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There are numerous cases where a second quantity is found from a first quantity by applying some rule. a) If one drops a stone from the top of a tower, how far it has fallen at a given moment (let that be h feet) can be found from the time of falling ( t seconds) by using the rule h = 16t 2 . b) If the temperature in Fahrenheit scale is F and we want to find the equivalent ` a 5f f temperature in Celsius scale (say C) we can use the rule C = f F @ 32 . 9 c) The area A of a circle can be found from its radius r by using the rule A = πr 2

In case (a) distance is a function of time, in case (b) Celcius temperature is a function of Fahrenheit temperature, in case (c) area of a circle is a function of its radius. A function is a Rule. Usually we use small letters f, g, h ...... to denote different functions or different rules, ` a ` a ` a 2 such as f x = x 2 + 1, g x = 10x, h x = X @ 3x + 2 etc.

Example : In case (a) above, for dropping the stone from the tower, we could have written ` a h = f t = 16 t 2 where we find h by applying the rule f on t . So, “f” is the rule “ 16 B square of time in seconds “. ` a 2 Here f 1 = 16 B1 = 16 means the stone drops 16 feet in 1 second,

f 3 = 16 B3 = 144 means the stone drops 144 feet in 3 seconds,

` a ` a

2 2

f 5 = 16 B5 = 400 means the stone drops 400 feet in 5 seconds A Usually a function f(x) is also written as y i.e. f(x) = y. So, y = x 2 + 1 and f x = x 2 + 1 are the same function. We say, y or f(x) is a function of x.

` a

Definition : Let A and B be two non-empty sets. A function f from A to B is a rule that associates, with each value of x in set A, exactly one value f(x) in set B. The function is indicated by the notation f :A Q B. f(x) is read “f of x”. We usually consider functions for which sets A and B are sets of real numbers. The set A, which contains all possible values of x is called the Domain, and the set B which contains the corresponding values of f(x) or y is called the Range of the function (Range consists only of those elements of B which are actually paired with elements of A).

We call x the independent variable because we choose it first, and from that we calculate y, which is called dependent variable. If the function f(x) is given as an algebraic expression of x and the domain is not stated, then we take the domain as the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is real.

The parentheses in f(x) ("f of x") do not mean multiplication. They are part of what is called functional notation. f is the name of the function. And x, which is placed within the parentheses, is called the argument of the function. It is upon the argument that the function(rule) called f will "operate." Thus, the function f has been defined as follows: f(x) = x² + 1. This means that f will square its argument, and then add 1. In y = x 2 , for any value of x, we get only one value of y (say when x=4, y=16). Here y is a function of x. But in y 2 = x when we put x=4, we get y = + 2 or y = @ 2 i.e. we are getting more than one value of y. So, here y is not a function of x. Example : For the function f x = x 2

` a

w w w w w w ` a ` a a) Evaluate f 2 , f @ 5 and f p3

b) Find the domain and range of f.

b

c

**Solution : a) Substituting the values of x in f(x) we get
**

f 2 =2 = 4

` a

2

f @ 5 = @ 5 = 25

` a ` a2

b) The domain is R, the set of all real numbers as any real number can be put in place of x here and the corresponding f(x) is a real number. R S ` a Since x 2 ≥ 0 for all real values of x, f x ≥ 0. So Range of f is y | y ≥ 0 or the interval 0, 1 A

B c

b w c b w c2 w w w w w w w w w w f p3 = p3 = 3

**g 2 + h @f 2 w w w w w w 1f bpwc fffffffffffff f f ffffffffffff ffffffffffff Example : Let f x = 2x @ 5x + 3. Evaluate f 1 , f @ , f a , ffffffffffff 2 h ` a
**

2

` a

f

`

a

` a

**Solution : Substituting the values of x in f(x) we get ` a 2 f 1 = 2 A1 @ 5.1 + 3 = 2 @ 5 + 3 = 0
**

f g f g2 f g

1f 1f 1f 1f 5f f f f f f f @ f = 2 A @ f @ 5 @ f + 3 = f+ f+ 3 = 6 2 2 2 2 2

bwc b w c2 bwc w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w f p a = 2 p a @ 5 p a + 3 = 2a @ 5 p a + 3

B ` C B C a2 ` a 2 ` a ` a @ f f f h + f fffff ffff + f 2ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff3f 2fffffff5ffffffff3f@f2ffffffffffff +fffffff2 fffffffffffA2f@fffffff h fffffff+fffffff fffff 5.2fffff fffffffffffff ffffff 2 + h @f 2 ffffffffffff ffff ffffffffffff ff ffffffffffff

h

=

h

ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff = fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff h B C @ A 2 + f fffff + f 8fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff +fffff2hfffffffffffffffffffffff 8hfffff@fff@ ffffff@f@ fffff +fffff 10 ff5h ff3ff ff2 ff3f fffff f ff ffffffff fffff ff = h 2 1fffffffffffff + 3h + 2h @ 1 fffffffffffff ffffffffffff = fffffffffffff= 3 + 2h h

