10 GHz. The antenna parameter in frequency domain analysis have been investigated to show its capability as an eﬀective radiating element. Furthermore, time domain Gaussian pulse excitation analysis in UWB systems is also demonstrated in this paper. As a result, the simulation results demonstrated reasonable agreement with the measurement results and good ultra-wideband linear transmission performance has also been achieved in time domain.

1. INTRODUCTION Antenna becomes a part of electrical devices in wireless communication system after late 1888, Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) were ﬁrst demonstrated the existence of radio waves [1]. The UWB technology opens new door for wireless communication system, since the current wireless system increasing exponentially. Back from spark-gap impulse to pulse radio, UWB system plays a dominant role in communication system as the antenna is one of the wireless communications components. Recently, UWB technology with an extremely wide frequency range has been proposed for imaging radar, communications, and localized applications [2]. In 2002, Federal Communication Commission (FCC) authorized unlicensed use of UWB band ranging from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. Since then, the design of broadband antennas has become an attractive and challenging area in the research of the system design [3]. In general, the antennas for UWB systems should have suﬃciently broad operating bandwidth for impedance matching and high-gain radiation in desired directions. Among the

simple structure and low cost. the monopole planar antenna type is widely used due to its wide bandwidth. The input signal of Gaussian pulse as shown in Figure 2 is used for simulation in CST Microwave Studio because Gaussian signal oﬀers a good mix between time and frequency domain compactness. The antenna is then fabricated on FR4 substrate Printed Circuit Board (PCB) based on the simulation speciﬁcation with dielectric constant (εr ) of 4. 2. For modeled rectangular patch antenna.4.02. Nagalingam. The simulation to optimize design is done using time domain analysis tools from CST Microwave Studio which provides wide range of time domain signal that are used in UWB system. we propose a simpler method to design the UWB antenna based on microstrip rectangular patch calculation using simple transmission line model. However. In Section 2.154 Lim. respectively. For comparison purpose. the signal excites through SMA connector which is modeled based on simulation tools of CST Microwave Studio. This paper is organized as follows. namely. substrate thickness (h) . Several designs of monopole planar UWB antenna have been proposed [6–12]. It has become one of the most considerable candidates for UWB application. and Tan UWB antenna design in the recent literature. the proposed rectangular patch antenna parameters are calculated based on transmission line modal analysis [3] and the detailed geometry and parameters are shown in Figure 1 and Table 1. HFSS in frequency domain where the numerical analysis is based on Finite Element Method (FEM) [5] is performed. loss tangent (tan δ) of 0. Lgnd of 34 mm is carried out and this is followed by the parametric study on the height of the ground patch and width of the feed microstrip line. In this section. time domain analysis and experimental results and discussion. The simulation results with ground patch. The numerical analysis of the software tools are based on Finite Diﬀerence Time domain (FDTD) [4]. parametric study. THE PROPOSED ANTENNA DESIGN GEOMETRY AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP In this paper. Section 4 summarizes and concludes the study. the proposed antenna design geometry and experimental setup is presented. some of these antennas involve complex calculation and sophisticated fabrication process. Therefore. the comparison of the simulation results using the software tools and the measured result of the fabricated antenna are demonstrated. Section 3 discussed on the results and discussion in three parts.

2008 155 (a) Top view (b) Bottom view Figure 1. Vol. The design geometry of the proposed antenna patch UWB antenna. (a) Gaussian Pulse (b) Power Spectrum Density Figure 2.Progress In Electromagnetics Research M. 3. Excitation signal in time domain of the proposed antenna. .

6mm.1. 3. radiation patterns and eﬃciency of the proposed antenna will be discussed. Parametric Study Parametric study has been conducted to optimize the design of the antenna. This study is crucial as it gives approximation measure before antenna fabrication can be done. the frequency swept from 1 GHz to 12 GHz is investigated. Size (mm Wsub 36 Lsub 34 Lsub_a 17 Lsub_b 11.2. parametric study including the simulated results of return loss. The detailed parameters for proposed antenna patch UWB antenna. Nagalingam. The measurement is done using calibrated HP8733ES Network Analyzer. group delay.156 Lim. time domain analysis and experimental results and discussion. On the other hand. For simulation as well as measurement. Experimental results are presented in Section 3. In Section 3. the time domain analysis where electric probe is placed at diﬀerent positions to investigate the transmitted and received pulse signals. and copper foil thickness (t) of 35 µm.3 where the measured results of the fabrication antenna and the simulated results are compared and discussed. and Tan Table 1.5 Wmlin_b 2. 3. The simulation results displayed in the later section demonstrate reasonable agreement with the measurement results.1. in Section 3. Figure 3 shows return loss S11 (dB) . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results and discussion are divided into three parts which consist of parametric study.5 Lmlin_b 6 Lgnd 11 Symbol of 1.5 Wpatch 18 Lpatch 11 Wmlin_a 3 Lmlin_a 5.