D b

2 4 + 4h + h @ 5 2 + h + 3 @ 8 @ 10 + 3

2

c

`

a

E

@

A

A function can also be defined differently for different sets of values of x. Example : Find f @ 3 and f 4 where the function f(x) is defined as follows : V ` a x+1 for x<0 f x = 1 @ 2x for x ≥ 0 Solution : ` a Since @ 3<0, using f x = x + 1

` a ` a ` a

**we get f @ 3 = @ 3 + 1 = @ 2 we get f 4 = 1 @ 2 4 = 1 @ 8 = @ 7
**

` a ` a ` a

Since 4 ≥ 0, using f x = 1 @ 2x

GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS

The graph of f is the set of all points (x,y) such that y = f(x) Or The graph of f is the graph of the equation y =f(x) To draw the graph of y = f x we make a table consisting two columns : one for x and one for y [or f(x)]. We take different values of x and calculate the corresponding values of y [or f(x)]. Then we plot the points on a graph paper and join them with a smooth curve to get the graph of the function .

` a

**Example : Draw the the graph of f x = x 3
**

` a

Solution : We first make a table. We take different values of x and calculate the corresponding values of y [or f(x)]. Then we plot the points on a graph paper and join them with a smooth curve to get the graph x: y or f(x) : -2 -8 3f f @ f 2 27f ff ff f f @ 8 -1 -1 1f f @ f 2 1f f @ f 8 0 0 1f f f 2 1f f f 8 1 2 3f f f 2 27f ff ff f f 8 2 8

VERTICAL LINE TEST:

If the graph of the relation ( between x and y ) is given, we can use the vertical line test to check whether it is a graph of a function or not i.e. whether y is a function of x or not.

In the graph above, each vertical line, wherever we draw it, will intersect the graph in, at most, one point. This means for any given value of x-coordinate, we shall have maximum one y-coordinate. So y is a function of x.

In the graph above, we have at least one vertical line, which has intersected the graph in more than one point. This means for at least one value of x-coordinate, we have more than one y-coordinate. So y is not unique for some value of x. Using the definition of function, y is not a function of x.

COMBINING FUNCTIONS

Sometimes we need to combine two or more functions to make a new function. The definition of these combinations by summation, subtraction, multiplication & division and composition are as follows :

1A 2A 3A 4A

b b f b

f +g x =f x +g x

c` a c` a ` a ` a

f @g x =f x @g x fg x = f x A g x

g ` a ` a c` a ` a

` a

` a

**5 A Composition of two functions f x and g x is denoted as f N g and is defined by :
**

b

` a x ff ` a fffff ffff ffff fff ff f f x = ` a where g x ≠ 0 g x g c` a b ` ac

fNg x =f g x

` a

` a

This is also called function of a function A The domain of this new function f N g x is the set of all x , such that g x falls in the domain of the first function f A

` a

b

c` a

**Example : Given f x = 2x + 1, g x = x + 4, find f + g x , f @ g x ,
**

b ` a ` a b c` a b c` a b

fg x ,

f N g x and g N f

Solution :

b b f b b b

c` a

b

c` a

c` a

f

ff ` a ff f f x g

g

x A

f + g x = f x + g x = 2x + 1 + x + 4 = 3x + 5 f @ g x = 2x + 1 @ x + 4 = x @ 3

c` a c` a ` ` a ` a ` a ` a a` a c` a ` a ` a ` a ` a

**fg x = f x A g x = 2x + 1 A x + 4 = 2x x + 4 + 1 x + 4 = 2x 2 + 8x + x + 4 = 2x 2 + 9x + 4 ff ` a 2xf+ff ff f f fffff ffff ff 1 x = fffff x+4 g
**

g c` a c` a ` a ` a

f N g x = f g x = f x + 4 = 2 x + 4 + 1 = 2x + 9 gNf x = g f x = g 2x + 1 = 2x + 1 + 4 = 2x + 5

b ` ac ` a ` a b ` ac ` a ` a

` a ` a xffff ` a b c` a ` a ` a +3 ffff ffff Example : If f x = x 2 @ 4, and g x = fffff h x = fg x , find h 5 , h a + k A and x @2