The optimized result of second . two steps of feed line are used.Progress In Electromagnetics Research M. However. It is observed that for Lgnd of 34 mm. the antenna is able to operate as a narrowband antenna. over function of length ground patch. In order to further improve its overall bandwidth. Parametric study of return loss (S11 ) over the the lengths of ground patch. Figure 4. The partial ground shows better return loss compared to full ground patch on the bottom because the antenna is transformed from patch-type to monoploe-type by the partial ground. The ﬁrst feed line is connected to SMA center pin with width of 3 mm while the second feed line width has been used as the optimization function in this studies. 2008 157 Figure 3. Vol. the return loss of the antenna improves dramatically when the length ground patch reduces gradually and the best result is obtained at the height of gound plane. Lgnd of 11 mm. Parametric study of return loss (S11 ) over the width of second feed line. 3.

The x-z plane elevation plane with some particular azimuth angle ϕ is the principle E-plane while for the x-y plane azimuth plane with some particular elevation angle . the bandwidth increases gradually. Group delay of the optimized proposed antenna. Figure 5b. Figure 5 shows the return loss and group delay of the optimum design.5 mm and it is shown in Figure 4. For a linearly polarized antenna. Nagalingam. the simulated group delay shows less variation on broader bandwidth except for sharp changes at the middle of the center frequency at 6.85 GHz. performance is often described in terms of the E and Hplane patterns [1]. From the ﬁgure. Return loss of the optimized proposed antenna. This technique leads to good impedance matching and subsequently.158 Lim. and Tan Figure 5a. feed line width is at 2. The E-plane is deﬁned as the plane containing the electric ﬁeld vector and the directions of maximum radiation while the H-plane as the plane containing the magnetic ﬁeld vector and the direction of maximum radiation [2]. Antenna radiation pattern demonstrates the radiation properties on antenna as a function of space coordinate.

and 90◦ are taken into consideration. 45◦ and 90◦ and at diﬀerent elevation angle of θ. which are 4. the value of azimuth angle ϕ of 0◦ . 2008 159 Figure 6. The simulated results of maximum gain in dBi and radiation eﬃciency of the designed antenna are as shown in Figures 7(a) and 7(b). 45◦ . In the E-plane. 45◦ and 90◦ while in H-plane. the antenna is . The gain and eﬃciency are simulated at the ﬁx point on azimuth angle of ϕ at 0◦ . The plot for radiation is utilized for three frequencies within pass band. Vol. Figure 6 shows the simulated twodimensional E and H-plane at three frequencies.2. 3. It can be related to the dispersion of receive signal compared to transmitter signal. It is observed that the gain pattern is not the same for all angle of ϕ but the eﬃciency remains the same.85 GHz at the middle bound and 10. Radiation Pattern of the antenna patch UWB antenna. 3. respectively. the value of elevation angle θ of 0◦ . the pulse base signal is excited with Gaussian pulse. Figure 8 shows the radiated E ﬁeld which is virtually place probe in simulation to study the eﬀect of radiated signal. 6.6 GHz at the lower bound. Time Domain Analysis In order to validate the eﬃciency of the antenna.Progress In Electromagnetics Research M. From this ﬁgure.4 GHz at the upper bound. θ is the principle of H-plane [3].

Radiation eﬃciency (η). Furthermore. Maximum gain. Experimental Results and Discussion The optimum design from simulation model has been fabricated on PCB and the antenna prototype is shown in Figure 9. ﬁxed at azimuth angle ϕ of 90◦ . It is proved that the proposed antenna has good potential in transmitting UWB signals with minimum distortion. Nagalingam.160 Lim. The measurement result show similarity between simulated results further veriﬁes the performance of the antenna.3. . and Tan Figure 7a. The comparisons plot between the two diﬀerent numerical technique analysis and measured results of return loss (dB) using constructed antenna prototypes are shown in Figure 10. 3. 45◦ and 90◦ . the time domain UWB pulse signal received by the electric probe shows stable performance where the received pulse signal is almost identical to the transmitted pulse signal. Figure 7b. and the probe is placed at three diﬀerent positions for θ of 0◦ .