Solution :

c x+3 ` ` a b c` a ` a ` a b a` a xffff +3 ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff h x = fg x = f x g x = x 2 @ 4 B fffff x + 2 x @ 2 B fffff = x @2 x @2 ` a` a 2 = x + 2 x + 3 = x + 5x + 6

h 5 = 5 + 5.5 + 6 = 56

` a `

2

h a + k = a + k + 5 a + k + 6 = a 2 + 5ak + k + 5a + 5k + 6

b c` a ` a ` a xffff +3 ffff ffff Example : If f x = x 2 @ 4, and g x = ffffffind f N g 5 A x @2 Solution : ` a2 f g f g2 b c` a b ` ac xf+ffff xf+fff xf+fff ffff ffff ffff f3 ffff ffff ffff f3 fffffff ffffff ffffff f3 fNg x =f g x =f = @ 4 =` a2 @ 4 x @2 x @2 x @2

2

a `

a2

`

a

2

2 2 + 6x + 9 @ 4 f2 ff + 4 4x x fffffffffffffx f@fffffff f3x ffffffff7f xfffffffff + 6x + 9 + @ fffffffff fffffffff fffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff @ffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff ffffff22x ffff fffffffffffffffff ffffff ffffffffffff f @4 = = fff fff f = 2 2 2 x @ 4x + 4 x @ 4x + 4 x @ 4x + 4 b c` a @3.5 2 + 22.5 @ 7 @ 75 + 110 @ 7 28 ffffffffffffff ffffffffffff ff fffffffffffff ffffffffffff ff fffffffffffff ffffffffffff f f N g 5 = ffffffffffffff ffffffffffff= ff = 2 25 @ 20 + 4 9 5 @ 4.5 + 4

b

c

b

c

INVERSE FUNCTIONS

` a ` a xffff +1 ffff ffff If we take the functions f x = 2x @ 1 and the function g x = ffff 2 f g f g b ` ac b c` a ` a xffff +ff 1f xffff +ff 1f ff ff fff ff ff ff fff ff fNg x =f g x =f =2 @1 = x + 1 @1 =x 2 2

b

gNf

c` a

x = g f x = g 2x @ 1 =

b ` ac ` a

` a 2xffffffff ff fffffffff 2xf fffffffff ff fffffffff f f @1 + 1 f

2

=

2

=x

**In such a case, f and g are inverses of each other.
**

Two functions f and g are inveres of each other if f N g x = x for each x in the domain of g and if g N f

b c` a b c` a

**x = x for each x in the domain of f A
**

@ 1`

**The inverse of f is written as f g@ 1 x = f x A
**

` a ` a

x A In the above case we can write f

a

@ 1`

x = g x and also

a ` a

**INCREASING, DECREASING & CONSTANT FUNCTIONS
**

1. If for all x in an interval, the value of f(x) increases with increase in x, i.e. the graph moves upward from left to right, then the function f is called increasing function in that particular interval. If a function is increasing throughout its domain, it is referred to as an increasing function. 2. If for all x in an interval, the value of f(x) decreases with increase in x, i.e. the graph moves downward from left to right, then the function f is called decreasing function in that particular interval. If a function is decreasing throughout its domain, it is referred to as a decreasing function. 3. If for all x in an interval, the value of f(x) remains same, i.e. the graph becomes a horizontal line in that interval, then the function f is called constant function in that particular interval. If a function is constant throughout its domain, it is referred to as a constant function.

In the graph below : a ` in the interval @1 , x1 iA e A @1 <x<x1 , the function is an increasing function, ` a in the interval x1 ,x 2 iA e A x1 <x<x 2 , the function is a decreasing function, ` a in the interval x 2 , 1 , iA e A x 2 <x< 1 , the function is an increasing function A

**EVEN & ODD FUNCTIONS
**

If f @ x = f x for all x in the domain of the function f, the function is called an even function A ` a ` a If f @ x = @ f x for all x in the domain of the function f, the function is called an odd function A

` a ` a

**Example ` Determine whether the following`functions are even or odd : : a ` a ` a ` a a ` a a f x = 3x 2 + 2, b g x = x 3 @ x, c h x = x 2 + 5x + 6 Solution : ` a ` a ` a2 a f @ x = 3 @ x + 2 = 3x 2 + 2 A
**

` a ` ` a ` a ` ` a3 a ` ` a a

**Since, f @ x = f x , f is an even function A
**

b ` c a ` a

**b g @ x = @ x @ @ x =@ x3 + x =@ x3@ x A Since, g @ x = @ g x , g is an odd function A
**

a ` a2 ` a

**c h @ x = @ x + 5 @ x + 6 = x 2 @ 5x + 6 A Since h @ x ≠ h x ` a ` a and h @ x ≠ @ h x , the function f is neither even nor odd A
**

` a ` a

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