6GHz (BW = 5GHz) .9.6 -10. The measured and simulated operating frequencies with their bandwidths. Table 2.8GHz) 4. 3. 2008 161 Figure 8. Sample Antenna HFSS CST Microwave Studio 4.9.8 .6 . Probe signal in time domain.8GHz) Measured Rectangular patch antenna with partial ground Operating Frequency/ BW 3. Vol.Progress In Electromagnetics Research M.4GHz (BW = 5.6GHz (BW = 5.

The antenna can be considered as ultra wideband antenna since the operating bandwidth is 5 GHz and it is based on FCC rules where the fractional bandwidth must be more than 500 MHz or 20% from the center frequency. and Tan Figure 9. 0 -5 -10 S11(dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 2 4 6 8 10 12 Frequency(GHz) HFSS Simulated result CST Simulated result Measured results Figure 10.162 Lim. Nagalingam. The proposed antenna demonstrates the capability to operate between 4.6 GHz to 9.6 GHz. Measured return loss with simulation results. . Table 2 represents the measured and simulated operating frequencies with their bandwidths for comparison purpose. Fabricated antenna.

. X. Hertz. Gopikrishna. Vol.. Yin. and Y. A. Furthermore. Liu. 10. and K.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. R. P. No. Dadashzadeh. D. Chandran. 7. No. 2008 163 4. CST Microwave Studio Suite 2006B.. CONCLUSION In this paper. 9. “Square monopole antenna for ultra wide band communication applications.. J. Vol. Hojjat. 5. G. “Rectangular slot with a novel triangle ring microstrip feed for UWB applications. and A. 1893. 2007. N. 11. 42–44. 1411–1420. Chen. By variation on the size of the ground patch at bottom layer. CST Inc. Jan. Artech House. and J. R. J. Krishna. and C. Ren. 2008. Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook. 3. G. 2. 2007.. M. Ahmadi. Norwood. Geran. M.” High Frequency Electronics. Ansoft Software Inc. 21. Garg.. 2005. Zhang. L. London. D. K. P. “Compact PCB monopole antenna for UWB applications. Electrical Waves. 6. Gao. “Doubleprinted U-shape ultra-wideband dipole antenna. 3. Y.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. L. X. Macmillan and Co. “A novel dual- . 1148– 1154. 2004. 8. “A summary of FCC rules for ultra wideband communications. 8–9. 21. Yang. Aanandan. Bahl. 2001. Zhao.Progress In Electromagnetics Research M. J. Vol. P. 2007. 10... 1525–1537. MA. Z. stepped impedance matching technique applied on the microstrip feed line is proved to provide further enhancement of the antenna performance in term of impedance bandwidth. Deng. Bhartia. No. G.. REFERENCES 1. Breed. A further improvement of the proposed antenna will be done in near future to provide a stop band at approximately 5 GHz to 6 GHz frequency range that is capable of reducing potential interference between UWB and WLAN or HYPERLAN/2 communication system when the signals of two radio systems are collided.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. H. 2007. S.0. No.. S. W. Vol. Vol. HFSS Version 9.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 387–396. I. Fardis. Xiao. X. Xiong.. F. 4. Y. the optimization on return loss has been realized and the potential as the key parameter on return loss improvement has been demonstrated. Ittipiboon. 3. 22. and A. we proposed an UWB antenna which can support large bandwidth excited by a time domain pulse base signal to ensure the UWB signal is transmitted and received eﬀectively. 21.

22.. .164 Lim. 8–9. Kyoto. 161–165. Vol. 2008. Joint with Conference on Ultra Wideband System and Technologies.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. Schantz. 2005. and X. Japan. Z.” IEEE APMC 2005 Proceedings. 2004. 12. “Dispersion and UWB antennas. and Tan F-shaped planar monopole antenna for ultrawideband communications. Nagalingam. 1106–1114. “Research and development of planar UWB antennas.” 2004 International Workshop on Ultra Wideband System. 11. H. No. Niang. Qing. M.

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